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Example 1.1 Problem: A domestic lighting installation having fifteen, 60 watt lamps operated as follows: 5 lamps from 6p.m.

till 8p.m. 10 lamps from 8p.m. till 10p.m. 6 lamps from 10p.m. till 12p.m. i. Determine the connected load, the maximum demand and the daily load Factor. ii. Determine the improved daily load factor if a 2 kW immersion heater is used from 1 p.m. till 5 p.m. and a 2 kW heater from 8 p.m. till 11 p.m. Solution: i. The connected load is:
15 60 watt 900 W

The maximum demand is given as:


10 60 watt 600 W

Total energy Consumed 5 60 watt 2 hr 10 60 watt 2 hr 6 60 watt 2 hr 600 1200 720 2520 Whr

Therefore, the daily load factor is given as:


Daily Load Factor 2520 100% 17.5% 600 24

ii. The energy consumed by heaters:

Energy consumed by heaters 2 kW 4 hr 2 kW 4 hr 14 kWhr


The total energy consumed 2.52 kWhr 14 kWhr 16.520 kWhr The maximum demand occurs from 8 p.m. till 10 p.m. where 10 lamps and 2kW heater being turned on. The maximum demand is equal to:

Maximum demand 2kW 10 0.06kW 2.6 kW


Therefore the daily load factor: 16.52 Daily load factor 100% 26.47% 2.6 24

Example 1.2 Problem: There are four consumers of electricity having different load requirements at different times. Consumer 1 has a maximum demand at 9 p.m., a demand of 1.6 kW at 8 p.m. and a daily load factor of 15%. Consumer 2 has a maximum demand of 2 kW at 12 noon, a load of 1 kW at 8 p.m. and an average load of 500W. Consumer 3 has a maximum demand of 8 kW at 5 p.m., a load of 5 kW at 8 p.m. and a daily load factor of 25%. Consumer 4 has an average load of 1 kW and his maximum demand is 4 kW at 8 p.m. Determine: i. The daily load factor and average load of each consumer ii. The average load and daily load factor of combined load Solution: Consumer 1 Consumer 2 Consumer 3 Consumer 4 Max. demand = 2 kW 1.6 kw at 8 pm at 9 pm Max. demand = 2 kW 1 kW at 8 pm at 12 noon Max. demand=8 kW 5 kW at 8 pm at 5 pm Max. demand= 4 kW at 8 pm Daily L.F.=15% Average load = 500 W Daily L.F.=25% Average Load = 1 kW

i.

The daily load factor and average load for each consumers is given in the table below:
Average load D.L.F . Max.demand

Consumer 1 Consumer 2 Consumer 3 Consumer 4

Average load 0.15 x 2 = 0.3 kW 0.5 kW (given) 0.25 x 8 = 2 kW 1 kW (given)

D. L.F. (%) 15% (given) (0.5/2) x 100% = 25% 25% (given) (1/4) x 100% = 25%

ii. Combined average load = 0.3 + 0.5 + 2 + 1 = 3.8 kW Combined max. demand = 2 + 2 + 8 + 4 = 16 kW Combined DLF =
Combined average load 3 .8 100% 32.75% Combined maximum demand 16

Example 1.3 Problem: The daily load curve is giving the following information: Load Time 1000 kW 4 hrs 5000 kW 3 hrs 500 kW 6 hrs 3000 kW 6 hrs 2000 kW 5 hrs

Draw the load duration curve from the given data. Solution: Total time = 24 hrs = 100% Load 5000 kW 3000 kW 2000 kW 1000 kW 500 kW Hrs in a day 3 6+3=9 6 + 3 + 5 = 14 6 + 3 + 5 + 4 = 18 6 + 3 + 5 + 4 + 6 = 24 % time 12.5 37.5 58.33 75 100

The load duration curve is given as follow:

Figure: Load duration curve

Example 1.4 Problem: The following loads are supplied by a station during one week from the time shown in table below.

Construct the load duration for a week. Solution: The total time is Time tot. 24hr 7 day 168hr 100% The maximum demand during the week is 6000kW. The other load occurs for the number of hours are shown. The percentages of the time during which these loads occurs are tabulated below:

The load duration curve that has been plotted is shown in figure below:

Figure: Load duration curve