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T 703 Modern Communication Systems

MODULE 5

Wireless LAN Concepts


Wireless LAN technology is becoming increasingly popular for a wide variety of applications. After evaluating the technology, most users are convinced of its reliability, satisfied with its performance and are ready to use it for large-scale and complex wireless networks. Originally designed for indoor office applications, todays Wireless LANs can be used for both indoor peer-to-peer networks as well as for outdoor point-to-point and point-to-multipoint remote bridging applications. Wireless LANs can be designed to be modular and very flexible. They can also be optimized for different environments. For example, point-to-point outdoor links are less susceptible to interference and can have higher performance if designers increase the dwell time and disable the collision avoidance and fragmentation mechanisms described later in this section. Topology
Wired LAN Topology

Traditional LANs (Local Area Networks) link PCs and other computers to one another and to file servers, printers and other network equipment using cables or optic fibers as the transmission medium.
Figure 1: Wired LAN Topology

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Wireless LAN Topology Wireless LANs allow workstations to communicate and to access the network using radio Propagation as the transmission medium. The wireless LAN can be connected to an existing wired LAN as an extension, or can form the basis of a new network. While adaptable to both indoor and outdoor environments, wireless LANs are especially suited to indoor locations such as office buildings, manufacturing floors, hospitals and universities. The basic building block of the wireless LAN is the Cell. This is the area in which the wireless communication takes place. The coverage area of a cell depends on the strength of the propagated radio signal and the type and construction of walls, partitions and other physical characteristics of the indoor environment. PC-based workstations, notebook and pen-based computers can move freely in the cell.

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Each Wireless LAN cell requires some communications and traffic management. This is coordinated by an Access Point (AP) which communicates with each wireless station in its coverage area. Stations also communicate with each other via the AP, so communicating stations can be hidden from one another. In this way, the AP functions as a relay, extending the range of the system. The AP also functions as a bridge between the wireless stations and the wired network and the other wireless cells. Connecting the AP to the backbone or other wireless cells can be done by wire or by a separate wireless link, using wireless bridges. The range of the system can be extended by cascading several wireless links, one after the other.

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Figure 3: Wireless LAN Connectivity

Roaming When any area in the building is within reception range of more than one Access Point, the cells coverage is said to overlap. Each wireless station automatically establishes the best possible connection with one of the Access Points. Overlapping coverage areas are an important attribute of the wireless LAN setup, because it enables seamless roaming between overlapping cells.

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Roaming allows mobile users with portable stations to move freely between overlapping cells, constantly maintaining their network connection. Roaming is seamless; a work session can be maintained while moving from one cell to another. Multiple access points can provide wireless coverage for an entire building or campus. When the coverage area of two or more APs overlap, the stations in the overlapping area can establish the best possible connection with one of the APs, continuously searching for the best AP. In order to minimize packet loss during switchover, the old and new APs communicate to coordinate the process. Load Balancing Congested areas with many users and heavy traffic load per unit may require a multi-cell structure. In a multi-cell structure, several co-located APs illuminate the same area creating a common coverage area which increases aggregate throughput. Stations inside the common coverage area automatically associate with the AP that is less loaded and provides the best signal quality. The stations are equally divided between the APs in order to equally share the load between all APs. Efficiency is maximized because all APs are working at the same low level load. Load balancing is also known as load sharing.

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Dynamic Rate Switching The data rate of each station is automatically adjusted according to the received signal quality. Performance (throughput) is maximized by increasing the data rate and decreasing re-transmissions. This is very important for mobile applications where the signal quality fluctuates rapidly, but less important for fixed outdoor installations where signal quality is stable. Media Access When many users are located in the same area, performance becomes an issue. To address this issue, Wireless LANs use the Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) algorithm with a Collision Avoidance (CA) mechanism in which each unit senses the media before it starts to transmit. If the media is free for several microseconds, the unit can transmit for a limited time. If the media is busy, the unit will back off for a random time before it senses again. Since transmitting units compete for air time, the Protocol should ensure equal fairness between the stations. Fragmentation Fragmentation of packets into shorter fragments adds protocol overhead and reduces protocol efficiency when no errors are expected, but reduce the time spent on retransmissions if errors are likely to occur. No fragmentation or longer fragment length add overhead and reduce efficiency in case of errors and re-transmissions (multi-path). Collision Avoidance To avoid collisions with other incoming calls, each station transmits a short RTS (Request to Send) frame before the data frame. The Access Point sends back a CTS (Clear to Send) frame with permission to start the data transmission. This frame includes the time that this station is going to transmit. This frame is received by all the stations in Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems the cell, notifying them that another unit will transmit during the following X msec, so they can not transmit even if the media seems to be free (the transmitting unit is out of range). Channelization Using Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), different hopping sequences are assigned to different co-located cells. Hopping sequences are designed so different cells can work simultaneously using different channels. Since hopping sequences and hopping timing of different cells cannot be synchronized (according to FCC regulations), different cells might try to use the same channel occasionally. Then, one cell uses the channel while the other cell backs off and waits for the next hop. In the case of a very noisy environment (multiples and interference), the system must hop quickly. If the link is quiet and clean, it is better to hop slowly, reducing overhead and increasing efficiency.

WLAN: Wireless LAN by IEEE 802.11, 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n The Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) technology is defined by the IEEE 802.11 family of specifications. There are currently four specifications in the family: 802.11, 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g. All four use the Ethernet protocol and CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance instead of CSMA/CD) for path sharing. 802.11 -- applies to wireless LANs and provides 1 or 2 Mbps transmission in the 2.4 GHz band using either frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) or direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS). 802.11a -- an extension to 802.11 that applies to wireless LANs and provides up to 54 Mbps in the 5GHz band. 802.11a uses an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) encoding scheme rather than FHSS or DSSS. The 802.11a specification applies to wireless ATM systems and is used in access hubs. 802.11b (also referred to as 802.11 High Rate or Wi-Fi) -- an extension to 802.11 that applies to wireless LANS and provides 11 Mbps transmission (with a fallback to 5.5, 2 and 1 Mbps) in the 2.4 GHz band. 802.11b uses only DSSS. 802.11b was ratification to the original 802.11 standard, allowing wireless functionality comparable to Ethernet. 802.11g -- offers wireless transmission over relatively short distances at 20 54 Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band. The 802.11g also uses the OFDM encoding scheme. 802.11n - builds upon previous 802.11 standards by adding MIMO (multipleinput multiple-output). IEEE 802.11n offers high throughput wireless transmission at 100Mbps 200 Mbps.

The modulation used in 802.11 has historically been phase-shift keying (PSK). The modulation method selected for 802.11b is known as complementary code keying

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T 703 Modern Communication Systems (CCK), which allows higher data speeds and is less susceptible to multipath-propagation interference. 802.11a uses a modulation scheme known as orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) that makes possible data speeds as high as 54 Mbps, but most commonly, communications takes place at 6 Mbps, 12 Mbps, or 24 Mbps. For short range and low power wireless (less than 10 meters) communications among personal devices such as PDA, Bluetooth and subsequent IEEE standards (802.15) are taking effects. For long range wireless communications in the metropolitan areas, WiMax as defined in the IEEE 802.16 is the standard.
The 802.11 stack structure is as follows:

Protocol Structure - WLAN: Wireless LAN by IEEE 802.11, 802.11a, 802.11b,802.11g, 802.11n 801.11 protocol family MAC frame structure: 02312 Data

2 Frame Control 2 Version

2 Duration

6 Address 1

6 Address 2

6 Address 3

2 Seq

6 Address 4

4 Check sum

Frame Control Structure: 2 Type 4 Subtype 1 To DS 1 From DS 1 MF 1 Retry 1 Pwr 1 More 1 W 1 O

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Protocol Version - indicates the version of IEEE 802.11 standard. Type - Frame type: Management, Control and Data. Subtype - Frame subtype: Authentication frame, Deauthentication frame; Association request frame; Association response frame; Reassociation request frame; Reassociation response frame; Disassociation frame; Beacon frame; Probe frame; Probe request frame and Probe response frame. To DS - is set to 1 when the frame is sent to Distribution System (DS) From DS - is set to 1 when the frame is received from the Distribution System (DS) MF- More Fragment is set to 1 when there are more fragments belonging to the same frame following the current fragment Retry indicates that this fragment is a retransmission of a previously transmitted fragment. (For receiver to recognize duplicate transmissions of frames) Pwr - Power Management indicates the power management mode that the station will be in after the transmission of the frame. More - More Data indicates that there are more frames buffered to this station. W - WEP indicates that the frame body is encrypted according to the WEP (wired equivalent privacy) algorithm. O - Order indicates that the frame is being sent using the Strictly-Ordered service class. Duration/ID (ID) o Station ID is used for Power-Save poll message frame type. o The duration value is used for the Network Allocation Vector (NAV) calculation. Address fields (1-4) - contain up to 4 addresses (source, destination, transmission and receiver addresses) depending on the frame control field (the To DS and From DS bits). Sequence Control - consists of fragment number and sequence number. It is used to represent the order of different fragments belonging to the same frame and to recognize packet duplications. Data - is information that is transmitted or received. CRC - contains a 32-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).

Related Protocols IEEE 802.2 , 802.3, Bluetooth 802.15 , WiMax 802.16 , 802.11, 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n

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ISDN
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is an all digital communications line that allows for the transmission of voice, data, video and graphics, at very high speeds, over standard communication lines. ISDN provides a single, common interface with which to access digital communications services that are required by varying devices, while remaining transparent to the user. Due to the large amounts of information that ISDN lines can carry, ISDN applications are revolutionizing the way businesses communicate.ISDN is not restricted to public telephone networks alone; it may be transmitted via packet switched networks, telex, CATV networks, etc.
The ISDN is illustrated here in relation to the OSI model:

ISDN applications

LAPD
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T 703 Modern Communication Systems The LAPD (Link Access Protocol - Channel D) is a layer 2 protocol which is defined in CCITT Q.920/921. LAPD works in the Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM). This mode is totally balanced (i.e., no master/slave relationship). Each station may initialize, supervise, recover from errors, and send frames at any time. The protocol treats the DTE and DCE as equals. The format of a standard LAPD frame is as follows: Flag Address field Control field Information LAPD frame structure Flag The value of the flag is always (0x7E). In order to ensure that the bit pattern of the frame delimiter flag does not appear in the data field of the frame (and therefore cause frame misalignment), a technique known as Bit Stuffing is used by both the transmitter and the receiver. Address field The first two bytes of the frame after the header flag is known as the address field. The format of the address field is as follows: 8 SAPI TEI 7 6 5 4 3 2 C/R 1 EA1 EA2 FCS Flag

LAPD address field EA1 First Address Extension bit which is always set to 0. C/R Command/Response bit. Frames from the user with this bit set to 0 are command frames, as are frames from the network with this bit set to 1. Other values indicate a response frame. EA2 Second Address Extension bit which is always set to 1. TEI Terminal Endpoint Identifier. Valid values are as follows: 0-63 Used by non-automatic TEI assignment user equipment. 64-126 Used by automatic TEI assignment equipment. Used for a broadcast connection meant for all Terminal 127 Endpoints. Control field The field following the Address Field is called the Control Field and serves to identify the type of the frame. In addition, it includes sequence numbers, control features and error tracking according to the frame type. FCS The Frame Check Sequence (FCS) enables a high level of physical error control by allowing the integrity of the transmitted frame data to be checked. The sequence is first Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems calculated by the transmitter using an algorithm based on the values of all the bits in the frame. The receiver then performs the same calculation on the received frame and compares its value to the CRC. Windowsize LAPD supports an extended window size (modulo 128) where the number of possible outstanding frames for acknowledgement is raised from 8 to 128. This extension is generally used for satellite transmissions where the acknowledgement delay is significantly greater than the frame transmission times. The type of the link initialization frame determines the modulo of the session and an "E" is added to the basic frame type name (e.g., SABM becomes SABME). Frametypes The following are the Supervisory Frame Types in LAPD: RR REJ RNR Information frame acknowledgement and indication to receive more. Request for retransmission of all frames after a given sequence number. Indicates a state of temporary occupation of station (e.g., window full).

The following are the Unnumbered Frame Types in LAPD: DISC UA DM FRMR SABM Request disconnection Acknowledgement frame. Response to DISC indicating disconnected mode. Frame reject. Initiator for asynchronous balanced mode. No master/slave relationship. SABME SABM in extended mode. UI Unnumbered Information. XID Exchange Information.

ISDN Devices
ISDN devices include terminals, terminal adapters (TAs), network-termination devices, line-termination equipment, and exchange-termination equipment. ISDN terminals come in two types. Specialized ISDN terminals are referred to as terminal equipment type 1 (TE1). Non-ISDN terminals, such as DTE, that predate the ISDN standards are referred to as terminal equipment type 2 (TE2). TE1s connect to the ISDN network through a four-wire, twisted-pair digital link. TE2s connect to the ISDN network through a TA. The ISDN TA can be either a standalone device or a board inside the TE2. If the TE2 is implemented as a standalone device, it connects to the TA via a standard physical-layer interface. Examples include EIA/TIA-232-C (formerly RS-232-C), V.24, and V.35.

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T 703 Modern Communication Systems Beyond the TE1 and TE2 devices, the next connection point in the ISDN network is the network termination type 1 (NT1) or network termination type 2 (NT2) device. These are network-termination devices that connect the four-wire subscriber wiring to the conventional two-wire local loop. In North America, the NT1 is a customer premises equipment (CPE) device. In most other parts of the world, the NT1 is part of the network provided by the carrier. The NT2 is a more complicated device that typically is found in digital private branch exchanges (PBXs) and that performs Layer 2 and 3 protocol functions and concentration services. An NT1/2 device also exists as a single device that combines the functions of an NT1 and an NT2. ISDN specifies a number of reference points that define logical interfaces between functional groups, such as TAs and NT1s. ISDN reference points include the following: RThe reference point between non-ISDN equipment and a TA. SThe reference point between user terminals and the NT2. TThe reference point between NT1 and NT2 devices.

UThe reference point between NT1 devices and line-termination equipment in the carrier network. The U reference point is relevant only in North America, where the NT1 function is not provided by the carrier network. Figure 12-1 illustrates a sample ISDN configuration and shows three devices attached to an ISDN switch at the central office. Two of these devices are ISDN-compatible, so they can be attached through an S reference point to NT2 devices. The third device (a standard, non-ISDN telephone) attaches through the reference point to a TA. Any of these devices also could attach to an NT1/2 device, which would replace both the NT1 and the NT2. In addition, although they are not shown, similar user stations are attached to the far-right ISDN switch. Figure 12-1 Sample ISDN Configuration Illustrates Relationships Between Devices and Reference Points

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T 703 Modern Communication Systems

Services
There are two types of services associated with ISDN: BRI PRI

ISDN BRI Service


The ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) service offers two B channels and one D channel (2B+D). BRI B-channel service operates at 64 kbps and is meant to carry user data; BRI D-channel service operates at 16 kbps and is meant to carry control and signaling information, although it can support user data transmission under certain circumstances. The D channel signaling protocol comprises Layers 1 through 3 of the OSI reference model. BRI also provides for framing control and other overhead, bringing its total bit rate to 192 kbps. The BRI physical layer specification is International Telecommunication UnionTelecommunications Standards Section (ITU-T) (formerly the Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone [CCITT]) I.430.

ISDN PRI Service


ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI) service offers 23 B channels and 1 D channel in North America and Japan, yielding a total bit rate of 1.544 Mbps (the PRI D channel runs Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems at 64 kbps). ISDN PRI in Europe, Australia, and other parts of the world provides 30 B channels plus one 64-kbps D channel and a total interface rate of 2.048 Mbps. The PRI physical layer specification is ITU-T I.431.

ISDN Specifications
This section describes the various ISDN specifications for Layer 1, Layer 2, and Layer 3.

Layer 1
ISDN physical layer (Layer 1) frame formats differ depending on whether the frame is outbound (from terminal to network) or inbound (from network to terminal). Both physical layer interfaces are shown in Figure 12-2. The frames are 48 bits long, of which 36 bits represent data. The bits of an ISDN physical layer frame are used as follows: FProvides synchronization LAdjusts the average bit value

EEnsures contention resolution when several terminals on a passive bus contend for a channel AActivates devices SIs unassigned B1, B2, and DHandle user data

Figure 12-2 ISDN Physical Layer Frame Formats Differ Depending on Their Direction

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Multiple ISDN user devices can be physically attached to one circuit. In this configuration, collisions can result if two terminals transmit simultaneously. Therefore, ISDN provides features to determine link contention. When an NT receives a D bit from the TE, it echoes back the bit in the next E-bit position. The TE expects the next E bit to be the same as its last transmitted D bit. Terminals cannot transmit into the D channel unless they first detect a specific number of ones (indicating "no signal") corresponding to a pre-established priority. If the TE detects a bit in the echo (E) channel that is different from its D bits, it must stop transmitting immediately. This simple technique ensures that only one terminal can transmit its D message at one time. After successful D-message transmission, the terminal has its priority reduced by requiring it to detect more continuous ones before transmitting. Terminals cannot raise their priority until all other devices on the same line have had an opportunity to send a D message. Telephone connections have higher priority than all other services, and signaling information has a higher priority than no signaling information.

Layer 2
Layer 2 of the ISDN signaling protocol is Link Access Procedure, D channel (LAPD). LAPD is similar to High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) and Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB) (see Chapter 16, "Synchronous Data Link Control and Derivatives," and Chapter 17, "X.25," for more information on these protocols). As the expansion of the LAPD acronym indicates, this layer is used across the D channel to ensure that

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T 703 Modern Communication Systems control and signaling information flows and is received properly. The LAPD frame format (see Figure 12-3) is very similar to that of HDLC; like HDLC, LAPD uses supervisory, information, and unnumbered frames. The LAPD protocol is formally specified in ITU-T Q.920 and ITU-T Q.921. Figure 12-3 LAPD Frame Format Is Similar to That of HDLC and LAPB

The LAPD Flag and Control fields are identical to those of HDLC. The LAPD Address field can be either 1 or 2 bytes long. If the extended address bit of the first byte is set, the address is 1 byte; if it is not set, the address is 2 bytes. The first Address-field byte contains the service access point identifier (SAPI), which identifies the portal at which LAPD services are provided to Layer 3. The C/R bit indicates whether the frame contains a command or a response. The Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI) field identifies either a single terminal or multiple terminals. A TEI of all ones indicates a broadcast.

Layer 3
Two Layer 3 specifications are used for ISDN signaling: ITU-T (formerly CCITT) I.450 (also known as ITU-T Q.930) and ITU-T I.451 (also known as ITU-T Q.931). Together, these protocols support user-to-user, circuit-switched, and packet-switched connections. A variety of call-establishment, call-termination, information, and miscellaneous messages are specified, including SETUP, CONNECT, RELEASE, USER INFORMATION, CANCEL, STATUS, and DISCONNECT. These messages are functionally similar to those provided by the X.25 protocol (see Chapter 17 for more information). Figure 12-4, from ITU-T I.451, shows the typical stages of an ISDN circuit-switched call. Figure 12-4 An ISDN Circuit-Switched Call Moves Through Various Stages to Its Destination

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Summary
ISDN is comprised of digital telephony and data-transport services offered by regional telephone carriers. ISDN involves the digitization of the telephone network to transmit voice, data, text, graphics, music, video, and other source material over existing telephone wires. ISDN devices include the following: Terminals Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems Terminal adapters (TAs) Network-termination devices Line-termination equipment Exchange-termination equipment

The ISDN specification references specific connection points that define logical interfaces between devices. ISDN uses the following two types of services: Basic Rate Interface (BRI, which offers two B channels and one D channel (2B+D)

Primary Rate Interface (PRI), which offers 23 B channels and 1 D channel in North America and Japan, and 30 B channels and 1 D channel in Europe and Australia ISDN runs on the bottom three layers of the OSI reference model, and each layer uses a different specification to transmit data.

Broadband ISDN
The original specifications for the integrated services digital network (ISDN), were based around voice and non-voice telephone-type services: telephony, data, telex, facsimile, as it was hoped that the ISDN would evolve from the (then) emerging digital telephone networks. Indeed, this is one of the reasons that the fundamental element of an ISDN link is the 64 Kb/s B-Channels. However, the planning for ISDN was started around 1976, and as technology evolved, so did the requirements of the users that wanted to use this technology. In 1988, the CCITT released a document that described a new set of Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) services. To distinguish this new concept from the original ISDN service, we now refer to the latter as Narrowband ISDN (N-ISDN).

Broadband ISDN services


The need for a Broadband ISDN service sprung from the growing needs of the customers. The planned Broadband ISDN services can broadly be categorized as follows:

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Interactive services. These are services allowing information flow between two end users of the network, or between the user and the service provider. Such services can be subdivided: o Conversational services. These are basically end-to-end, real-time communications, between users or between a user and a service provider, e.g. telephone-like services. Indeed, B-ISDN will support N-ISDN type services. (Note also that the user-to-user signaling, user-to-network signaling, and inter-echange signaling are also provided but outside our scope.) Also the additional bandwidth offered will allow such services as video telephony, video conferencing and high volume, high speed data transfer. o Messaging services. This differs from conversational services in that it is mainly a store-and-forward type of service. Applications could include voice and video mail, as well as multi-media mail and traditional electronic mail. o Retrieval services. This service provides access to (public) information stores, and information is sent to the user on demand only. This includes things like tele-shopping, videotex services, still and moving pictures, telesoftware and entertainment. Distribution services. These are mainly broadcast services, are intended for mainly one way interaction from a service provider to a user: o No user control of presentation. This would be for instance, a TV broadcast, where the user can choose simply either to view or not. It is expected that cable TV companies will become interested in Broadband ISDN as a carrier for the high definition TV (HDTV) services that are forseen for the future. o User controlled presentation. This would apply to broadcast information that the user can partially control, in that the user can decide which part of it he/she accesses, e.g. teletext and news retrieval services.

Protocol Reference Model


The network is described in terms of a protocol reference model (PRM) (Figure ). Not all of the PRM is fully defined. The main aspects of the model are that it can be viewed in terms of the three planes -- user plane, control plane and management plane -and in terms of the 3 layers -- ATM adaptation layer, ATM layer and the Physical layer.

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Figure: Broadband ISDN protocol reference model The functions of the layers are as follows:

ATM adaptation layer (AAL). This layer is responsible for mapping the service offered by ATM to the service expected by the higher layers. It has two sublayers. o Convergence sub layer (CS). Responsible for presenting the ATM service to the higher layers. The functionality of this sub layer is very much dependent on the higher layer service. o Segmentation and reassembly (SAR). This layer is responsible for, at the transmitter, splitting the higher level PDU into 48 octet chunks, and at the receiving side, to reassemble the 48 octet chunks back into the original PDU. ATM Layer. This layer is independent of the physical medium over which transmission is to take place. It has four functions: o Generic flow control (GFC) function. This can be used to alleviate short term overload conditions above the ATM layer, as it is accessible by the user. o Cell header generation and extraction. At the transmitter, adds header information to a cell and at the receiver removes it. o Cell multiplex and demultiplex. At the transmitter, multiplex cells into one continuous stream and at the header demultiplex the cells according to VPI and VCI values. Physical layer. This consists of two sublayers: o Transport Convergence (TC). This sub layer has five functions: Cell rate decoupling. Insertion and extraction of idle cells. Header error control (HEC) generation and verification. In the transmitter, generation of the HEC, and in the receiver checking of the HEC. The HEC that is used can detect and correct a 1 bit error and can further detect certain multiple bit errors. Cell delineation. In the receiver, detection of cell boundaries.

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T 703 Modern Communication Systems Transmission frame adaptation. Adapts cell flow according to the payload of the Physical level frame being used, e.g. for SDH. Transmission frame generation and recovery. At the transmitter, generates Physical level frames, and at the receiver, extracts the ATM cells from the Physical level frame. Physical medium (PM). This contains two sublayers: Bit timing. Insertion and extraction of bit timing information and generation and reception of waveforms. Physical medium. Bit transmission, bit alignment and optical electrical conversion, if required. (The physical medium need not be optical, at least for transmission rates of 155Mb/s and lower.)

This (sub-) layering of the PRM is depicted in Figure .

Figure: Broadband ISDN layer functionality The management plane consists of two functions to perform layer management and plane management. The plane management is not layered as the other layers are. This is because it relies needs information on all aspects of the the system to provide management facilities for the systems as a whole. The layer management provides information and control facilities for the protocol entities that exists in each individual layer. This includes operation and maintenance (OAM) functions for each layer. The control plane is responsible for the supervision of connections, including call set-up, call release and maintenance.

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T 703 Modern Communication Systems The user plane provides for the transfer of user information. It also includes mechanisms to perform error recovery, flow control etc. Broadband ISDN intends to offer many Mb/s to the user, but intends to remain backwards compatible with Narrowband ISDN. Indeed, the Narrowband services will eventually need to be offered over the global Broadband network to come. To this extent the user interface to Broadband ISDN is very similar to that for Narrowband ISDN. Figure shows the position of the user to network interface (UNI), as well as the internal network to network interface (NNI) for BISDN.

Figure: Broadband ISDN user and network interfaces

Figure: Broadband ISDN UNI configuration reference points Note that in Figure , it is expected that Narrowband ISDN (or even other PSTN) equipment will be able to connect to the Broadband network via a suitable terminal adaptor. The various functional groups are now described:

B-NT1. This group contains functions that are considered to be part of OSI layer 1. It represents the physical connection point to the network, i.e. the socket on the wall. It includes functions such as: o Line transmission termination. Provision of the physical connection. o Transmission interface handling. The interface to the transmission channel, be it electrical or optical.

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T 703 Modern Communication Systems Operation and Maintenance (OAM). This is not normally associated with the socket in the wall. However, it is expected that for B-ISDN, more sophisticated management capabilities will be required than at present. B-NT2. This group contains OSI layer 1 and higher OSI layer functions: o Adaptation functions. For different physical media and network topologies. o Multiplexing and demultiplexing. The user data may be sent and received on several VCCs and VPCs. o Buffering. User data may be sent and/or received at varying rates with respect to the B-ISDN user and the network. o Signaling. VCCs/VPCs must be established, controlled and released. o Interface. Interaction with the B-ISDN user. B-TE1. Equipment requiring B-ISDN access. B-TA. Equipment allowing connection of other B-ISDN, N-ISDN and non-ISDN equipment. B-TE2. B-ISDN with special interface needs or N-ISDN equipment. TE2. Non-ISDN equipment.
o

Note that these are logical units. The physical implementation may be quite different. For instance, it may be common to find the following in the same physical unit, depending on need: B-NT1 and B-NT2; B-TE1 and B-NT2; B-TA and B-TE2 etc. Further, the way in which the terminal equipment is connected to the user-to-network interface via B-NT1/B-NT2 is not restricted with respect to local topologies (Figure).

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Figure: Broadband ISDN multiple interface configurations The B-NT2 equipment is considered to be the customer premisis equipment (CPN) (Figure). This could in real terms be an private branch exchange (PBX) or other local switch.

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Figure: B-ISDN customer premisis network configuration The discussion above has mentioned the OSI reference model. This was developed in collaboration between the ISO and the (then) CCITT. It seems surprising therefore that there is no defined relationship between the B-ISDN PRM and the OSI reference model. Figure is the author's view of the relationship between the two.

Figure: Broadband ISDN PRM compared with OSI model As there is unlikely to be a user interface directly to the AAL, included in this figure are the interfaces to the service classes defined by the ATM Forum for the UNI:

Constant bit rate (CBR). The CBR service offers a very simple, reliable guaranteed channel that effectively acts as circuit emulation. The QoS of this service must be maintained throughout the lifetime of a CBR connection, as the data rate is expected to be constant. It is intended for use by applications with stringent real-time constraints on delay and jitter, e.g.\ real-time video. Variable bit rate (VBR). This service is also intended for use by by real-time applications. However, it differs from CBR in that it does not expect the data rate to be constant, i.e. the sources may use variable bit rate coding for efficiency and also be statistically multiplexed. Available bit rate (ABR). This service class offers the B-ISDN user some degree of fairness, and also control of loss or delay with respect to QoS, but is intended for non real-time applications. It is likely that ABR QoS statements will specify that there are minimum acceptable parameters, but that if better QoS should

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems become available then it will be used. ABR is intended for use by unit-oriented applications such as database access and electronic mail. Unspecified bit rate (UBR). UBR is intended for applications that send data very sporadically and the use of CBR, VBR or ABR would be wasteful of resources. In fact, this service class is effectively a best-effort approach which is similar to today's IP. Applications that use this service would have non-real time requirements and not be too sensitive to loss, e.g. file transfers.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)


Is a cell relay, packet switching network and data link layer protocol which encodes data traffic into small (53 bytes; 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information) fixedsized cells. ATM provides data link layer services that run over Layer 1 links. This differs from other technologies based on packet-switched networks (such as the Internet Protocol or Ethernet), in which variable sized packets (known as frames when referencing layer 2) are used. ATM is a connection-oriented technology, in which a logical connection is established between the two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins. The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) composes a protocol suite which establishes a mechanism to carry all traffic on a stream of fixed 53-byte packets (cells). A fixed-size packet can ensure that the switching and multiplexing function could be carried out quickly and easily. ATM is a connection-oriented technology, i.e.; two systems on the network should inform all intermediate switches about their service requirements and traffic parameters in order to establish communication. The ATM reference model, which has two forms - one for the user-to-network interface (UNI) and the other for the network-to-node interface (NNI), is divided into three layers: the ATM adaptation layer (AAL), the ATM layer, and the physical layer. The AAL interfaces the higher layer protocols to the ATM Layer, which relays ATM cells both from the upper layers to the ATM Layer and vice versa. When relaying information received from the higher layers, the AAL segments the data into ATM cells. When relaying information received from the ATM Layer, the AAL must reassemble the payloads into a format the higher layers can understand. This is called Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR). Different AALs are defined in supporting different types of traffic or service expected to be used on ATM networks. The ATM layer is responsible for relaying cells from the AAL to the physical layer for transmission and from the physical layer to the AAL for use at the end systems, it determines where the incoming cells should be forwarded to, resets the corresponding connection identifiers and forwards the cells to the next link, as well as buffers cells, and handles various traffic management functions such as cell loss priority marking,

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems congestion indication, and generic flow control access. It also monitors the transmission rate and conformance to the service contract (traffic policing). The physical layer of ATM defines the bit timing and other characteristics for encoding and decoding the data into suitable electrical/optical waveforms for transmission and reception on the specific physical media used. In addition, it also provides frame adaptation function, which includes cell delineation, header error check (HEC) generation and processing, performance monitoring, and payload rate matching of the different transport formats used at this layer. SONET , DS3, Fiber, twisted-pair are few media often used at the physical layer.

ATM Model
The ATM model's primary layers are the physical layer, the ATM layer, and the ATM Adaptation layer. Each layer and sublayer is described in more detail in the following sections.

Physical Layer
The physical layer provides for the transmission and reception of ATM cells across a physical medium between two ATM devices; this can be a transmission between an ATM endpoint and an ATM switch, or it can be between two ATM switches. The physical layer is subdivided into a Physical Medium Dependent sublayer and Transmission Convergence sublayer.
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PMD Sublayer
The Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) sublayer is responsible for the transmission and reception of individual bits on a physical medium. These responsibilities encompass bit timing, signal encoding, interacting with the physical medium, and the cable or wire itself. ATM does not rely on any specific bit rate, encoding scheme or medium and various specifications for ATM exist for coaxial cable, shielded and unshielded twisted pair wire, and optical fiber at speeds ranging from 64 kilobits per second to 9.6 gigabits per second. In addition, the ATM physical medium can extend up to 60 kilometers or more using single-mode fiber and long-reach lasers, so it can readily support campus-wide connectivity and even private metropolitan area networks (MANs). The independence of ATM from a particular set of hardware constraints has allowed it to be implemented over radio and satellite links.

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Transmission Convergence Sublayer


The Transmission Convergence (TC) sublayer functions as a converter between the bit stream of ATM cells and the Physical Medium Dependent sublayer. When transmitting, the TC sublayer maps ATM cells onto the format of the Physical Medium Dependent sublayer (such as DS-3 or SONET frames). Because a continuous stream of bytes is required, unused portions of the ATM cell stream are "filled" by idle cells. These idle cells are identified in the ATM header and are silently discarded by the receiver. They are never passed to the ATM layer for processing. The TC sublayer also generates and verifies the Header Error Control (HEC) field for each cell. On the transmitting side, it calculates the HEC and places it in the header. On the receiving side, the TC sublayer checks the HEC for verification. If a single bit error can be corrected, the bit is corrected and the results are passed to the ATM layer. If the error cannot be corrected (as in the case of a multi-bit error) the cell is silently discarded. Finally, the TC sublayer delineates the ATM cells, marking where ATM cells begin and where they end. The boundaries of the ATM cells can be determined from the Physical Medium Dependent layer formatting or from the incoming byte stream using the HEC field. The PMD performs the HEC validation per byte on the preceding 4 bytes. If it finds a match, the next ATM cell boundary is 48 bytes away (corresponding to the ATM payload). The PMD performs this verification several times to ensure that the cell boundaries have been determined correctly.

The ATM Layer


The ATM layer provides cell multiplexing, demultiplexing, and VPI/VCI routing functions. The ATM layer also supervises the cell flow to ensure that all connections remain within their negotiated cell throughput limits. If connections operate outside their negotiated parameters, the ATM layer can take corrective action so the misbehaving connections do not affect connections that are obeying their negotiated connection contract. The ATM layer also maintains the cell sequence from any source. The ATM layer multiplexes and demultiplexes and routes ATM cells, and ensures their sequence from end to end. However, if a cell is dropped by a switch due to congestion or corruption, it is not the ATM layer's responsibility to correct the dropped cell through retransmission or to notify other layers of the dropped cell. Layers above the ATM layer must sense the lost cell and decide whether to correct it or disregard it. In the case of interactive voice or video, a lost cell is typically disregarded because it would take too long to resend the cell and place it in the proper sequence to reconstruct the audio or video signal. A significant number of dropped cells in time-dependent services, such as voice or video, results in a choppy audio or video playback, but the ATM layer cannot correct the problem unless a higher Quality of Service is specified for the connection.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems In the case of data (such as a file transfer), the upper layer application must sense the absence of the cell and retransmit it. A file with missing 48-bytes chunks here and there is a corrupted file that is unacceptable to the receiver. Because operations such as file transfers are not time dependent, the contents of the cell can be recovered by incurring a delay in the transmission of the file corresponding to the recovery of the lost cell.

ATM Layer Multiplexing and Demultiplexing


ATM layer multiplexing blends all the different input types so that the connection parameters of each input are preserved. This process is known as traffic shaping. ATM layer demultiplexing takes each cell from the ATM cell stream and, based on the VPI/VCI, either routes it (for an ATM switch) or passes the cell to the ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) process that corresponds to the cell (for an ATM endpoint).

ATM Adaptation Layers


The ATM Adaptation Layers (AAL) are responsible for the creation and reception of 48byte payloads through the lower layers of ATM on behalf of different types of applications. Though there are five different types of AALs, Windows 2000 supports only AAL5. ATM Adaptation is necessary to link the cell-based technology at the ATM Layer to the bit-stream technology of digital devices (such as telephones and video cameras) and the packet-stream technology of modern data networks (such as Frame Relay, X.25 or LAN protocols such as TCP/IP or Ethernet). The five different AALs each provide a distinct class of service: AAL0 AAL0 is user-defined, or No AAL, meaning that no AAL layer is used. In all other AAL types, some delineation of the data segment is included at the AAL level before the segment is made into cells. This affects how the data is passed up to the ATM layer. With AAL5, the data is not passed up until a complete AAL segment is received. With AAL0, for example, there is no delineation or synchronization, so individual cells are passed up as they are received, or the adapter might optimize and accrue a certain amount before indicating that a cell can be passed along. AAL1 AAL1 provides circuit emulation over an ATM network. This requires constant bit rate, time-dependent service. To provide this, AAL1 adds timestamps, error checking and sequencing to the data payload. Additional functionality is provided in AAL1 to load the 48-byte cell payload with multiple smaller-than-48-byte samples, as is usually required with voice streams. Due to its high overhead, AAL1 is used only when these features are required. This format is most commonly used with voice or video applications.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems AAL2 AAL2 is a mechanism that allows the transfer of high-speed, variable bit rate information in an isochronous, connection-oriented manner. Unlike AAL1, AAL2 is designed to use bandwidth only when data is sent. AAL2 has never been fully defined by the standards committee and did not gained wide acceptance. It has largely been supplanted by AAL5. AAL3/4 AAL3/4 combines two once-separate AAL specifications. AAL3 was intended for the framing of connection-oriented protocols, while AAL4 was intended for the framing of connectionless protocols. While pursuing these two standards, the ATM standards bodies learned that there was no difference in the framing between the two types of protocols; therefore, they combined the two separate framing methods to create AAL3/4. This AAL adds information to the payload regarding segment size, sequencing, and ordering control. However, AAL 3/4 is rarely used because of the high overhead required; AAL5 provides the same services with minimal overhead. AAL5 AAL5 provides a way for non-isochronous, variable bit rate, connectionless applications to send and receive data. AAL5 was developed as a way to provide a more efficient transfer of network traffic than AAL3/4. AAL5 merely adds a trailer to the payload to indicate size and provide error detection. AAL5 is the AAL of choice when sending connection-oriented or connectionless LAN protocol traffic over an ATM network. Windows 2000 supports AAL5.

Bluetooth Technology

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems In an attempt to standardize data transfer and synchronization between disparate mobile devices in the short-distance range, Intel and Microsoft established in 1998 a major industry consortium that included IBM, Toshiba, Ericsson, Nokia, and Puma Technology. Code-named Blue Tooth for the 10th century Danish king who unified Denmark, the companies have created a single synchronization protocol to address end-user problems arising from the proliferation of various mobile devices -- including smart phones, smart pagers, PDAs, handheld PCs, copiers, printers, notebooks, and many future digital appliances at home -- that need to keep data consistent from one device to another. The proposed Bluetooth solutions (hardware and software-based) would automatically synchronize mobile devices when end-users enter their offices or home. Intel and others are designing the sending and receiving radio frequency chip sets. Price point for hardware is in $5-20 range eventually. Since the start of this initiative in 1998, interest in Bluetooth has grown tremendously signified by 1800 members of Bluetooth consortium by mid 2000. While Bluetooth consortium demonstrated prototype products in the 1999-2000, there are no production-quality end-user products using blue tooth technology as of now, as far as we know. Component products (radios and chips) that can be integrated into finished products have started becoming available from Ericsson and others. However, here is an opportunity for more start-up companies. irDA is a competing technology and has been implemented in many products for over 6-7 years now but Bluetooth has a few distinct advantages - with Ericsson/Microsoft/Intel team behind it. In our opinion, there are relative benefits with several competing technologies - there is some overlap too. Let competitive products thrive so that we the users get the best solutions. How does Blue Tooth compare to irDA - a competitive (or complimentary) technology? Click here for a vendor viewpoint by Counterpoint division of Extended Systems. Bluetooth is actually a standard for wireless communications between devices in a personal area network (PAN) using radio frequency for a short range (around 10 meters). So any two devices that follow the standard can communicate and exchange data between each other without the need of any connection to be made between them. A group of Bluetooth devices like a mobile phone, a digital camera, a hand held device etc. can instantly form a network with each other as soon as they are switched on. You could have a mobile phone in your pocket and you could be sending e-mails using your laptop without making any connection between your laptop and the mobile. Your refrigerator could be placing an order with the supermarket if your milk supply has been exhausted using your mobile phone. Briefly, Bluetooth technology

uses radio waves in 2.4 GHz band - therefore, no line of sight is required

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supports multipoint, not just point to point works in a small confined area - 10 to 15 meters apart is able to support speeds of 1-2 Mbps today but will offer higher speeds in future chip sets are relatively inexpensive (though more expensive than IrDA)- $10 to $20 today in large quantities - will go down in future has significant industry support with over 1800 members in the industry consortium

Bluetooth is a high-speed, low-power microwave wireless link technology, designed to connect phones, laptops, PDAs and other portable equipment together with little or no work by the user. Unlike infra-red, Bluetooth does not require line-of-sight positioning of connected units. The technology uses modifications of existing wireless LAN techniques but is most notable for its small size and low cost. The current prototype circuits are contained on a circuit board 0.9cm square, with a much smaller single chip version in development. The cost of the device is expected to fall very fast, from $20 initially to $5 in a year or two. It is envisioned that Bluetooth will be included within equipment rather than being an optional extra. When one Bluetooth product comes within range of another, (this can be set to between 10cm and 100m) they automatically exchange address and capability details. They can then establish a 1 megabit/s link (up to 2 Mbps in the second generation of the technology) with security and error correction, to use as required. The protocols will handle both voice and data, with a very flexible network topography. This technology achieves its goal by embedding tiny, inexpensive, short-range transceivers into the electronic devices that are available today. The radio operates on the globally-available unlicensed radio band, 2.45 GHz (meaning there will be no hindrance for international travelers using Bluetooth-enabled equipment.), and supports data speeds of up to 721 Kbps, as well as three voice channels. The Bluetooth modules can be either built into electronic devices or used as an adaptor. For instance in a PC they can be built in as a PC card or externally attached via the USB port.

Each device has a unique 48-bit address from the IEEE 802 standard. Connections can be point-to-point or multipoint. The maximum range is 10 meters but can be extended to 100 meters by increasing the power. Bluetooth devices are protected from radio interference by changing their frequencies arbitrarily up to a maximum of 1600 times a second, a technique known as frequency hopping. They also use three different but complimentary error correction schemes. Built-in encryption and verification is provided.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems Moreover, Bluetooth devices won't drain precious battery life. The Bluetooth specification targets power consumption of the device from a "hold" mode consuming 30 micro amps to the active transmitting range of 8-30 milliamps (or less than 1/10th of a watt). The radio chip consumers only 0.3mA in standby mode, which is less than 3 % of the power used by a standard mobile phone. The chips also have excellent power-saving features, as they will automatically shift to a low-power mode as soon as traffic volume lessens or stops. Bluetooth devices are classified according to three different power classes, as shown in the following table. Power Class Maximum Output Power 1 100 mW (20 dBm) 2 2.5 mW (4 dBm) 3 1 mW (0 dBm) But beyond untethering devices by replacing the cables, Bluetooth radio technology provides a universal bridge to existing data networks, a peripheral interface, and a mechanism to form small private ad hoc groupings of connected devices away from fixed network infrastructures. Designed to operate in a noisy radio frequency environment, the Bluetooth radio uses a fast acknowledgment and frequency hopping scheme to make the link robust. Bluetooth radio modules avoid interference from other signals by hopping to a new frequency after transmitting or receiving a packet. Compared with other systems operating in the same frequency band, the Bluetooth radio typically hops faster and uses shorter packets. This makes the Bluetooth radio more robust than other systems. Short packages and fast hopping also limit the impact of domestic and professional microwave ovens. Use of Forward Error Correction (FEC) limits the impact of random noise on long-distance links. The encoding is optimized for an uncoordinated environment. Bluetooth guarantees security at the bit level. Authentication is controlled by the user by using a 128 bit key. Radio signals can be coded with 8 bits or anything up to 128 bits. The Bluetooth radio transmissions will conform to the safety standards required by the countries where the technology will be used with respect to the affects of radio transmissions on the human body. Emissions from Bluetooth enabled devices will be no greater than emissions from industry-standard cordless phones. The Bluetooth module will not interfere or cause harm to public or private telecommunications network. The Bluetooth base band protocol is a combination of circuit and packet switching. Slots can be reserved for synchronous packets. Each packet is transmitted in a different hop frequency. A packet nominally covers a single slot, but can be extended to cover up to five slots. Bluetooth can support an asynchronous data channel, up to three simultaneous synchronous voice channels, or a channel, which simultaneously supports asynchronous data and synchronous voice. It is thus possible to transfer the date asynchronously whilst at the same time talking synchronously at the same time. Each voice channel supports 64 kb/s synchronous (voice) link. The asynchronous channel can support an asymmetric link Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems of maximally 721 kb/s in either direction while permitting 57.6 kb/s in the return direction, or a 432.6 kb/s symmetric link. Modesofoperation An interesting aspect of the technology is the instant formation of networks once the Bluetooth devices come in range to each other. A piconet is a collection of devices connected via Bluetooth technology in an ad hoc fashion. A Piconet can be a simple connection between two devices or more than two devices. Multiple independent and non-synchronized piconets can form a scatternet. Any of the devices in a piconet can also be a member of another by means of time multiplexing. i.e a device can be a part of more than one piconet by suitably sharing the time. The Bluetooth system supports both pointto-point and point-to-multi-point connections. When a device is connected to another device it is a point to point connection. If it is connected to more that one (up to 7 ) it is a point to multipoint connection. Several piconets can be established and linked together ad hoc, where each piconet is identified by a different frequency hopping sequence. All users participating on the same piconet are synchronized to this hopping sequence. If a device is connected to more than one piconet it communicates in each piconet using a different hopping sequence. A piconet starts with two connected devices, such as a portable PC and cellular phone, and may grow to eight connected devices. All Bluetooth devices are peer units and have identical implementations. However, when establishing a piconet, one unit will act as a master and the other(s) as slave(s) for the duration of the piconet connection. In a piconet there is a master unit whose clock and hopping sequence are used to synchronize all other devices in the piconet. All the other devices in a piconet that are not the master are slave units. A 3-bit MAC address is used to distinguish between units participating in the piconet. Devices synchronized to a piconet can enter power-saving modes called sniff and hold mode, in which device activity is lowered. Also there can be parked units which are synchronized but do not have a MAC addresses. These parked units have a 8 bit address, therefore there can be a maximum of 256 parked devices.

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Voice channels use either a 64 kbps log PCM or the Continuous Variable Slope Delta Modulation (CVSD) voice coding scheme, and never retransmit voice packets. The voice quality on the line interface should be better than or equal to the 64 kbps log PCM. The CVSD method was chosen for its robustness in handling dropped and damaged voice samples. Rising interference levels are experienced as increased background noise: even at bit error rates up 4%, the CVSD coded voice is quite audible.

What are the Applications? (Major Portion of Content Provided by Puneet Gupta - a MobileInfo.Com Technology Writer) Bluetooth has a tremendous potential in moving and synchronizing information in a localized setting. Potential for Bluetooth applications is huge, because we transact business and communicate more with people who are close by than with those who are far away - a natural phenomenon of human interaction. The following list represents only a small set of potential applications - in future many more imaginative applications will come along:

By installing a Bluetooth network in your office you can do away with the complex and tedious task of networking between the computing devices, yet have the power of connected devices. No longer would you be bound to fixed locations where you can connect to the network. Each Bluetooth device could be connected to 200 other devices making the connection of every device with every other possible. Since it supports both point to point and point to multipoint it will virtually make the maximum number of simultaneously linked devices unlimited. Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

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The Bluetooth technology connects all your office peripherals wirelessly. Connect your PC or notebook to printers, scanners and faxes without the ugly and trouble some cable attachments. You can increase your freedom by connecting your mouse or the keyboard wirelessly to your computer. If your digital cameras in Bluetooth enabled, you can send still or video images from any location to any location without the hassle of connecting your camera to the mobile phone on the wire line phone. Bluetooth allows us to have three way phones. At home, your phone functions as a portable phone (fixed line charge). When you're on the move, it functions as a mobile phone (cellular charge). And when your phone comes within range of another mobile phone with built-in Bluetooth wireless technology it functions as a walkie-talkie (no telephony charge). In meetings and conferences you can transfer selected documents instantly with selected participants, and exchange electronic business cards automatically, without any wired connections. Connect your wireless headset to your mobile phone, mobile computer or any wired connection to keep your hands free for more important tasks when you're at the office or in your car. Have automatic synchronization of your desktop, mobile computer, notebook (PC-PDA and PC-HPC) and your mobile phone. For instance, as soon as you enter your office the address list and calendar in your notebook will automatically be updated to agree with the one in your desktop, or vice versa. Automatic Message Delivery: Compose e-mails on your portable PC while you're on an airplane. As soon as you've landed and switched on your mobile phone, all messages are immediately sent. Upon arriving at your home, the door automatically unlocks for you, the entry way lights come on, and the heat is adjusted to your pre-set preferences. IBM researchers are working on a number of personal devices like a Watch Pad that could be connected with other devices through Bluetooth. The Watch Pad is very thin and contains 8MB of RAM. They are also working on a version of CyberPhone called CyberPhone - that can project data onto a small mirror. The CyberPhone can show as much information as a small PDA because of high resolution VGA screen.

You enter the airport-waiting lounge, equipped with Bluetooth-enabled Internet ports. Via the ports, you and other guests use Bluetooth-enabled laptops, PDAs, and other devices to access your office or home-based servers via the airline server. Using voiceover IP, you also make "free" Internet voice calls courtesy of your airline.

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The WAP Model


The WAP programming model (Figure 2) is the WWW programming model with a few enhancements. Adopting the WWW programming model provides several benefits to the application developer community, including a familiar programming model, a proven architecture, and the ability to leverage existing tools (e.g., Web servers, XML tools, etc.). Optimizations and extensions have been made in order to match the characteristics of the wireless environment. Wherever possible, existing standards have been adopted or have been used as the starting point for the WAP technology. The most significant enhancements WAP has added to the programming model are: Push Telephony Support (WTA)

Figure 2. WAP Programming Model The classical request-response mechanism is commonly referred to as pull to contrast it with the push mechanism.WAP content and applications are specified in a set of wellknown content formats based on the familiar WWW content formats. Content is transported using a set of standard communication protocols based on the WWW communication protocols. The WAP microbrowser in the wireless terminal co-ordinates the user-interface and is analogous to a standard web browser. WAP defines a set of standard components that enable communication between mobile terminals and network servers, including: Standard naming model WWW-standard URLs are used to identify WAP content on origin servers. WWWstandard URIs are used to identify local resources in a device, e.g. call control functions. Content typing All WAP content is given a specific type consistent with WWW typing. This allows WAP user agents to correctly process the content based on its type.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems Standard content formats WAP content formats are based on WWW technology and include display markup, calendar information, electronic business card objects, images and scripting language. Standard communication protocols WAP communication protocols enable the communication of browser requests from the mobile terminal to the network web server. The WAP content types and protocols have been optimised for mass market, hand-held wireless devices. Feature/Performance-Enhancing Proxies

WAP utilizes proxy technology to optimise and enhance the connection between the wireless domain and the WWW. The WAP proxy may provide a variety of functions, including: Protocol Gateway The protocol gateway translates requests from a wireless protocol stack (e.g., the WAP 1.x stackWSP, WTP, WTLS, and WDP) to the WWW protocols (HTTP and TCP/IP). The gateway also performs DNS lookups of the servers named by the client in the request URLs. Content Encoders and Decoders The content encoders can be used to translate WAP content into a compact format that allows for better utilisation of the underlying link due to its reduced size. User Agent Profile Management User agent profiles describing client capabilities and personal preferences [UAProf] are composed and presented to the applications. Caching Proxy A caching proxy can improve perceived performance and network utilisation by maintaining a cache of frequently accessed resources. This infrastructure ensures that mobile terminal users can access a wide variety of Internet content and applications, and that application authors are able to build content services and applications that run on a large base of mobile terminals.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems The WAP proxy allows content and applications to be hosted on standard WWW servers and to be developed using proven WWW technologies such as CGI scripting. While the nominal use of WAP will include a web server, WAP proxy and WAP client, the WAP architecture can quite easily support other configurations. Supporting Servers

Figure 4. Supporting Services The WAP Architecture also includes supporting servers, which provide services to devices, proxies, and applications as needed. These services are often specific in function, but are of general use to a wide variety of applications. The supporting servers defined by the WAP Forum include, but are not limited to: PKI PortalThe PKI Portal (shown in Figure 4) [WPKI] allows devices to initiate the creation of new public key certificates. UAProf ServerThe UAProf Server [UAProf] allows applications to retrieve the client capabilities and personal profiles of user agents and individual users. Provisioning ServerThe Provisioning Server [ProvArch] is trusted by the WAP device to provide its provisioning information. Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems WAP Network Elements A typical WAP network is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Example WAP Network WAP clients communicate with application servers through a number of different proxies or directly. WAP clients support the proxy selection mechanism that allows them to utilise the most appropriate proxy for a given service or to connect directly to that service as necessary. Proxies can be used to augment a request. They translate between WAP and WWW protocols (HTTP, TCP), thereby allowing the WAP client to submit requests to the origin server. Proxies may be located in a number of places, including wireless carriers or independent service providers in order to provide feature enhancements coupled to the wireless network (e.g., telephony, location and provisioning) or to optimise the communication between device and application server (e.g., protocol translation and cookie caching). Proxies may be located in a secure network to provide a secure channel between wireless device and the secure network. In some instances, the device might make direct connections to application servers, for example to provide a secure connection directly between the device and application server.The supporting servers provide support functions required by or generally useful to devices, proxies, and application servers. These functions include Provisioning, PKI, user agent profiles, etc. Device Architecture

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Figure 6. WAP Client Architecture The architecture for WAP devices is shown in Figure 6. The Application Framework provides the device execution environment for WAP applications. WAP applications are comprised of markup, script, style sheets and multimedia content, all of which are rendered on the device. The WAP Application Environment (WAE) processing model defines the structure in which these various forms of executable and non-executable content interact. The network protocols on the WAP client are shared between client and server. They are described in further detail below. Content renderers interpret specific forms of content and present them to the end user for perusal or interaction. Common functions are defined to be utilised by the application framework, including persistence and data synchronisation. The Wireless Identity Module (WIM), as specified in [WIM], contains the identity of the device and the cryptographic means to mutually authenticate WAP devices and servers. The architecture also provides a mechanism to access external functions that are embedded or attached to the devices via the External Functionality Interface (EFI). Security Model WAP enables a flexible security infrastructure that focuses on providing connection security between a WAP client and server. WAP can provide end-to-end security between protocol endpoints. If a browser and origin server desire end-to-end security, they can communicate directly using the security protocols. Moreover, the WAP specifications include support for application-level security, such as signed text. Components of the WAP Architecture

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Figure 7. WAP Stack Architecture The WAP architecture provides a scaleable and extensible application development environment for mobile communication devices. This is achieved through a layered design of the protocol stack (Figure 7). Each layer provides a set of functions and/or services to other services and applications through a set of well-defined interfaces. Each of the layers of the architecture is accessible by the layers above, as well as by other services and applications. The WAP architecture separates service interfaces from the protocols that provide those services to allow for evolution of the specifications and selection of the most appropriate protocol for a given context. Many of the services in the stack may be provided by more than one protocol. For example, either HTTP [RFC2616] or WSP [WSP] may provide the Hypermedia Transfer service. Bearer Networks Protocols have either been designed or selected to operate over a variety of different bearer services, including short message, circuit-switched data, and packet data. The bearers offer differing levels of quality of service with respect to throughput, error rate, and delays. The protocols are designed to compensate for or tolerate these varying levels of service.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems Since the Transport Services layer provides the interface between the bearer service and the rest of the WAP stack, the transport specifications (e.g., [WDP]) may list the bearers that are supported and the techniques used to allow the protocols to run over each bearer. The list of supported bearers will change over time with new bearers being added as the wireless market evolves. Transport Services The Transport Services layer offers a set of consistent services to the upper layer protocols and maps those services to the available bearer services. The Transport Services transport unstructured data across the underlying bearer networks. These transport services create a common abstraction that is consistent across all the bearers. The Transport Services include, but are not limited to: Datagrams The datagram service provides data transport in which self-contained, independent entities of data carry sufficient information to be routed from the source to the destination computer without reliance on earlier exchanges between this source and destination computer and the transporting network. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) [STD0006] and WDP (Wireless Datagram Protocol) [WDP] are two protocols used to provide the datagram transport service in the WAP architecture. Connections The connection service provides data transport service in which communication proceeds in three well-defined phases: connection establishment, twoway reliable data transfer and connection release. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) [STD0007] is a protocol used to provide the connection transport service of IP1 bearers for the WAP architecture. In order to cope with the wireless network characteristics, the TCP protocol can be profiled for its use, see [WP-TCP]. Transfer Services The Transfer Services provide for the structured transfer of information between network elements. The Transfer Services include, but are not limited to: Hypermedia Transfer The hypermedia transfer services provides for the transfer of self-describing hypermedia resources. The combination of WSP (Wireless Session Protocol) [WSP] and WTP (Wireless Transaction Protocol) [WTP] provide the hypermedia transfer service over secure and non-secure datagram transports. The HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) [RFC2616] provides the hypermedia transfer service over secure and non-secure connection-oriented transports. Streaming The streaming services provide a means for transferring isochronous data such as audio and video. Message Transfer The message transfer services provide the means to transfer asynchronous multimedia messages such as email or instant messages. MMS Encapsulation [MMSEncapsulation] is a protocol used to transfer messages between WAP devices and MMS servers.

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T 703 Modern Communication Systems

Session Services The session services provide for the establishment of shared state between network elements that span multiple network requests or data transfers. For example, the Push session establishes that the WAP Device is ready and able to receive pushes from the Push Proxy. The Session Services include, but are not limited to: Capability Negotiation The WAP architecture includes specifications for describing, transmitting, and managing capabilities and preference information about the client, user, and network elements. See [UAProf] for more information. This allows for customisation of information and content returned by the origin server or pushed by the application. Push-OTA The Push-OTA (Over The Air) session service provides for networkinitiated transactions to be delivered to wireless devices that are intermittently able to receive data (e.g., modal devices and devices with dynamically assigned addresses). The Push-OTA service operates over the connection-oriented transport service and datagram transport [PushOTA]. Sync The Sync service provides for the synchronisation of replicated data. 1 Utilisation of TCP connections over IP may require additional components of the TCP/IP protocol suite. One example for such a component is ICMP. Cookies The Cookies service allows applications to establish state on the client or proxy that survives multiple hypermedia transfer transactions. See [HTTP State] for more information. Application Framework The Application Framework provides a general-purpose application environment based on a combination of World Wide Web (WWW), Internet and Mobile Telephony technologies. The primary objective of the Application Framework is to establish an interoperable environment that will allow operators and service providers to build applications and services that can reach a wide variety of different wireless platforms in an efficient and useful manner. The Application Frame work includes, but is not limited to: WAE/WTA User-Agent WAE is a micro-browser environment containing or allowing for markup (including WML and XHTML), scripting, style-sheet languages, and telephony services and programming interfaces, all optimised for use in hand-held mobile terminals. See [WAE] for more information. Push The Push service provides a general mechanism for the network to initiate the transmission of data to applications resident on WAP devices. See [PushArchOverview] for more information.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems Multimedia Messaging The Multimedia Message Service (MMS) provides for the transfer and processing of multimedia messages such as email and instant messages to WAP devices. Content Formats The application framework includes support for a set of well-defined data formats, such as color images, audio, video, animation, phone book records, and calendar information. Security Services Security forms a fundamental part of the WAP Architecture, and its services can be found in many of its layers. In general the following security facilities offered are: Privacy facilities to ensure that communication is private and cannot be understood by any intermediate parties that may have intercepted it. Authentication facilities to establish the authenticity of parties to the communication. Integrity facilities to ensure that communication is unchanged and uncorrupted. Non-Repudiation facilities to ensure parties to a communication cannot deny the communication took place. The Security Services span all the various layers of the WAP Architecture. Some specific examples of the security services include: Cryptographic Libraries This application framework level library provides services for signing of data for integrity and non-repudiation purposes. See [WMLScriptCrypto] for more information. Authentication The Security Services provide various mechanisms for client and server authentication. At the Session Services layer HTTP Client Authentication [RFC2617] may be used to authenticate clients to proxies and application servers. At the Transport Services layer, WTLS and TLS handshakes may be used to authenticate Clients and servers. Identity WIM provides the functions that store and process information needed for user identification and authentication [WIM] PKI The set of security services that enable the use and management of public-key cryptography and certificates [WPKI], [WAPCert]. Secure Transport The Transport Services layer protocols are defined for secure transport over datagrams and connections. WTLS is defined for secure transport over datagrams and TLS is defined for secure transport over connections (i.e. TCP). See [WTLS] and [WAPTLS] for more information.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems Secure Bearer Some bearer networks provide bearer level security. For example, IP networks (especially in the context of IPv6) provide bearer-level security with IPSec [RFC2401]. Service Discovery Service discovery forms a fundamental part of the WAP Architecture and its services can be found at many layers. Some specific examples of Service Discovery services include: EFI The External Functionality Interface (EFI) allows applications to discover what external functions/services are available on the device. Provisioning The Provisioning service allows a device to be provisioned with the parameters necessary to access network services. See [ProvArch] for more information. Navigation Discovery The Navigation Discovery service allows a device to discover new network services (e.g. secure pull proxies) during the course of navigation such as when downloading resources from a hypermedia server. The WAP Transport-Level Endto-End Security specification [TransportE2ESec] defines one navigation discovery protocol. Service Lookup The Service Lookup service provides for the discovery of a services parameters through a directory lookup by name. One example of this is the Domain Name System (DNS) [STD0013]. Other Services and Applications The WAP layered architecture enables other services and applications to utilise the features of the WAP stack through a set of well-defined interfaces. External applications may access the various services directly. The WAP layered architecture builds upon an extensible set of protocols. This allows the WAP stack to be used for applications and services not currently specified by WAP, but deemed to be valuable for the wireless market. Such applications and services may benefit from adding protocols or particular protocol capabilities. For example, applications, such as electronic mail, calendar, phone book, notepad, and electronic commerce, or services, such as white and yellow pages, may be developed to use the WAP protocols. Sample Configurations of WAP Technology Because several of the services in the WAP stack can be provided using different protocols based on the circumstances, there are more than one possible stack configurations. The following figures depict several possible protocol stacks using WAP technology. These are for illustrative, informative purposes only and do not constitute a statement of conformance or interoperability, nor is this set of examples exhaustive.

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T 703 Modern Communication Systems

Figure 8 depicts the protocol stacks for the original WAP architecture. The WAP Gateway converts the hypermedia transfer service between the datagram-based protocols (WSP, WTP, WTLS, WDP) and connection-oriented protocols Commonly used on the Internet (HTTP, SSL, TCP).

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems Figure 9. Example WAP HTTP Proxy with Profiled TCP and HTTP The proxy configuration is widely used in the Internet for ordinary web access, multimedia data, e.g. music, video clip downloading and so on. This configuration locates the WAP Proxy between wireline and wireless networks to enhance performance by using the wireless profile of TCP (as shown with TCP*). In addition to TCP optimizations, the wireless profile of HTTP (as illustrated by HTTP*) allows for further performance enhancements. Both profiles comprise well-defined IETF options that provide for efficient operation over wireless networks as within the scope of WAP. The wireless profiled versions are interoperable with TCP and HTTP.

Figure 10 depicts a WAP HTTP proxy that has established a connection-oriented tunnel to the web server (e.g., in Response to a CONNECT command). This configuration is used to allow TLS to provide end-to-end security between mobile terminal and origin server. E-commerce is a compelling use case for end-to-end security.

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T 703 Modern Communication Systems

Figure 11. Example Direct Access Figure 11 depicts a WAP device directly accessing a Web Server via the Internet. The wireless IP router is a standard part of an IP network that is used to transfer IP packets from one link layer (e.g., the wireless link) to another (e.g., the wired link). This configuration can apply to the case where bearer-level security (such as IPSec) is utilised. In the Direct Access scenario, wireless optimizations as defined by the Wireless Profiles for TCP and HTTP may not be available.

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T 703 Modern Communication Systems

Figure 12. Dual Stack Support While the previous configurations show single protocol stacks for each of WAP configuration, Figure 12 depicts a device that supports both the 1.x and 2.x protocol stacks. This configuration is useful in cases where a device needs to interoperate with both old new WAP servers. Conformance and Interoperability The WAP Forum views vendor interoperability as an important element to the success of WAP products. In order to provide as high a probability as is technically possible that two WAP products developed independently by two different vendors will successfully interoperate, a rigorous definition of conformance, compliance, and testing has been Developed. Conformance answers the question, Does an implementation meet the standard as written? The WAP Forum charters a neutral third party to build a comprehensive test suite from its specifications. Usually, implementations are tested against known references. Interoperability answers the question, Will this implementation work with other products developed to the same standard? Interoperability testing uses a test suite designed to test implementation to implementation compatibility, and implementations are tested against each other. Interoperability testing is not focused on compliancetwo products with the same non-compliant implementation will be interoperable.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems

The WAP Forum Certification Program is focused on conformance, but offers some interoperability testing as well. The Certification Program covers the entire value chain as shown in Figure 13. To improve interoperability at the authoring level, the WAP Forum provides authoring guidelines to improve the accessibility of WAP content. To certify WAP clients and servers, the WAP Forum conducts interoperability testing of an implementation against multiple reference implementations using a predefined suite of test cases. The WAP Forum has defined a number of Class Conformance Profiles, e.g. Class A, Class B, and Class C. An implementation may be certified in one or more class. The class conformance requirements are specified in [ClassConform]. Each WAP Specification includes static conformance requirements (SCRs) for that specification. These define which features are mandatory and optional and are the basis for the conformance test suite.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems

World Wide Web Architecture Basic Web Architecture


The basic web architecture is two-tiered and characterized by a web client that displays information content and a web server that transfers information to the client. This architecture depends on three key standards: HTML for encoding document content, URLs for naming remote information objects in a global namespace, and HTTP for staging the transfer.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) - the common representation


language for hypertext documents on the Web. HTML had a first public release as HTML 0.0 in 1990, was Internet draft HTML 1.0 in 1993, and HTML 2.0 in 1994. The September 22 1995 draft of the HTML 2.0 specification has been approved as a standard by the IETF Application Area HTML Working Group. HTML 3.0 and Netscape HTML are competing next generations of HTML 2.0. Proposed features in HTML 3.0 include: forms, style sheets, mathematical markup, and text flow around figures. For more detailed information, see the HTML Reference Manual. HTML is an application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML ISO-8879), an international standard approved in 1986, which specifies a formal meta-language for defining document markup systems (more here and here). An SGML Document Type Definition (DTD) specifies valid tag names and element attributes. HTML consists of embedded content separated by hierarchical case sensitive start and end tag names which may contain embedded element attributes in the start tag. These attributes may be required, optional, or empty. In addition, documents can be inter or intra linked by establishing source and target anchor points. Many HTML documents are the result of manual authoring or word processing HTML converters, but now several WYSIWYG editors support HTML styles -- see listing at W3C and the Internet Tools Survey section on Authoring HTML. HTML files are viewed using a WWW client browser (software), the primary user interface to the Web. HTML allows for embedding of images, sounds, video streams, form fields and simple text formatting. References, called hyperlinks, to other objects are embedded using URLs. When an object is selected by a hyperlink, the browser takes an action based on the URL's type, e.g., retrieve a file, connect to another Web site and display a HTML file stored there, or launch an application such as an E-mail or newsgroup reader. Universal Resource Identifier (URI) - an IETF addressing protocol for objects in the WWW ("if it's out there, we can point at it"). There are two types of URIs, Universal Resource Names (URN) and the Universal Resource Locators (URL). The current IETF URI spec is here and the URL spec is here. URLs are location dependent and contain four distinct parts: the protocol type, the machine name, the directory path and the file name. There are several kinds of URLs: file URLs, FTP URLs, Gopher URLs, News URLs, and HTTP URLs. URLs may be relative to a directory or offsets into a document. Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) - an application-level network


protocol for the WWW. Tim Berners-Lee, father of the Web, describes it as a "generic stateless object-oriented protocol." Stateless means neither the client nor the server store information about the state of the other side of an ongoing connection. Statelessness is a scalability property but is not necessarily efficient since HTTP sets up a new connection for each request, which is not desirable for situations requiring sessions or transactions. o In HTTP, commands (request methods) can be associated with particular types of network objects (files, documents, network services). Commands are provided for establishing a TCP/IP connection to a WWW server, sending a request to the server (containing a method to be applied to a specific network object identified by the object's identifier, and the HTTP protocol version, followed by information encoded in a header style), returning a response from the server to the client (consisting of three parts: a status line, a response header, and response data), and closing the connection. o HTTP supports dynamic data representation through client-server negotiation. The requesting client specifies it can accept certain MIME content types (more on this below) and the server responds with one of these. All WWW clients can handle text/plain and text/html. o HTTP/1.0 Internet Draft 05 (the seventh release of HTTP/1.0) is targeted as an Internet Informational RFC. The next immediate version of HTTP is HTTP/1.1 Internet Draft 01.

Web Architecture Extensibility


This basic web architecture is fast evolving to serve a wider variety of needs beyond static document access and browsing. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) extends the architecture to three-tiers by adding a back-end server that provides services to the Web server on behalf of the Web client, permitting dynamic composition of web pages. Helpers/plug-ins and Java/JavaScript provide other interesting Web architecture extensions.

Common Gateway Interface(CGI) - CGI is a standard for interfacing external programs with Web servers (see Figure 1). The server hands client requests encoded in URLs to the appropriate registered CGI program, which executes and returns results encoded as MIME messages back to the server. CGI's openness avoids the need to extend HTTP. The most common CGI applications handle HTML <FORM> and <ISINDEX> commands. o CGI programs are executable programs that run on the Web server. They can be written in any scripting language (interpreted) or programming language (must be compiled first) available to be executed on a Web server, including C, C++, Fortran, PERL, TCL, Unix shells, Visual Basic, Applescript, and others. Security precautions typically require that CGI Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems programs be run from a specified directory (e.g, /cgi-bin) under control of the webmaster (Web system administrator), that is, they must be registered with the system. Arguments to CGI programs are transmitted from client to server via environment variables encoded in URLs. The CGI program typically returns HTML pages that it constructs on the fly. Some problems with CGI are: the CGI interface requires the server to execute a program the CGI interface does not provide a way to share data and communications resources so if a program must access an external resource, it must open and close that resource. It is difficult to construct transactional interactions using CGI. The current version is CGI/1.1. W3C and others are experimenting with next generation object-oriented APIs based on OMG IDL; Netscape provides Netscape Server API (NSAPI) and Progress Software and Microsoft provide Internet Server API (ISAPI).

Helpers/Plug-ins - When a client browser retrieves a file, it launches an installed helper application or plug-in to process the file based on the file's MIME-type. For example, it may launch a Postscript or Acrobat reader, or MPEG or QuickTime player. A helper application runs external to the browser while a plug-in runs within the browser. Common Client Gateway (CCI) - this gateway allows a third-party application to remotely control the Web browser client. Netscape Client APIs 2.0 (NCAPIs) depends on platform specific native methods of interprocess communication (IPC). They plan to support DDE and OLE2 for Windows clients, X properties for UNIX clients, and Apple Events for Macintosh clients.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems

Extensions to HTTP. W3C and IETF Application Area HTTP Working Group are working together on current and future versions of HTTP. The HTTP-NG project is assessing two implementation approaches to HTTP "replacements": o Spero's approach - allows many requests per connection, the requests can be asynchronous and the server can respond in any order, allowing several transfers in parallel. A "session layer" divides the connection into numerous channels. Control messages (GET requests, meta information) are returned in a control channel; each object is returned in its own channel. o W3C approach - Jim Gettys at W3C is using Xerox ILU (a CORBA variant) to implement an ILU transport similar to Spero's session protocol. The advantages of this approach are openness with respect to pluggable transport protocols, support for multiple language environments, and a step towards viewing the "web of objects." Related to this approach, Netscape recently announced future support for OMG Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) standard on both client and server. This will provide a uniform and language neutral object interchange format making it easier to construct distributed object applications. Java/ JavaScript - Java is a cross-platform WWW programming language modeled after C++ from Sun Microsystems. Java programs embedded in HTML documents are called applets and are specified using <APPLET> tags. The HTML for an applet contains a code attribute that specifies the URL of the compiled applet file. Applets are compiled to a platform-independent byte code which can be safely downloaded and executed by the Java interpreter embedded into the Web browser. Browsers that support Java are said to be Java-enabled. If performance is critical, a Java applet can be compiled to native machine language on the fly. Such a compiler is known as a Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler. JavaScript is a scripting language designed for creating dynamic, interactive Web applications that link together objects and resources on both clients and servers. A client JavaScript can recognize and respond to user events such as mouse clicks, form input, and page navigation, and query the state or alter the performance of an applet or plug-in. A server JavaScript script can exhibit behavior similar to common gateway interface (CGI) programs. JavaScript scripts are embedded in HTML documents using <SCRIPT> tags. Similar to Java applets, JavaScript scripts are directly interpreted within the client's browser and are therefore platform-independent. For a comparison of Java and JavaScript, see here. The Java Language Specification can be found here, a Java tutorial here, the Java Virtual Machine (interpreter) here, the Java Developer's Kit (JDK) here, and Java FAQs here. A comprehensive Java page of resources can be found at JPL. The JavaScript Language Specification can be found here, a JavaScript tutorial here, and the JavaScript FAQs here. The IETF Security Area Web Transaction Security (WTS) Working Group is working on security services for WWW. As chartered, it has produced Internetdrafts of a Requirements for Web Transaction Security and a Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol specification plus Security Extensions For HTML.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems

Introduction to HTTP Versions


The protocols used to deliver documents between WWW servers and clients are the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). It runs on top of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Here's a brief history of HTTP:

HTTP 0.9
Simple application-level protocol for the Web, which did raw data transfer. HTTP 1.0 Defined in RFC 1945. Added MIME-like messages, header lines containing information about the data being transferred and modifiers for the request/response messages. As of May 1996, the current protocol version was HTTP 1.0 (draft 7). HTTP 1.1

Goal:
Achieve higher end-user performance than HTTP 1.0

Features include the following:


o o o o o

Hierarchical proxy servers Caching Persistent connections Pipelining Address issue of applications that call themselves "HTTP/1.0" compliant, but don't really implement full protocol.

HTTP/NG Another proposed modification of HTTP 1.0 is HTTP-NG (NG=Next Generation).

Problems Addressed:

HTTP 1.x is complex and becoming strained. HTTP 1.x is not modular. It mixes three concerns: o message transport o remove method invocation Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems methods historically for document processing (form processing and searching) People are trying to layer complex applications on HTTP 1.x People are "tunneling" various application protocols through HTTP 1.x's GET and POST methods - making it hard for a firewall to identify what the purpose of an HTTP message.
o

Key features include:


Simplicity Distributed extensibility (see later) Global scalability (Web performance ok as Internet size increases) Greater efficiency than HTTP 1.x Layering:

HTTP Related Protocols


This is a small sample of other Internet transfer protocols and information representation protocols.

IMAP
The Internet Message Access Protocol, Version 4rev1 (IMAP4rev1) allows a client to access and manipulate electronic mail messages on a server. IMAP4rev1 permits manipulation of remote message folders, called "mailboxes", in a way that is functionally equivalent to local mailboxes. IMAP4rev1 also provides the capability for an offline client to resynchronize with the server. IMAP4rev1 includes operations for creating, deleting, and renaming mailboxes; checking for new messages; permanently removing messages; setting and clearing flags; [RFC-822] and [MIME-IMB] parsing; searching; and selective fetching of message attributes, texts, and portions thereof. Messages in IMAP4rev1 are accessed by the use of numbers. These numbers are either message sequence numbers or unique identifiers.

MIME
RFC 822 defines a message representation protocol which specifies considerable detail about message headers, but which leaves the message content, or message body, as flat ASCII text. MIME redefines the format of message bodies to allow multi-part textual and non-textual message bodies to be represented and exchanged without loss of information. This is based on earlier work documented in RFC 934 and RFC 1049, but extends and revises that work. Because RFC 822 said so little about message bodies, this document is largely orthogonal to (rather than a revision of) RFC 822.

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T 703 Modern Communication Systems

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)


The file transfer protocol currently most used for accessing fairly stable public information over a wide area is "Anonymous FTP". This means the use of the internet File Transfer Protocol without authentication. As the WWW project currently operates for the sake of public information, anonymous FTP is quite appropriate, and WWW can pick up any information provided by anonymous FTP. FTP is defined in RFC 959 which includes material from many previous RFCs. (See also: file address syntax ). Directories are browsed as hypertext. The browser will notice references to files which are in fact accessible as locally mounted (or on DECnet on VMS systems) and use direct access instead.

Network News Protocol


The "Network News Transfer Protocol" (NNTP) is defined in RFC 977 by Kantor and Lampsley. This allows transient news information in the USENET news format to be exchanged over the internet. The format of news articles is defined in RFC 850, Standard for Interchange of USENET Messages by Mark Horton. This in turn refers to the standard RFC 822 which defines the format of internet mail messages. News articles make good examples of hypertext, as articles contain references to other articles and news groups. News groups appear like directories, but more informative.

Gopher
The Gopher distributed information system uses a lightweight protocol very similar to HTTP. Therefore, it is now included in every WWW client, so that the Gopher world can be browsed as part of the Web. Gopher menus are easily mapped onto hypertext links. It may be that future versions of the Gopher and HTTP protocols will converge.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET