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Research wan 1.


The title of this article; A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating The Effect Of A Hand
washing-Promotion Program In Chinese Primary Schools, written by . does describe the

entire study. The title of article describes the methods of the study conducted on school children by
controlled group. The title may be better judged after reading the article.6, 9. The researcher does

not present any key words that will make it easy to access literature review. These are drawn not from the title but from the body of the work. Three to six is a common number of key words, but the number presented should be consistent with the Guide for Authors of the specific journal. These key words should encapsulate the main topics of the research and should allow the article to be accessed when searching the literature using key words as search terms. The title is clearly
tough and presenting concisely without any distracting and extraneous phrases. It should precisely and

concisely reflect the content of the work, but does not necessarily give an indication of the quality of the article. Whilst it should not contain jargon or buzz words that are not directly relevant, the title should stimulate the interest of readers and encourage them to read it.6



An abstract is a summary of a study which is could give the impression to the reader the about the purpose, methods, and findings of the study. The abstract also reveal independent and dependent variables such as hand washing program and students absence rates. However in this article some essential components are missing. Although it is succinct, it fails to mention qualitative nature of the study and the full aim of the research. It omits details of the sample and data collection methods, which Polgar and Thomas (2000) advocate and state additionally it should contain details of any previous findings leading to the current research being commenced. However in its favor, the abstract does state the conclusions and recommendations and despite a fifty word limit on abstracts in this journal (Nursing Times 2002) the researcher has still managed to include the essence of what this study is about. A true abstract must also be representative of the entire study. However, only selected parts of the studys structure should be given space in the abstract with but a couple of sentences devoted to each part. The abstract must introduce the topic, describe the methodology, reveal the overall results and make the

conclusions based on the results. In other words, the abstract must be able to summarize the study for the reader without having to delve into its intricate details. 3. Introduction

The research problem has clearly identified which is diarrheal and respiratory diseases cause of deaths occurs among children in low- and middle-income countries, where access to health-care services is suboptimal. However the researcher presenting the literature reviews very superficial so that this problem is not significant enough to warrant the study that was conducted. In presenting previous work it is important that the data is reviewed critically, highlighting both the strengths and limitations of the study. It should also be compared and contrasted with the findings of other studies (Burns and Grove, 1997). The researcher does not describe clearly about the theoretical rationale and conceptual framework of the study. Conceptual frameworks can act like maps that give coherence to empirical inquiry. Because conceptual frameworks are potentially so close to empirical inquiry, they take different forms depending upon the research question or problem. Theoretical framework is not presented in the study. Following the identification of the research problem and the review of the literature the researcher should present the theoretical framework (Bassett and Bassett, 2003). Theoretical frameworks are a concept that novice. And experienced researchers find confusing. It is initially important to note that not all research studies use a defined theoretical framework (Robson, 2002). The hypotheses seem logical in light of the research problem and clearly stated with true direction. The purpose of the aims and objectives of a study, the research question and the research hypothesis is to form a link between the initially stated purpose of the study or research problem and how the study will be undertaken (Burns and Grove, 1999). They should be clearly stated and be congruent with the data presented in the literature review. The use of these items is dependent on the type of research being performed. Correlation designs, study the relationships that exist between two or more variables and accordingly use either a research question or hypothesis. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies should clearly state a hypothesis identifying the variables to be manipulated, the population that is being studied and the predicted outcome (Burns and Grove, 1999). 4. Method

The research design was described as experimental. To make sure the change is in the dependent variable, the researchers put some of the subjects into the control group and some subjects into an intervention group. The manipulation here is referring to the intervention involving hand washing program. The sample was not clearly described in term of size according to the students drop-out and absence. However the relevant characteristic, selection and assignment procedure described clearly in this study. The researchers have some problems because the teachers did not actively solicit illness information from students. This may affect the results of the study. The researchers should give an explanation to teachers and students earlier and clearly established prior the research began to get cooperation from them. The Instrument used by researcher such as self-administered questionnaire about use of program materials should be easy to understand by participant to avoid misunderstood. It seems appropriate as measures of variables study. The reliability and validity of research instrument were not discussed in much dept. However according to the sums of data collection it seems that instrument is ability to be a data gathering device to obtain consist result. The material used to conduct the study is clearly described. Material that been used were appropriate to the study. There are no special scientific procedures thoroughly described in this study except hand washing. The researchers did not identified design of the study but overall it seems like experimental design. The design and procedures seem appropriate research problem and research hypotheses except conceptual framework because it not discussed clearly in this research. Overall the method section sufficient information to replicate the study.



The results section clearly written and logically well organized. The results, particularly as presented in tables and illustrations. A table should be self-explanatory, with a title that accurately and concisely describes content and column headings that accurately describe information in the cells. Instructions for preparing scientific tables (CBE Style Manual Committee 1983) and illustrations (CBE Scientific Illustration Committee 1988) are invaluable tools in writing and revising research articles. Authors often seem mentally fatigued by the time they have defined in writing what their research was really about, struggled with statistical

analysis of data, sorted out meaningful results, and revised tables again and again. Consequently, the discussion often degenerates into a feeble rewording of results rather than interpretation of the research and its status in relation to other studies in the field. That is, expert or bystander observers examine the data, interpret it via forming an impression and report their impression in a structured and sometimes quantitative form. Coding is an interpretive technique that both organizes the data and provides a means to introduce the interpretations of it into certain quantitative methods. Each segment is labeled with a code usually a word or short phrase that suggests how the associated data segments inform the research objectives. The salient result is connected directly to hypotheses which, when compared with control schools, those that received the standard hand washing intervention reported lower absence incidence and prevalence; however, these differences failed to attain statistical significance. It reveals the result is connecting to the researcher hypothesized that fewer illnesses and absences, particularly those due to upper respiratory tract infections and diarrheal illness, would be observed among intervention groups.


Discussion and Conclusion

Every method has limitations, and if the experiments are not done correctly they can't be interpreted. There are few limitations that need to be acknowledged and addressed regarding the present study. The first limitation concerns the health surveillance system used in this study was subject multiple limitations. Another limitation are the researchers were not able to compare reported rates of absenteeism during the intervention to rates from previous years and this study did not include the poorest communities in China; further, the enrollment only schools with a piped water supply. The study gave a clear explanation limitations to make the reader understood overall of the study. The study shows that the researchers tried every effort to overcome the limitations and ensure the success of this research. The research findings are discussed with the overall including of research problem, conceptual framework and hypotheses. Although quite simple, but it is easily too understood by the reader. The researchers should discuss the research findings in more detail to interest the reader. If the

hypothesis was deemed to have been supported by the findings, the researcher should develop this in the discussion. If a theoretical or conceptual framework was used in the study then the relationship with the findings should be explored. Any interpretations or inferences drawn should be clearly identified as such and consistent with the results. The significance of the findings should be stated but these should be considered within the overall strengths and limitations of the study (Polit and Beck, 2006). The implication of this study for future research and health care practice were identified clearly. The researcher state that hand washing among of school-aged children may have particularly important Public-health implications. This study unable to assess health outcomes among students family members in this study, but this outcome is important to include in future studies. The author also warranted in light of the results during general conclusion section.



The reference list sufficiently current to this study and taken from reliable sources. The referenced material is also a useful source of further information on the subject being studied. The research study should conclude with an accurate list of all the books; journal articles, reports and other media that were referred to in the work (Polit and Beck, 2006). The citation reflects the breadth of existing literature regarding the topic of the study. It provides a lot of information and supporting researchers in conducting the Research and bibliographic used appropriately in the text of the study. 8. General Impression

This research papers follow a standard format. They are divided into several sections, and each section serves a specific purpose in the paper. A paper begins with a short Summary or Abstract. Generally, it gives a brief background to the topic; describes concisely the major findings of the paper; and relates these findings to the field of study. As will be seen, this logical order is also that of the paper as a whole. The next section of the paper is the Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Finally, papers usually have a short Acknowledgements section, in which various contributions of other workers are recognized, followed by a Reference list giving references to papers and other works cited in the text.

This study has address an important problem in the lives of people with disabilities which it is conducted in a variety of settings indicates the school children.