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CIVL1014 Surveying and Drawing

DRAWING LECTURE Part 1: Basic Drawing Skills

THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG Dr. Ray Su Department of Civil Engineering


(office: HW 6-6, Tel. no.: 2859 2648 Email: klsu@hkucc.hku.hk) Tutor: Dr. YP Huang (HW 514B, Tel. 852-2859 7067 , email: yhuanga@hkucc.hku.hk)

Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building

The framing plan

Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building The border

The RC details

Information panel

Title block

General Information
The course does not have a written examination. Incourse assessment is based on drawing assignments. The aim of this course is to familiarize the students with the techniques for reading and production of drawings. An engineer is not expected to be a drawing technician but he/she should be able to make a neat drawing if required. It is important that an engineer should know how to communicate his/her design to the project team with drawings. Engineering drawing is a graphical language which is used by engineers for communication. In order that an engineering drawing can be read and properly interpreted by engineers and other members involved in a project, some common practices, conventions and standards should be observed.

General Information
Lecture is devised to teach the students to understand what a drawing is; how it is produced and what it is used for. Students will be making drawings of their own on framing plans and details of reinforced concrete and steel structures. Drawings prepared on tracing papers will be printed through arrangements by Department. The costs for printing will be borne by students. During the semester, all drawings will be returned to students after marking by tutors. The submission of assignments should adhere strictly to the time schedule. Any late submission will be penalized by deduction of marks.

General Information
Thursday (3:00-4:55pm) 1 Sep 8 Sep 15 Sep 22 Sep 29 Sep 6 Oct 13 Oct 18 Oct 27 Oct 3 Nov 10 Nov 17 Nov 24 Nov Cancelled due to Nesat Engg. Drawing (at MWT1) Engg. Drawing (at MWT1) Make-up Lecture from 10am to 1pm (Tuesday) at MWT1 Engg. Drawing (at MWT1) Engg. Drawing (at MWT1) Engg. Drawing (at MWT1)

Tentative schedule of this semester


Friday (3:00-3:55pm) 2 Sep 9 Sep 16 Sep 23 Sep 30 Sep 7 Oct 14 Oct 21 Oct 28 Oct 4 Nov Engg. Drawing (at MWT1) Engg. Drawing (at HW232) Engg. Drawing (at HW232) Reading week Cancelled due to Open Day Engg. Drawing (at HW232)

11 Nov Engg. Drawing (at HW232) 18 Nov 25 Nov

Assignments 1 & 2 and 3 & 4 are submitted on 4 Nov and 25 Nov respectively

The design team communicates by means of drawings and letters rather than design calculations
Figure 1. Relationship between the principal members of a project development group

Why drawings are important for Engineers?


Design calculations vs Drawings In the coming years, engineering drawing is directly useful for surveying part and the courses ED&C and FYP, and indirectly useful for T&D. After graduation, sketching skills can help you to (i) develop preliminary engineering schemes, (ii) prepare sketches to instruct draftsmen to draw the formal drawings (using AutoCAD), (iii) communicate with Client, Architects, Contractors, Engineers in other fields, QS, Planners , and (iv) sit for the professional examinations.

Hand drawings vs CAD drawings


Hand drawings Sketches by engineers Paper & pencils Faster for complicated dwgs Not good for amendments Good for presenting ideas in consultancy meetings, professional examinations Not good for filing CAD drawings Detailed drawings by draftsmen Computers & plotters Faster for repeated & simple dwgs Convenient for amendments Good for detailed design, formal submission, more accurate, usually higher quality and can link up with computer programs Easier for filing

Drawing Sheets
Tracing paper is to be used and 85g/m2 quality is recommended. The size should be A1 (841mm594mm). Designation Size (mm X mm) A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 841X1189 594X841 420X594 297X420 210X297
Drawing sheet sizes

Drawing Equipments
Set squares of 60o and 45o Compass Scale rulers (1:100, 1:200, 1:250, 1:300, 1:400 and 1:500) in metric units Pencils Scale ruler Erasers Erasing shield ACAD 2009
compass

Set square

Scale rules
Actual distance = 5m The scale used is 1: 200 Drawing distance = 5000/200=25mm

The two types of scale rules (a) Triangular cross-section (b) Flat cross-section
25mm

Erasing shield

The red line is to be removed.

Title Block
The border

Information panel

Title block

Title Block
Typical title block contains essential information required for the identification and interpretation of drawings. The information usually include Project title e.g. Biological Sciences Building Drawing number with provision for revision suffix e.g. S/L/11 (B) Drawing title e.g. 9th Floor Layout Plan Projection symbol e.g. third angle projection symbol Scale e.g. 1:100 Date of drawing e.g. August 1997 Name of Client e.g. The University of Hong Kong Office of origin e.g. Ove Arup & Partners HK Ltd Office project number e.g. 22003 Identity of persons involved in the design, draughting and checking

Title Block
Font height = 5mm Font height = 5mm Font height = 3mm

PROJECTIONS
Font height = 4mm

Title Block for this course

Title Block
Some common practices

Used in this course

A1 size

Examples of size and position of title and information panels

Title Block
A standard title block is to be placed at the bottom right hand corner of the drawing. The minimum border width is 20mm except that 25mm minimum is required for the left hand border. 1mm 25mm minimum 20mm minimum

Scale
Drawings should be drawn with an appropriate scale so that all necessary information related to each drawing can be easily presented. Recommended scales for civil and structural engineering drawings are 1:10, 1:25 (1:20), 1:50, 1:100 and 1:200 (dimensions on drawing : actual dimensions on site)

Linework
Different line thicknesses and line types For good presentation, all lines should be black and firm. Each line should be of consistent good presentation and easy reading. Do not mix pencil and ink line on one drawing. Recommended thickness of lines and their typical applications are shown in the sketch attached.

Linework

Various line thickness

(cut section)

and outlines of structural members

Various line types


Thickness of line and line types

Linework
or Adjacent Structures (for information)

Various line types


1mm min. for gaps 2-4mm long for line segment

1mm min. for gaps 2-3mm for shorter line segment 5-15mm for longer line segment

Thickness of line and line types

Linework
Typical application

Linework
Typical application

Lettering
Why do we need good lettering in engineering drawings? Avoid ambiguity, reading difficulty and wrong interpretation by others If you can write neat lettering, it is easier for your future supervisors or clients to have confidence in your work and in you. Lettering looks simple but it requires a lot of time and patience to practice and to do it well.

Lettering
All writing should be black and of consistent density. They should be easily read and unambiguous. Either vertical or sloping characters can be used but they must not be mixed on any one drawing. The height of capital characters should be about 7mm for titles and 2.5mm for notes and dimensions. For lower case letters, the height should be about 0.6 of the corresponding capitals.

Lettering
Minimum character height Application Drawing sheet size Upper case and numerals (mm) 7 5 3.5 2.5 Lower case (mm) 4 3 2 1.5

A0, A1, Titles, drawing A2 and A3 numerals, etc. A4 Dimensions and notes A0 A1, A2, A3 and A4

Common Heights of letters and numerals


Extracted from: Standard Method of Detailing Structural Concrete, The Institution of Structural Engineers and The Concrete Society (1989)

Lettering

Example of letters

Lettering
The guide lines are drawn softly and they do not need to be erased.

Guide lines for Lower case Letters

Presenting 3-D Civil/ Building Structures in 2-D Spaces


Option 1: Isometric View Option 2: Projection

Isometric View
1 unit in x dir. 1 2 4 3

z B

120o between coordinates axes

A
Draw a cube with lengths of 4 units

C
Only visible lines are shown

D E
1

3 2 1

G
2 3

F4

Note: Dimensions parallel to the coordinate axes can be measured directly from figure

dimensions not measurable from the figure

Isometric View
If the corners of unit length are removed from the cube: z

Isometric View
We can use this method to draw any 3D objects. However, what are the drawbacks of using isometric view in engineering drawing? Hidden parts have not been shown. It is difficult to show the dimensions and time consuming to draw a 3D object.

Projection (First angle)


Isometric view View of Left Side Orthographic projections

Plan View

x
Front View

(view projected onto y-z plane) y-z plane: plane of projection

View of left Side


Side view put on the opposite side

Projection (Third angle)


Isometric view Orthographic projections

Plan View

View of Right Side

x
Front View

View of Left Side


Side view put on the viewing side

Projection

In general, any three orthogonal views (projections) are sufficient to present all information of an object.

Projection

Engineering drawings should be prepared using Third Angle Projection. This projection is illustrated in Fig.4 (i) the elevation or side view of the member. (ii) The plan or top view above the elevation. (iii)The views at each end looking directly on the end and adjacent to it. (iv) The bottom or plan view on the bottom side is drawn as a view looking up from the under side.

(ii)

(i) (iii) (iv)


Fig 4. Example of third angle projection.

(iii)

Projection
Transferring dimensions between top and side views Using dividers Using scales Using 45o miter (inclined) line Top view

Front view

Side view

Projection
Transferring Isometric View Third Angle Projections: Three views required Measure dimensions of lines parallel to coordinate axes
Measure the coordinates of corner points

into

x (x1,y1,z1) y

2 4 3

Dimensions of red lines parallel to coordinate axes can be measured directly from the figure

Projection

Outside corners intersect Hidden lines intersect without a gap Inside corners intersect but do not cross

Poor Poor Poor

Good

Poor

Projection
Viewing direction
SECTION A-A

PLAN

Try to Sketch the 3D View

FRONT VIEW

VIEW OF RIGHT SIDE SECTION B-B

Projection

Dimensioning
Extension Lines: Thin continuous lines Preferably starting just near outline of object Extending a little beyond dimension line 70 C L ) Dimension Lines: Thin continuous lines Placed outside the view if practicable may be interrupted to insert dimensions Centre lines (SymbolC L Thin chain dotted lines To represent axes of symmetrical parts and to denote centers 100

Dimensioning
Note: All units are in millimetres unless otherwise specified
35
123 222 456 456 234 Dia 250

123

Dont over dimension

234

Fig. 5 Dimension lines and extension lines

Dimensioning
Placement of dimension lines and extension lines:

Shorter inside

Avoid overlapping of D line

Extension line extended to edge

D line outside drawing object

Fig 6. Placing of dimension lines

Dimensioning
End of dimension line defined by arrow head Limited space: (1) arrow head outside dimension line (2) use dot or circle instead of arrow head General rule: number to be placed above dimension lines.

Fig 8. Inclined dimension lines Fig 7. Use of arrow heads and dots

Dimensioning
Dimension to be given where shapes are shown:
doesnt look like a circle Each dimension is given in the contour view Every dimension is given in the wrong view

Recess

Fig 9.

Simple rules for civil/structural drawings: Plan horizontal dimensions (x and y coordinates) Elevation/Section vertical dimensions (z coordinate)

Dimensioning
Dimensions to be lined up and grouped together as much as possible:

Fig 10.

Dimensioning
An application of dimensioning:

Plan view
Dimensions shown at contour views

3D view

Shorter dimensions put inside No over dimensioning

View from Right side

Elevation view

Fig 11.

Termination of Dimension Lines


The termination of dimension lines can be indicated by: (a) open arrowheads; (b) solid arrowheads; (c) short oblique strokes cutting the dimensions line; (d) Dots or circles on the dimension line.

w 3w
Length equal the width of arrowhead

Dimensions should normally be to the nearest millimetre.

Assignment 1
6 problems on third angle projection 1 from each problem sheet last digit of problem no. = last digit of university no. dimensioning required (to be rounded up to nearest mm) dimensions to be measured from figures font height for dimensions = 2.5mm font height for titles = 5mm use suitable drawing scale (2:1 or 3:1) A1-size hand drawings to be submitted.

Problem Sheets 1 4
Isometric View Problems

Problem sheet 1
B A A C

Example

Set up coordinate axes

z
y1
For locating the vertex

After finding out the coordinates for all the nodes, draw the three different views in third angle projection. Show the measured dimensions (up to millimeters) on the scaled drawing

(x1,y1,z1)

z1

Measure the dimensions to the nearest mm (or up to 0.5mm) For the lines parallel to the coordinate axes

x1

Problem Sheets 5 6
Missing View Problems

Problem sheet 5
Missing view
(may have more than one solution)

3rd ANGLE PROJECTIONS

Example
Use upper cases in the drawing Write down PLAN, FRONT VIEW or VIEW OF RIGHT SIDE below the view Show the measured dimensions on the drawing

DUE DATE: 4 November 2011 (during the lecture)

The End

References
Standard Method of Detailing Structural Concrete, The Institution of Structural Engineers and The Concrete Society (1989) A Hayward and F Weare, Steel Detailers Manual, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1992) BS 308 Engineering Drawing Practice, Parts 1-3 (1993) BS 1192 Construction Drawing Practice, Parts 1-5 (1987) James H. Earle, Drafting Technology, 2nd Edition, AddisonWisley, Wokingham England, 1986 Frederick E. Giesecke et al. Principles of Engineering Graphics, 2nd Edition, Maxwell Macmillan, New York, 1994.

References
R N Roth and L A Van Haeringen, Australian engineering drawing handbook, Parts 1-2, Barton, A.C.T. : Institution of Engineers (1998) Highways Department Standard Drawings, HKSAR (1998) CAD Standard for Works Projects, Environment, Transport & Works Bureau, HKSAR (2002) PNAP 58 Submissions to the Buildings Department PNAP 127 Colouring of Plans Building (Administration) Regulation 14(3) PNAP 135 Imaging Standards for Plans