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# MB0032 OPERATION RESEARCH

(Assignment 1)

Q1. Explain the different phases used in O.R study? Ans. Operations research is the use of scientific, method to provide criteria for decisions regarding man, machine systems involving repetitive operations. The scientific method in OR study generally involves the following three phases: 1. Judgment Phase: - This phase consists of:a) Determination of the operation. b) Establishment of the objectives and values related to the operation. c) Determination of the suitable measures of effectiveness and d) Formulation of the problems relative to the objectives. 2. Research Phase: - This phase utilizes: a) Operations and data collection for a better understanding of the problems. b) Formulations of hypothesis and model. c) Observation and experimentation to test the hypothesis on the basis of additional data. d) Analysis of the available information and verification of the hypothesis using pre-established measure of effectiveness. 3. Action Phase: - It consist of making recommendations for the decision process by those who first posed the

problem for considerations, influencing the operation in which the problem is occurred. Q2. Solve the L.P.P Maximize Z = 50x1+80x2 Subject to constraints 1.0x1+1.5x2 < 600 0.2x1+0.2x2 < 100 0.1x1 < 30 x1 > 0 , x2 > 0 by graphical method Ans. Solving these equations through linear equation: eq i) 1.0x1 + 1.5x2 = 600 considering x2 = 0, then , 1.0x1 + 1.5*0 = 600 1.0x1 = 600 x1 = 600/1 x1 = 600 now consider x1 = 0, then, 1.0*0 + 1.5x2 = 600 1.5x2 = 600 x2 = 600/1.5 x2 = 40 Therefore x1 = 600 & x2 = 400 in equation (i). eq ii) 0.2x1 + 0.2x2 = 100 considering x2 = 0 then, 0.2x1 + 0.2*0 = 100 0.2x1 = 100 x1 = 100/0.2 x1 = 500 now consider x1 = 0, then, 0.2*0 + 0.2x2 = 100 0.2x2 = 100 x2 = 100/0.2

x2 = 500 Therefore x1 = 500 & x2 = 500 in equation (ii). eq iii) 0.1x2 = 30 then, x2 = 30/0.1 x2 = 300 & x1 = 0 Therefore x1 = 0 & x2 = 300 in equation (iii). Plotting these three equations on graph. Let the horizontal axis represent x1 and vertical axis x2. The constraint lines and feasibility region has been shown in the figure below:

Then ABCDE is the feasibility region. The intersection points C and D can be solved by the linear equations For intersection point C x1 + 1.5x2 = 600 0.1x2 = 30 (balance the equation) ( - 1.5x2 = 450) after solving the equation we get, x1 = 150 then, putting the value of x1 150 + 1.5x2 = 600 1.5x2 = 450

x2 = 300 Therefore for intersection point C x1= 150 & x2 = 300. For intersection point D x1 + 1.5x2 = 600 0.2x1 + 0.2x2 = 100 (balance the equation) ( -x1 - x2 = 500) after solving the equation we get, x2 = 200 (putting the value of x2) 0.2x1 + 0.2*200 = 100 .2x1 + 40 = 100 .2x1 = 60 x1 = 60/0.2 x1 = 300 Therefore for intersection point D x1= 300 & x2 = 180. After doing this, the next step is to maximize revenues subject to the above shaded area. We work out the revenues at different corner points as tabulated below: At point Feasible solution Corresponding of the product revenue mix x1 x2 From From x1 x2 0 0 0 0 0 300 0 2400 150 300 7500 24000 300 200 15000 16000 500 0 25000 0 Total revenue

A B C D E

## 0 24000 31500 31000 25000

From the above table we find that revenue is maximum at Rs.31500 when 150 units of x1 and 300 units of x2 are produced.

Q3. Solve by using simplex method the L.P.P. Maximize Z = x1 + 9x2 + x3 Subject to constraints x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 < 9 3x1 + 2x2 + 2x2 < 15 x1 , x2 , x3 > 0 Ans. Rewriting in the standard form by introducing slack variable:Step 1 Maximize Z = x1 + 9x2 + x3 + 0.S1 + 0.S2 Subject to constraint x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + S1 + 0S2 = 9 3x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + 0S1 + S2 = 15 x1 , x2 , x3 , S1 , S2 > 0 Step 2 Finding the initial basic feasible solution by putting x1 , x2 , x3 = 0 Then S1 = 9 & S2 = 15 so the basic variable are S1 & S2 and putting the values in the table 1. Table 1: Cj 1 9 1 0 0 Minimum ratio 9/2 = 4.5 15/2 = 7.5

Cb Yb Xb x1 x2 x 3 0 S1 9 1 2* 3 0 S2 15 3 2 2 Zj 0 0 0 Zj - Cj -1 -9 -1

S1 S2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

## Therefore x2 is incoming variable& S1 outgoing variable & key element (*) is 2.

Replacing outgoing variable by incoming variable in table 2. Table 2. Cj CBCb Yb Xb 0 x2 9/2 0 S2 6 Zj Zj Cj 1 x1 2 9/2 7/2 9 x2 1 0 9 0 1 x3 3/2 -1 27/2 25/2 0 S1 -1 9/2 9/2 0 S2 0 1 0 0

Since all values in Zj Cj are non negative so the optimal solution is obtained. Now, the value of basic variables are x2 = 9/2, S2 = 6, lets find the maximum value of objective function: Max Z = 0 + 9*9/2 + 0 + 0 + 0*6 Max Z = 81/2 So, the maximum value of the objective function Z is 81/2 which is achieved for x2 = 9/2 S2 = 6 which are the basic variables. All other are non-basic.

Q4. Use penalty cost method to Maximize Z = 2x1 + 3x2 Subject to constraints x1 + x2 < 2 6x1 + 4x2 > 24 x1 , x2 > 0 Ans. Introducing slack variable S1, surplus variable S2, & artificial variable A1.

Rewriting in standard form, Maximize Z = 2x1 + 3x2 + 0S1 + 0S2 MA1 Subject to constraints x1 + 2x2 + S1 + 0S2 + 0A1 = 2 6x1 + 4x2 + 0S1 S2 + A1 = 24 x1, x2, S1, S2, A1 > 0 Initially x1 = x2 = S2 = 0 So S1 = 2 & A1 = 24 The initial simplex table is Table 1 Cb 0 -M 0 0 -M Yb S1 S2 A1 Minimum ratio S1 2 1 * 2 1 0 0 2/1 = 2 A1 24 6 4 0 -1 1 24/6 = 4 Zj -6M -4M 0 M -M Zj -Cj -6M - 2 -4M - 2 0 M 0 Cj 2 Xb x1 3 X2

Therefore x1 is incoming variable & S1 is outgoing variable and key element (*) is 1. Replacing outgoing variable by incoming variable in table 2.

Table 2 Cb 2 -M Cj Yb Xb x1 2 A1 12 Zj Zj -Cj 2 x1 1 0 2 0 3 X2 2 -8 4 + 8M 8M + 1 0 S1 1 -6 2 + 6M 2 + 6M 0 S2 0 -1 M M -M A1 0 1 -M 0

Since all elements of the ZjCj are non negative, the procedure is complete. But existence of non zero artificial variable in the basic solution indicates that the problem has no solution. Q5. Use the two phase method to Maximize Z = 3x1 + 2x2 Subject to the constraints 2x1 + x2 < 2 3x1 + 4x2 > 12 x1, x2 > 0 Ans. Introducing slack variable S1, surplus variable S2 & artificial variable A1. Rewriting in standard form, Maximize Z = 3x1 + 2x2 + 0S1 + 0S2 MA1 Subject to constraints 2x1 + x2 + S1 = 2 3x1 + 4x2 S2 + A1 = 12 x1, x2, S1, S2,A1 > 0

solving by two phase: Phase 1. Max Z* = -A1 Subject to constraints 2x1 + x2 + S1 = 2 3x1 + 4x2 S2 + A1 = 12 x1, x2, -S2 = 0 Therefore S1 = 2 & A1 = 12 The initial simplex table is given by Table 1 Cb 0 -1 Yb S1 A1 Cj Xb 2 12 Zj Zj Cj 0 x1 2 3 -3 -3 0 x2 1* 4 -4 -4 0 S1 1 0 0 0 0 S2 0 -1 1 1 -1 A1 0 1 -1 0 Minimum ratio 2/1 = 2 12/4 = 3

Therefore x2 is incoming variable & S1 is outgoing variable and key element (*) is 1. Replacing outgoing variable by incoming variable in table 2.

Table 2 Cb 0 -1 Cj Yb Xb x1 2 A1 4 Zj Zj Cj 0 x1 2 -5 5 5 0 x2 1 0 0 0 0 S1 1 -4 4 4 0 S2 0 -1 1 1 -1 A1 0 1 -1 0

Since all elements of the Zj Cj are non negative the procedure is complete. But the existence of non zero artificial variable in the basic set indicates that the problem has no solution.