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Example 1.1 Problem: A domestic lighting installation having fifteen, 60 watt lamps operated as follows: 5 lamps from 6p.m.

till 8p.m. 10 lamps from 8p.m. till 10p.m. 6 lamps from 10p.m. till 12p.m. i. Determine the connected load, the maximum demand and the daily load Factor. ii. Determine the improved daily load factor if a 2 kW immersion heater is used from 1 p.m. till 5 p.m. and a 2 kW heater from 8 p.m. till 11 p.m. Solution: i. The connected load is:
15 60 watt 900 W

The maximum demand is given as:

10 60 watt 600 W

Total energy Consumed 5 60 watt 2 hr 10 60 watt 2 hr 6 60 watt 2 hr 600 1200 720 2520 Whr

Therefore, the daily load factor is given as:

Daily Load Factor 2520 100% 17.5% 600 24

Energy consumed by heaters 2 kW 4 hr 2 kW 4 hr 14 kWhr

The total energy consumed 2.52 kWhr 14 kWhr 16.520 kWhr The maximum demand occurs from 8 p.m. till 10 p.m. where 10 lamps and 2kW heater being turned on. The maximum demand is equal to:

Maximum demand 2kW 10 0.06kW 2.6 kW

Therefore the daily load factor: 16.52 Daily load factor 100% 26.47% 2.6 24

i.

The daily load factor and average load for each consumers is given in the table below:

Average load 0.15 x 2 = 0.3 kW 0.5 kW (given) 0.25 x 8 = 2 kW 1 kW (given)

D. L.F. (%) 15% (given) (0.5/2) x 100% = 25% 25% (given) (1/4) x 100% = 25%

ii. Combined average load = 0.3 + 0.5 + 2 + 1 = 3.8 kW Combined max. demand = 2 + 2 + 8 + 4 = 16 kW Combined DLF =
Combined average load 3 .8 100% 32.75% Combined maximum demand 16

Example 1.3 Problem: The daily load curve is giving the following information: Load Time 1000 kW 4 hrs 5000 kW 3 hrs 500 kW 6 hrs 3000 kW 6 hrs 2000 kW 5 hrs

Draw the load duration curve from the given data. Solution: Total time = 24 hrs = 100% Load 5000 kW 3000 kW 2000 kW 1000 kW 500 kW Hrs in a day 3 6+3=9 6 + 3 + 5 = 14 6 + 3 + 5 + 4 = 18 6 + 3 + 5 + 4 + 6 = 24 % time 12.5 37.5 58.33 75 100