You are on page 1of 23



History of Jazz Miles Davis (from N. E. T.).

II[ I1I Review of jazz history via recordings. Preparation for
Text: Listening to Jazz (Coker) hnal examination. Overviews and glossary.
[,11 I Final examination, to cover Chapters 4- 5 only.
Week 1 Distribution of course syllabus. Statement of purpose,
procedure, policy. Nature of examinations. Announce- Hand-Guts/Supplements
ments regarding public jazz concerts and recitals and
media (radio, TV) presentations. Brief performance by ',illt (' IllOSt of the recordings played in class will come from the
teacher. Listening and discussion of materials contained ,jll"I~IIIIi.11ICollection, some students may wish to purchase same. In
in Chapter 1 of text. IIil' ',h 111,1 lisLC.:ninglist should be provided for all students taking the
Weeks 2-3 Tape/slide presentation in the form of an accelerated itlll ~t

overview of jazz history. Introduction to the song forms

as contained in Chapter 2 of text, with in-class demon- li[l 111111' 01' :lllditional Text Possibility: Jazz Styles (Mark Gridley)
strations of various song forms utilized by jazz perform-
ers. Listening and analysis of song forms on records, fol- Additional Teaching Suggestions
lowed by a brief quiz on the same topic. In-class concert
of the songs of Duke Ellington. 1111 l,yll:d)l'S and text shown for this course is predicated on the
Weeks 4-6 Lecture/discussion of the functions of the rhythm sec- 1[111,1'11IlltlSI of the students will be non-jazz and non-music majors.
tion, as contained in Chapter 3 of text. Extensive listen- i li~I"" 11,'I Ill' rocus is upon helping them to become interested in jazz
ing to rhythm sections on record and the individual per- Ii111'1, 111.11 )('Come better listeners. It still serves the jazz major aurally,
formers/soloists within them. I'ldlll'~lIldlll,diy, and historically, though the terminology and level of
Week 7 Mid-term examination, covering material of Chapters it 1I1 .. I'..d 1IIII'i(':lcyis geared to avoid intimidation of the non-jazz, non-
1-3 of text, with a review of the examination results in li'II~1i 1I!.1j1l1.Some programs, however, may choose to offer either a
the meeting following the test. IIltll ~I'tI illn of the same course that is restricted to jazz majors, or
Weeks 8-9 Lecture/demonstrations on the material of Chapter 4 li~I\'[1 "11 !liI,'l, IlIajors take the course along with the non-jazz, non-
(The Improvised Solo), including an introduction to illwi, I'''I/0I'S, hut offer them a more difficult course at some later
the various vehicle-types, how the improviser prepares "11111 1" "I(' ('lIrriClIlllm.

for each type, and a brief concert by the teacher,

illustrating the vehicle-types in practice.
Weeks 11-13 Chapter 5 (Improviser's Hall of Fame) Extensive listen-
ing and guided analysis of solos by six of the best
improvisers in jazz history. Presentation of video tape of

56 57

Jazz Theory If Chord Structures (specific)

Text: The Jazz Theory Workbook (Baling)

11', ~It()wnin Chord/Scale Compendium of Complete Method For
J Chord Structures (general) I 'IJr(wisation (Coker).

1\ ()II,II'lal
A. Tertian ( I) SO What voicing
(1) structured in third intervals (major and minor) Cl) kit· band piano voicings (modal)
a) 1-3-5-7-9-11-13 (7 notes) U) chord-type applications;
b) triads, seventh, ete. i. c., -7, maj7, 7, 7sus.4, ete.
1) classical music uses mostly triads, V7, VII07, and secon- ( 'I IIII\.'mporary
dary dominants (V7 of V, V7 of VI, ete.) II~ II~("(J in compositions of Ron Miller, Herbie Hancock, John
2) triads are rare in jazz, leaning more toward extended 111111:111, ete.
chords (9ths, 11ths, 13ths, and altered chord notes)
c) 9 = 2 IIf Chord/Scales
11 = 4
13 = 6 '1IiI,d/Scale Compendium (op. cit.)
9ths, 11ths, and 13ths are used in any combination; that is, 1\ t JII,III.II (modal)
for example, a 13th chord does not necessarily contain a 9th (I) 1H"lll:lconic
or an 11th. (.~) I \"II':I(JS
B. Quartal f.j) I 1 2 intervals
(1) structured in fourth intervals (usually perfect fourth intervals) j) I)III~ 7-note scales
a) generally stacked in groups of 3-5 notes; (;11111 ('IllporalY
common examples: "So What" voicing and modal voicings. ( I) ('x,lIl1plesfrom Ron Miller, John Surman, ete.
b) quartal voicings occur most often in modal tunes. (.\) l,y"tlH;ticscales;
C. Contemporary i. \"" 'i1'cni (Embryo), Ron Miller (Wood Dance), Woody
structured with more seconds (major and minor), clusters, poly- .lll.Iw(l.itdeRed's Fantasy, KatrinaBallerina, and others), David
chords, and chords with special bass tones (often used as pedal I,il·hll1:tn(Lookout Farm and others), ete.

58 59

IV. Chord Progressions (generally tertian) \III'III;lle Text Possibilities:

"lJe Jazz Language (Dan Haerle)
A. General tendencies frIzz Theory (Andrew jaffi)
(1) cycle, chromatic, minor third, and major second motions, r1HlIlgh not yet in print as of this date, The Jazz Theory Workbook by
(2) common units (containing more than 2 chords) k Bol ing is likely to be the book that will satisfy the needs of the
a) i. e.,II-V-I and extensions of same (such as #IV-VII-III-VI- Iillllllll.' given here. Bolinghas team-taught the course with this author,
II-V-I), I-IV7, turnarounds (or turnbacks), Confirmation VI .Ill' in accord with respect to the objectives of the course, and the
sequence, Rhythm changes, Sears Roebuck bridge, and 111,11(omplete manuscript has been reviewed by this author.
Montgomery Ward bridge.
(3) common modulation patterns; Additional Teaching Suggestions
as shown in Appendix D of Improvising jazz (Coker)
(4) common-tone scale sequences; W i Ih the exception of Jazz History and Jazz Piano (classes), all
i. e., 500 Miles High (Corea) III "1'1'rOll rses in the jazz curriculum presented in Chapter 2 are likely
(5) CESH (Contrapuntal Elaboration of Static Harmony); III IH' I akcn only by jazz majors, including Jazz Theory. Therefore, the
as presented in jazz Keyboard, Section 2 (Coker) ivl.:of the course is to prepare jazz majors for the more penetrat-
(6) tendencies of rock/pop music; 11'1',l'l,hjccts of the second, third, and fourth years, especially the
as shown in Farber IOV is:.rion courses. The nomenclature
11111' and symbology, then, need
Ill' loned down to accomodate non-jazz and non-music-majors.
V Bebop Scale IIH'Y,·:hould be complete, realistic, and indicate alternate terminology
II~Id I)y Olher authors, teachers, and practitioners of jazz,
A. see hand-outs, taken from How 10 Play Bebop (Baker); ','hough the definition and application of chord/scales might
surrounding tones (enclosures) 11;I 1'%.ll'iIY form the core of the course content, other aspects must not
[11011"II0l'l'd. For example, the jazz students need to be shown how
VI Ear- Training (computer lab) '\llIld" runction in a progression, common progression tendencies
11f'1'r1lohc :lssimilated, chord substitution principles learned, ete., and
A. Chord/Scale indentification (no ear training) 11111111
or what is covered should be played by the students in class
B. Chord Quality recognition (i1IIII1I',11
pl'obably not improvised upon, the students assimilate facts
C. Common Progression Units j r Ihey are involved
111.111:1 with performing scales, chords, patterns,
III ),
Hand-Guts/Supplements Ikr:luse the course contains a multitude of information, much of
Itill"YI() be initially unfamiliarto the students, they should be given
None needed, if Boling's book is used. 1111111'
I'll'quent testing, in the form of brief quizzes, so as to avoid the
60 61

confusion of one fact with another. And if their test performances are Jazz Piano 1
weak, then the students should be reviewed over the material and
tested again. Unlike many courses, the goal of the Jazz Theory class Text: Jazz Keyboard (Coker), pp. 1-36 and 41-51
needs to be 100% understanding, as opposed to simply achieving a
passing score. Mter all, their later improvisations and arrangements ,ri, I Distribution of syllabus. Discussion of purposes and acnvl
cannot be successful if they are only 60% accurate! Art music is ries of course. Explanation of 1st performance assigntn(;nl,
evaluated primarily on its artistic, aesthetic merit, with theoretical and due at Week 2's meeting (all assignments will be explaillt:d
technical accuracy being merely a prerequisite for creation. in the week prior to their due date). Reading assignmenl:
Finally, because the ear plays such a crucial role in jazz perform- pp. 1-14 of text.
ance, the ear-training aspects of the course are of utmost importance. Perform Exercise 1 (p. 11) in G, Bb, and Db.
Each and every new principle taken up should be heard often, played, ',:k:\ Perform Figure 13 (p. 16) in 12 keys, playing only the 1'1 and
and committed to the ear. Any theoretical principle that is merely V chords (omit the I chords). See Exercise 3, p. 19. Wc will
discussed, even understood (in the mind), but not transferred to the 'xplain and play Progression 1 ("Tune-Up") on p. 21 in
ear, is not really learned and is relatively useless to the student. lass, though you needn't prepare it in advance, but do
Remember, music is sound, and this definition especially affects the prepare Progressions 2 ("Pent-Up House") and 3 ("It's You
creative, spontaneous practitioner of jazz music. r No One") for Week 4.
Perform Figure 24 (p. 25) in 12 keys, including the I chord.
Jlrogressions2 and 3 will be played. Progressions 4 and 5 ror
Week 5.
1!'11 ') Pt:rform Figure 23, p. 24 (II, V; I in minor). Progressions I{

(p. 22) and 5 (p. 26) will be played.

't (1\ (~ Progressions 6 and 7 (no graded exercise/performance for
Ihis meeting). Explanation of rootless voicings and intro-
duction to the blues (pp. 30-33). Prepare blues in G ror
Week 7.
'-Id: 'I Ilcrform blues in G (with minimal right-hand improvisa-
I ion). Progressions 8 and 9 (p. 27) will be played also.
Prepare blues in C, F, Bb, and Eb for Week 8.
'u·1i H Ibform blues in C, F, Bb, and Eb. Progressions 10 and] I (p.
H) will be played also. Explanation and assignmenc or

(:ESH (pp. 41-45).

, 1,1, i) Perform 3 CESH examples (your choice). Explanation and
62 63

assignment of the dominant seventh chord with a sus- Jazz Piano II

pended fourth. Prepare the sus. 4 chord (pp. 45-46) in 12
keys for Week 10. Text: Jazz Keyboard (Coker), pp. 37-41 and 51-57)
Week 10 Perform sus. 4 chord in 4 keys (instructor's choice). Instruc-
tor will also provide several tunes to be played which utilize .-,,1: I I)istribution of syllabus. Assign II - V - I progression in
the sus. 4 chord extensively, for practice. Explanation and major, with rootless voicing, with 3rd on the bottom (Fig.
assignment of "So What" voicing (pp. 47-51). .38,p. .37) in 12 keys. Also read pp. 37-40.
Week 11 Perform tune (your choice), using only "So What" voicings, Perform II - V - I (major, 3rd on bottom) in 12 keys. Prepare
in a parallel fashion. 11 -V - I (in major), with 7th on the bottom, in 12 keys (Fig.
Week 12 Review of Progressions 1-5 with accompaniment tracks 38) for Week 3. Also, prepare Progression 1 ("Tune-Up",
(warning: most tempos will be faster than previously played p. 21) for next meeting.
in class). 'l'li.\ Perform II - V - I (major, 7th on bottom) in 12 keys.
Week 13 Review of Progressions 6, 7, IQ, and 11 with accompani- Progression 1 will be played also. Prepare II - V - I in minor
ment tracks. Review of blues in C, F, Bb, and Eb with accom- (3rd on bottom) in 12 keys (pp. 40-41) for Week 4, along
paniment tracks. with Progressions 2-4.
Week 14 Play the tune you have selected to play on the final exami~ In:1I Ij Perform II - V - I (minor, 3rd on bottom) in 12 keys. Play
nation (1 - 7 - 3 - 5 voicings with added melody). This will Progressions 2-4. Prepare II - V - I (minor, 7th on bottom)
not be graded, but is merely a chance to become accustomed in 12 keys for Week 5, along with Progressions 5-7.
to performing before others and to receive suggestions for '1'1'1, ') Perform II - V - I (minor, 7th on bottom) in 12 keys. Play
improvement from the instructor. Progressions 5-7. No assignment for Week 6 other than to
Week 15 Final examination, consisting of prepared tune, 2 choruses prepare Progressions 8-11.
of the blues in one of the 5 keys assigned previously (my I (·k (l Play Progressions 8-11. Distribution of hand-out with 2
choice), and sightreading of a progression. blues comping exercises, to be performed at Week 7. Also,
memorize and prepare first 2 Idiomatic Keyboard Vamps
Because Jazz Piano I and Jazz Piano II are sequential courses in the (IKV), "Watermelon Man" and "Cantaloupe Island"
same subject, the syllabus for Jazz Piano II is presented next, without (p. 54).
interruption, followed by the discussion of hand-outs, alternate text (·(·k 7 Perform 2 blues comping exercises, and be ready to play first
possibilities, and additional teaching suggestions that apply to both 2 IKV's (from memory). Prepare blues with bass line (hand-
courses. out) and IKV's "All Blues" and "Killer Joe."
ITk 8 Perform blues with bass line and play 2 assigned IKV's.
Prepare "I Got Rhythm" comping (hand-out) and IKV's
"Coral Keys" and "What Was" for Week 9.

64 65

Week 9 Perform "I Got Rhythm" corn ping and play 2 assigned t'XIIIISivcly.
IKV's. Introduce quartal voicings (pp. 51-52) and suggest ) '" III It' b:lsS and drum tracks from play-alongs, on tape, to be
ways to exercise. Prepare IKV's "What Was" and "Mahjong" Il'wd in class, on the blues, sus. 4 tunes, II-V and II-V-I exercises
for Week 10. I11I wcl vC keys from the Aebersold series, the eleven progressions
Week 10 Practice quartal voicings (with side-slipping) with accom- 1I~I'din the text, and some modal tune tracks.
paniment tapes. Play two assigned IKV's. Prepare other keys I) 1\ kind-out explaining how to arrange the 1-7-3-5 voicings Oazz
for quartal voicings/improvisation, plus IKV's "Maiden 1'1.111() I) so as to be able to perform both chords and melodies on
Voyage" and "Nica's Dream" (on supplementary hand-out) d \(' rlc:vcn tunes in the text.
for Week 11. (1t!l\ddilional Idiomatic Keyboard Vamps (see end of Section 3 of
Week 11 Practice other keys with quartal voicings and play two as- \1 HI),

signed IKV's. Prepare "Reach Out" and "Senor Blues" ) ( lpt jon:t1: expanded uses of the "So What" voicing, "I Got
(IKV's) for next time. Hllylilll1" study/voicings with tri-tone substitutions in bridge,
Week 12 Play 2 assigned IKV's. Discuss "Contemporary Chord Sym- 111111
(' l'ontemporary voicings, and bass lines (walking) for the left
bols" (pp. 52-53). Prepare "Wood Dance" and "Como en 110111(1.

Vietnam" for next time.

Week 13 Play last 2 IKV's and review all 14 IKV's. Prepare tune Alternate Text Possibilities
selected (your choice) for final examination (rootless voic-
ings, plus melody). Ill""gh Ihere exists a large number of books published for jazz
Week 14 Play selected tune for instructor and class (not for grade). 1'111111,
lit IlIidly none of them address the specific needs of this course
Discuss final. il'n, 1I11'W.lY)
besides the text shown on the two syllabi. Nearly all of
Week 15 Final exam, consisting of prepared tune, quartal (modal) IiH'III .11" Wri IIen expressly for pianists excluding non-pianists who
improvisation, about 4 of the 14 IKV's (my choice), either i1iTd 1111''.11'11
10 L1sethe keyboard. Consequently, most of the other
"Blues With Bass Line" or "I Got Rhythm" (your choice), 1I~I~ \\,11111(11)('
lOO demanding for the non-pianist, leaving out the sort
and sight-reading (rootless, lefthand only). "j III IIIIIIIII('S:llId methods that produce the quick results that are
11I1./,,1,11 litis Icvel. Nevertheless, other books that might serve as
Hand-Guts/Supplements I lllulll,llppkl11ents, or service a jazz piano course for pianists would
IiH 11101,

(1) Titles and melodies to the eleven tune progressions contained Id •• ';Uod' Voicings For The Contemporary Keyboard Player
ill text. (I ',Ill 1llltde)
(2) Preferred inversions for the blues in each of the five assigned 'fIdllll'I'/I1i'11 Piano Voicings (JameyAebersold)
keys. 1111111 1I M'II; Approach Tb Jazz Improvisation, Vo!. 1
(3) A few known progressions which use the suspended fourth chord
66 67

Additional Teaching Suggestions Jazz Improvisation I

Be prepared for the student who is intimidated by the piano. 'Icxt: Complete Method For Improvisation (Coker)
Perhaps it is better that a non-pianist teaches the course, to alleviate (Chapters 1-3)
some of the fear shared by many non-pianists in the course. Don't lose
too much time teaching posture, fingerings, tone, reading (notation), II~I Distribution of syllabus. Bring instruments/amps to all
finget speed, and other topics that serve pianists more than non- future meetings. Distribution of hand-outs (5). Deter-
pianists. Make it seem easy. Be patient. Don't be surprised if, at first, mine instrument keys for all class members to facilitate
they can only perform the exercises by working out a system of rune hand-outs for second meeting, and take orders for
watching their hands and "moving this finger here and that finger ~IIplay-alongs needed for course. Begin playing scales
there", instead of actually being aware of the identity of each chord, (pp. 9-10) and digital patterns (hand-out) at second
key, note-of-chord, etc. That will come later, when their minds catch meeting. Begin preparing "Essential Patterns and Licks"
up with their fingers, but first they need to be able to play and build (hand-out) for Week 2. Read pp. 3-10 in text.
some confidence. Apply digital patterns and "Essential Patterns" (1-4) to
Though the course is primarily designed for non-pianists, it will xercise tracks of play-alongs, "Giant Steps" and other
be found that the course will probably fill gaps and help the freshmen tunes. This procedure will continue for several weeks,
jazz pianists to a considerable degree. And the pianists who are not jazz LIntil patterns 1-17 are covered.
majors certainly won't be getting the information contained in this ontinuance of pattern practice and application. Per-
course from their classical piano teachers, so don't expect them to form melodies and improvise on all assigned Bebop and
become bored or cause the non-pianists to feel foolish. Standard vehicles (on handouts and practice tape).
When writing voicings on the chalkboard, get in the habit of Learn and apply 7th-3rd resolution on II-V progression
using letters instead of conventional notation. It gets the job done and (pp. 29-33). Read pp. 11-46 in text.
doesn't intimidate the students who read notation poorly, or have H Playing examination on bebop tune, plus awritten mid-
difficulty with reading both clefs. term examination.
Example: I i I.~ I) 1 I Modal tunes, ''Aural Familiarization With All Scale
(E-7) (E-7) 'Iones" (pp. 56-57). Pentatonic scales and fourth inter-
B vals (pp. 49-50, 62, and hand-out), Intensity-building
G devices (pp. 60-61), Melodic development (pp. 57-60).
instead of Side-Slipping/Outside Playing (pp. 62-64). Perform
D melodies and improvise on all assigned modal tunes
E (hand-outs and tape). Read Chapter 2 (pp. 47-65),
Ilh~ 12·ltl The Blues. Read Chapter 3 (pp. 66-74). Perform all

68 69

assigned blues tunes. Listening to good 'models' on Jazz Improvisation 11

record. Emphasis on uniqueness (p. 66), sttucture (67-
'Texts: Complete Method For Improvisation (Coker)
70), and style (pp. 70-71, plus in-class listening).
Week 15 (Chapters 4-6)
Playing examination on modal and blues vehicles, plus
a written final examination. The Music of Ron Miller (Miller)

I( I Distribution of syllabus. Be sure to obtain Miller text in

the key of your insttument. Read Chapter 4 (The Con-
lcmporary Vehicle, pp. 75-83). Learn the lydian-aug-
I11cntedscale and its 5 applications (pp. 35-39), plus
"Modes and Applications of the Ascending Melodic
Minor Scale" hand-out). Begin applying scale and "Cry
Mc A River" lick to II-V-I in minor. Distribute hand-
Oll t tunes for course.
Play all tunes in Ron Miller play-along, plus other con-
I('m porary tunes on play-along provided by insttuctor.
[h 11 I'I:lying examination on a contemporary tune, selected
hy instructor.
'I 'ilL:Ballad Vehicle (Ch. 5, pp. 84-86). Hand-outs on
"Prctty: A Musical Definition of the Word" (with
dClllonstrations by instructor) and "Ballad Playing."
Playing of 5 selected ballads (on hand-outs and play-
,.longs), with emphasis on improvisational aesthetics.
1.\.1 I '1'11(' hee Form Vehicle (Ch. 6, pp. 87-91. Practicing of

t'X I r:1-l11usicaldevices (p. 88). Listening to examples on

1'('( ord. Playing of student designed free form "compo-
•. »

IIi 1'1 Wri I cn final examiation.



Hand-Guts/Supplements (for both Improvisation I and 11) III [I I I111I

i Ill',I() give them feedback on their solos and to demonstrate
111111IlIlilllS ror them on your instrument. It's a good idea for the
Lead lines and progressions for all tunes to be played in course, 111(11
IIII1I110 play the first solo of each 'round', This gives them time
given to the students at the beginning of the courses, so that they can t' I;'1'1heir solos, gives their ears a more-eXperienced
i!! III 1'11,11 interpre-
work ahead of the class activity at times. The provided lead sheets are ItllHIIIIII ItI1r Ihc;ir solos, and often answers questions they might have
in the key of their instrument. !IIIII,,11111111,1
very efficient way. You may also want to play the original
Play-alongs for all tunes to be used in course, so students can Ii i !lI,Jilll', of' ,IS many of the tunes as possible, unless it seems to be
practice improvising before and between meetings of the class. Atti- dllLilll', IIl1duly the amount of student playing time needed (The
tude-setting material (see sample, Requirements For Becoming a HIdl i'l'." , ould be placed in the musiclibrary, to be listened to by the
Good Jazz Improviser, on following pages). llilclll~ 111Itlll'ir own time).
Patterns (see Essential Jazz Patterns and Licks, on following IIII~ .Il1lhor has found that play-alongs, even with the disadvan-
pages). Ill. 1'1\'1~'I'ableto using too much class time trying to teach
11I1~illltilll"dlytlllTI section players how to play the accompaniment
Alternate Text Possibility: iii Illllill'ly, ll'Ii.lhly, and with good taste. In other words, it should be
Creative Jazz Improvisation (Scott Reeves) \11')11II~ .I Illl'lodic improvisation class (solo improvisation), rather
IlIiii !lillll!, I Olll'L:pt,The latter can be focused upon during ensemble
There are many other books on improvisation, including others liflHll,dH. !'tiv:lle lessons (for the pianists, guitarists, bassists, and
by this author, but when a teacher selects a text, some emphasis needs 11"Ii1l1lilj~). ,lIld rh ythm section clinics or courses. This means thatthe

to be placed on the book's suitability for day-to-day sequencing, 'i1lhli\'l~iIlIOIl cl:lss' pianists and guitarists are not comping, the
Otherwise, even a vety fine book (such as Baker's Jazz Improvisation it I~LI'1L IU'IIII1 pl:1yingwalkinglines, and drummers should play piano
and Advanced Improvisation, Russell's Lydian Chromatic Concept, I ,1111 'I d 1111
Aebersold's A New Approach toJazz Improvisation, and Coker's Im- 1'1.111
1111,'j(,:1(hstudent play each tune twice, perhaps on different
provisingJazzor Patternsfor Jazz) are really more suitable as 'roll up I wtlllll' discovered that everyone tends to improvise about
your sleeves and play' methods, rather than texts. dlllll tilL:second try. Also, while the tune is in its first 'round'
ill ItI;Iy i 11g), it might be advisable to keep the solos short, to
Additional Teaching Suggestions Ii ~I"'IIIIIJ', ,lllll recuperation time between efforts, lengthening the
Id 1111111 choruses as they seem ready for them. Along the same
Don't succumb to making this course a course heavily-loaden I I111,,1'1
d to ,he students, when playing fast-moving, difficult
with lectures. The students have a text, copies of all the tunes, and play- llll~, 10 h:lvc; them alternate in two, four, or eight-measure
alongs for all of the tunes. They've taken a course in Jazz Theory, so 11i111'yc:tn focus on smaller units for awhile.
there is no need to lecture excessively, especially about theoretical II~r, I till' ,dollg exercise tracks while the class warms up on
substance. Plan to have them play as much of the time as possible, only 111111" H'f',inning of class, so that they are constantly given the

72 73

opportunity to make the aural association between a pattern and the I '1111 (', 11 Y for awhile, however, they won't accept wrong notes either.
chord that accompanies it. Warm up to the tunes by playing the 1111\' will try to justifY their mistakes, saying that it was a deliberate
patterns wherever possible, also. Patterns have to be ingrained if they Id III III play 'outside' or 'be more chromatic'. In time they'll get their
are to occur to the player as an option during his/her solo. Even if the II,!II' (' lil do things like that, even be urged by the instructor to do so,
pattern is not used during the solo, at least the student will be hearing HII by 111l'n they'll have a better idea as to how to execute it effectively,
(mentally) something that could work. illilwll('I'(, :lnd when it would be most effective.
Don't be alarmed if some of the students lose or gain beats and
measures here and there. It's a common problem at first, but fades away
quickly without making an issue of it. Just be ready to pointto the right
place, in case the problem arises, without interrupting the proceed-
In rendering feedback to individuals, with regard to their solos, be
gentle and kind, always offer solutions, remember to compliment
them when they solve the problem, expect more of the better players,
and when a better player plays something especially choice, clever, or
resourceful, share it with the rest of the class by explaining it to them.
For the first few weeks of the course (at least), focus on any and all
inaccuracies and correct them quickly, so that each student quicldy
comes to know that wrong notes are audible, that you hear them
(precisely), and that they are ultimately unacceptable. After a few
weeks, they will come to know that there is no point in trying to bluff
their way through something they haven't practiced. The problem
stems from the fact that they can't yet hear the difference beetween
right and wrong notes, and so they naturally presume that it is unlikely
that anyone else hears or cares. Of course this sort of feedback has to
continue indefinitely, though less pronounced, as each new harmonic
or scalar sound will tempt them to try to bluff their way through again,
for the same reasons. Often a new chord or scale quality (such as
diminished, augmented, whole-tone, phrygian, or synthetic scales)
will simply sound strange or wierd to the uninitiated ear, and so they
may get the notion that anything they choose to play that is 'strange
or wierd' will suffice, and no one will be the wiser. After they've played

74 75

Requirements For Becoming a Good Jazz lmprovisor J'llt'my Applied.

11y 1h (;0 I'y understood in the mind but left unapplied is not
(1) A Strong Desire. I"dllll'd, it will not appear in your improvisations, and it will soon
You must be more than mildly interested to succeed. At some IIC' IOI'[.!,oten. In order for a theoretical principle to become useful,

point, perhaps even from the outset, the desire to improvise well Illl'nLal unterstanding
1111' must be transferred and/or extended to
should be obsessive! 1111'(',II'S:1nd hands.

(2) Attunement To Style. (Ill I'h('oI'Y Challenged And Mastered.

Listen to and assimilate the best of jazz on record, old and new. \XlIII k LOward speed, accuracy, control, and flexibility of all
Listen hard and repeatedly! Attend live performances, ranging t1I1'OI'l"icaJ principles, patterns, licks, scales, keys, ete.
from the jazz recitals ofyout classmates to concerts by touring jazz
greats. You cannot improvise in a vacuum. III 1 nU'my Utilized.
I' ~.II!,gn:1tethe use of all new items by practicing them with ap-
(3) Will. l'IIIPI'i:1LCplay-along exercises (not tunes), but simulate creative
The human will can accomplish anything! If you fail to utilize the I'n IOI'lI1:lncemannerisms as well.
will, you risk accomplishing nothing. The will is responsible for
such characteristics as perseverance, patience, and consistency. 11In', 'IH'ory Utilized In Consummate Creativity.
I'!.IY lil:lny appropriate tunes which contain exaggerated use of
(4) Energy. Ildlllloni(;s which accommodate the theoretical principles taken
All music should contain some type of energy in performance. 11 I'
Energy levels are affected by life-style, attitude, nutrition, health,
and a careful ordering of priorities.

(5) Method.
You must have a plan, if you are to reach your goals. The plan
should be reasonable, efficient, and thorough.

(6) Theory Understood.

The mind must thoroughly unterstand each musical principle

76 77

Essential Patterns And Licks ( 1lIIIIProvise against the exercise track, but lean toward rather
IH'qll(;l'lt use of the patternllick;
It has often been the case that students of improvisation will learn ) 1'101\1
icc the pattern/lick against a play-along tune that is har-
the theoretical aspects of the subject, but are prone to sounding IIIOflic:t1lyappropriate for many applications of that phrase (i.e"
simplistic, academic, sometimes aimless, with a noticeable absence of 1I,t1<l'I'\"Le Miroir Noir" in JA-lO, for applying diminished
what David Baker has termed 'the language of jazz' ... those patterns ',1A'), using only the pattern/lick whenever possible; and
and licks which are continually shared by virtually all the great lllllprovise against a play-along tune, but exaggerate your use of
improvisers, as a part of the content of their solos. In other words, a till' Iick (you can moderate its use, once it is sufficiently in-
reasonable percentage of most solos will and should contain familiar 1',1 ,d flcd). Look for other play-along tunes to which the pattern/
jazz phrases, as they are an essential means of musical communication. 1111<
be applied. If you have an adjustable speed on your tape
All of the patterns and licks shown in this study are extremely 111011
hinc, play the tune(s) in other keys, to maximize your
commonplace, yet effective and needed by all. I ~p\'ricnce with playing the phrase.
Be sure to practive each patternllick in every possible way, as such 1', 1111
IIlht'r that you're trying to achieve a balance between the familiar
practice will ingrain the phrase into the fingers, ears, mind, and i 111111 IIIN/licks) and the unfamiliar (new and/or original ideas). Learn-
memory. Play the lick in all keys, using different modulation patterns iql illd illgraining these licks will not stifle your creativity. It will lend
(chromatic, cycle, etc.). Can it be altered slightly to enable it to fit I III1I1II1I"ic:ltion to your solos, and serve as springboards to original
different harmonic situations? Does it sound well when played from .I, I~ VIII'" creativity will only be stifled if you never play anything
a different note of the chord? Is it effective when played backwards "111',11,,11,
','IIC one thing you cannot afford to do is to operate in a
(retrograde)? If it is an ascending contour, is there a descending 1\ II~III V,ICllum.
possibility (and vice versa)? Can it be connected smoothly to another
pattern? Can it become a double-time pattern, if need be? Does it have
potential for sequences or side-slips?
The process of ingraining is extremely important. An insuffi-
ciently-ingrained lick will not occur to you in the 'heat of battle', and
even if it did, you'd probably be afraid to try it, because of the high risk
of errors. Therefore it would be wise to follow the format given here
to msure mgrammg:
(1) practice pattern/lick, alone, without accompaniment (all keys,
sequences, permutations, etc.);
(2) play patternllick (only) against an appropriate play-along exercise
(i.e., a track from Aebersold's Volume 1, 3, 16, 21, etc., not a

78 79

Essential Patterns And Licks Essential Patterns And Licks

II I I.icks
A. Digital Patterns
t \ A7 (D-7) CL'1 A7 (D-7)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (11)

12 211 211 5765
11. ~lhll' Licks
B. II-V Licks (I )//,,7)

D-7 C7 D-7 C7 D-7 C7 I \ (I) 7) CL'1 or E-7

(I'll (16) (17)

~ . .-/

llilllllllshcd Patterns
D-7 C7 (CL'1)


D-7 1'111



D-7 (CE.S.H.) C7 CL'1


C. V7 -I Licks
"I'.III1'lIlcd Patterns
C7 CL'1 CL'1 (or C-L'1)

~ ~

80 81

Analysis of Jazz Styles 111111:'11'

'I~xt Possibilities:
11YI',()odcollection of transcribed solos, of which there are far too
Texts: 28 Modern Jazz Trumpet Solos (Slone) ItllIl\' ItI li~1 here, This author prefers collections which are of more
Modern Jazz Tenor Solos (Butler) dillil 1111(',Inist, both to promote variety as to show commonality
hl'll\'u 11 ,dl players.
Weeks 1 - 2 Discussion of purpose and activities of course. Lecture
on the functions and potential of the ear in music, taken Additional Teaching Suggestions
from Chapter 2 of The Jazz Idiom (Coker).
Weeks 3 - 4 Survey of methods - techniques for transcribing solos, MtI.~1of the members oLinAnalysis ofJazz Styles class are not sure
analytical techniques, and needed nomenclature, taken IIII \ II1\l II':lnscribe a solo. To combat their apprehension, this author
from The Jazz Idiom, Giants ofJazz series (Baker), and III,L~ III fil'~t work on their confidence to do the work, by reading
instructor's notes. Discussion of "Devices Commonly i 1'11"ill1)"S~:lgesfrom TheJazz Idiom (Coker), namely a treatise on the
Found In Jazz Solos" (Coker), a hand-out. In-class solo JIIIIIIIII,t1 or the ear, contained in Chapter 2. Such a reading and
transcription by entire class and instructor (bring in- IIIII 1I'I~illll~cerns to make them more aware of the almost infinite (well
struments to class on that day). III\ 111111
w hal they need to transcribe a solo) potential for the ear's de-
Weeks 5 - 7 In-class listening to, and analysis of, first 10 solos IIII"lil'lIl. Next comes a collectively-done transcription in class, with
(approximately) in texts. ill hand, which affords the instructor
11[1111' the opportunity to help
Week 8 First transcription and analysis (by student) due. d !I:III III IllIderstand the techniques, objectives, and short-curs in tran-
Weeks 9 - 12 Listening and analysis of remainder of solos in Slone I1 illi lit'.~()Ios. Finally, they should be told that the choice of solo and
and Butler. 1'11,\I I i,~lip to them, as well as the length they choose to tackle. This
Weeks 13 -14Listening and analysis of non-trumpet and non-tenor- I'hl'~ tlH'1I1lhe flexibility to select solos that are accessible to their level
solos, provided by instructor. Second transcription/ I" ,I, Iwl,'p ment, Most should probably start by transcribing players of
analysis due on last day of 14th week (2 solos, with I111,il11I1""llment, to take advantage of that instrumental attunement,
comparitive analysis) 1_ w,11 ,'~ selecting players that might have drawn them to the
Weeks 15 Return 2nd transcription/analysis papers to students, 111'<1111111('111,
initially, and might still be exerting considerable influence
Written final examination last day. 1111dH\II'slyle.
Jt'",l'iy in the course, also, should be a study of transcribing
Hand-outs/Supplements !U 1IIIIqll('~ and analytical techniques suggested by various authors.
111111dl(' devices common to all players (see following pages) should
List of the devices to be cited in analysis (see Devices Commonly \" dll'lll,~~t.:dthoroughly, to be sure everyone understands and can
Found In Improvised Solos, on succeeding pages). Illc Ult,1I
h,(' e:lch device.

82 83

An interesting phenomenon takes place as the course progresses I >"/lices Commonly Found In Improvised Solos
into listening to solos from the text and citing all occurrences of the
common devices. At first the students tend to glean all their informa- Analysis of Jazz Styles
tion by reading their copies of the solos (even that is difficult for some),
but after awhile, they're hardly reading at all, because their ears begin lll'hop Scale - the adding of a chromatic step to an otherwise 7-
to perceive the devices before their eyes and mind can decipher the lIill' 'H .dl'. in order to align metric accents. In major scales the
written version! '\IIIlIII.111l Slep occurs berween the 5th and 6th degrees, in dorian
Also, as the course progresses, the commonly-used devices are so , d, ~ 11 VIII'Sbetween the 3 and 4, and between the 7th and root of

prevalent that there is very little left unmarked in each of the solos, 1111'11\t1LIIIscales.
which convinces the students that the list of devices is indeed a 1I.·hop Lick - very closely related to the bebop scale (see above), in
capsulization of what is commonly referred to as 'the language of jazz' 11111111
IIIVDlvl:sthe same added chromatic step. However, the bebop lick
At the end of the course, they should be urged to examine the list again li~1I d vny specific melody. The bebop lick on a C7 chord, for
to determine how many of those devices have, as yet, become a part of IIilllll' (.dso a G-7 chord), would be 'c-b-bb-d-a-g'. Less frequently
their own improvisational style. Ii Id'lIl.IPIll':irs with a 'c' or an if' in place of the id'.
hH tosllrc (also referred to as Surrounding Tones) - an 'object
111111(,"I1S011;1ntmember of a chord or scale) approached first from a
I lid 11111('
.dlOve, then a semi-tone below, then the object tone (similar
III Iq'l'c I 1IIId lower 'neighboring tones'). Example: an object tone of
I q '1"'111
j 111\ ill an enclosure would result in a 3-tone series of'& -b-c'.
1I11i1'N Scale - (structure: 1, b3, 4, #4, 5, b7) though specifically
11" 111I11I'd11)1'use in the conventionalll-bar blues, some players will
li'l IlIlIy ,~p()r:tdically in the blues (plus the fact that some blues
1"111',11 '~~IOIIS:1re less than wholly traditional), and players will fre-
'1"1 IItI" W.\' 1he blues scale in a non-blues tune. It is one of the scales
chosen for harmonic generalization (see below).
11.11111011 ic Generalization - the practice oflumping together sev-
i I d I hi 1111.\(cspecially closely-related chords, like I1-V-I) with one
I d, I 'IH' III:ljor scale and the blues scale are most commonly used for
till" 1"1'I'D,~t·,hut scales like harmonic minor and diminished can be
1't'L1I'd.ISwcll, along with still other possibilities.
Clhllll\c-RlInning - the practice of arpeggiating the individual
111"II~Id .c progression in improvisation, so that little else is occuring
84 85

(such as definable melodies). A fast harmonic rhythm is usually the l'II"i11 (Contrapuntal Elaboration of Static Harmony) - a har-

reason for such practice, and one can generally expect to find a 1'"'111,III vi,'\, in which a chord of long duration has one moving voice

consistent rhythmic level of 8th notes. Scales can also be a part of .10 III IIlln\:$t, such as a long-running minor chord in which the
I'" d, 'ill'llds in half steps, but the other parts of the chord remain in
change- running.
Digital Patterns - closely related to change-running, digital pat- II.~l ~lIII1H'I'OUSmelodies and patterns have been based on this

terns are small (usually 4-8 notes), well-organized notegroups such as 11tHlilllllll device, and frequently a player will superimpose a CESH
1-2-3-1, 1-2-3-5, 1-3-5-3, which are used to realize fast-moving chord lIi.l"d \ III p.lIl'\:rn over a non-CESH harmony, especially II-V progres-
lilil 1Ilillllllic (I) minor chords.
progressions by transposing the patterns to fit each passing chord.
h L' nll'c Substitution - a harmonic substitution of a chord or
Such patterns are usually practiced aside from and before actual
llilid~ lViii, h :lre a tri-tone (3 whole steps, or an augmented 4th, or a
Pentatonic Scales - (structure: 1,2,3,5,6 of a major scale) most liltlilllNIH'd ')1 h) away from the given chord, such as substituting Db 7

commonly found in modal and blues tunes, but also found with less IHI [I I :'/. Ill' (;vcn Ab_7 Db7 for D-7 G7. An Improviser does not

frequency in other situations. Uncommonly long phrases are often Ihll'_~"1 dy W:\il for the subsitution to be present in the accompani-

generated by the use of a single pentatonic scale. Side-slips (see below) lih III 111/1111'
Ilsing it.
are often based on pentatonics. 11'lIp,~ from the 3rd to a b9th - melodically, it is extremely

Side-Slipping (or Outside Playing) - the practice of deliberately !,l1ll1lilli IIlI' :\n improvisor to play the 3rd of a dominant seventh
lilllll, tlll:11IlIove directly or indirectly (by including the 5th and/or
leaving the given key, momentarily, and returning. Often the side-slip
is to a key or chord that is a half-step higher than the given one, and !I1llll 111111
\') t () the lowered 9th. Such motion permeates much of the
.~ldl'''.IIlCCof a solo, especially on VI7 chords, and one will find
pentatonic scales are often present. The device is used to create tension
and avoid monotony. dH11I1ll~ III,IIIYinstances of the 3rd moving down (3 half steps down)
Unusual or Substitute Scales - under the heading of unusual scales It I till' I11IVI'I ,·d 9th as the instances in which an upward motion is used.
might be synthetic scales (originally-devised). Less-common modal
". ',y Mc" River" Lick - a phrase which derives from a standard
scales (i.e. phrygian or locrian), harmonic major, gypsy minor, hindu 11111"
H'Sail)\: name. In its original context, the melody descended

scales, and all symmetrical scales (chromatic, whole-tone, diminished, I IIIIIIIIV\:I), 8(1), 5, b3,2, 1 (over a tonic minor chord). Although
III'IilIIVI~'I'"SlIse the phrase in this same setting sometimes, it is even
augmented). Sometimes a player will substitute one of these scales (or
another equally unusual one) for a much simpler, more traditional illlllll tlllllll\()n to find them using the same melodic intervals in a
one. liiL:ICIII 1I.II'I1lonic setting, as follows: +9, b9, +5, 3, +9, b9 (still
Resolution of 7th to 3rd - refers to the common resolution of di'~lCIIIIIIII',)over a dominant seventh chord with an augmented 5th
the seventh of a -7 chord (like II) to the 3rd of a 7 chord (like V) whose 1111/11111'.1111'111<:<.1
9th added.

root is a fourth higher (or a fifth lower). For example, the resolution !'( ;1I11t· nil t Not Forgotten" Lick -like the "Cry me a River" lick,

of 'c' to 'b' in a 0-7 to G7 progression. Frequently this resolution is I It11t' 1'<1wl, kh derives from a standard tune of the same name ("Gone
1\11111111111l1'~Olten").ltis nearly always used over a minor chord, using
present in the melodies and patterns of an improviser.
86 87

the digital formula, 9 (or 2) - b 3 - #7 - 9 - 1 - 5. Example: against C-, !HI~~i1dljlj('8/11'$t, such as substitute chords, bar-line shifts, or 'blue
the phrase would be 'd-eb -b-d-c-g'. Il!il[_' (I,.\,1,), orb 7),forexample. It could even be aside-slip (or outside
Angularity - the use of uncommonly wide intervals in improvi- I'lill'llil',), II1 :IIlY event, be cautious about labelling a suspected error,
sation, very pronounced in players like John Coltrane, Eric Dolphy, i IWil IlIllk 1;)1' possible causes, such as split notes, hitting wrong
Thelonious Monk, Woody Shaw, Benny Wallace, ete. Ii 11111111111 \ Oil :1 brass instrument, memory lapses, getting finger-tied,
Sequences - re-use of same or similar pattern or melody over illl(:,U 1IIIf', 10 rcpeat a section, ete., all of which can happen to anyone,
several successive changes of harmony. ItiLl1 jlllt.~l:lrisalessontotheanalyzer.
Quotes - melodic fragments of other tunes or solos, woven into
an improvisation, sometimes as a humorous touch, sometimes sim-
ply because the improviser hears that the quote is based on the same
harmonic setting as what he presently faces. In a few instances, players
have used quotes to be programmatic or to make a socio-political
Shifting of Bar Line - The delaying or anticipating of the har-
monic or rhythm progress (especially the former) so that it is occuring
(seemingly) in the wrong place. It is a deliberate (usually) and tempo-
rary distortion of the meter and/or bar structure.
Inadvertent Repetition - the unintentional reiteration of a phrase
within the same solo, often occuring at the same spot within a
successive chorus or repeated section (and nearly always on the same
chord root and chord-type), therefore separated from its first occur-
rence by a considerable length of time. If the phrase is reiterated
immediately after the first occurrence, then it is probably deliberate
rather than accidental. Inadvertent repetition usually indicates that
the phrase is a personal cliche; or simply reinforces the notion that all
players are prone to hearing the same phrase at certain points within
the tune's progression (a natural aural phenomenon).
Error - an obvious mistake on the part of the improviser, yet
dangerous for the inexperienced student analyzer to cite. If the given
chord, for example, is C-, and the player plays an e-natural, or the
chord is a C 7 and the player plays a b-natural, it is relatively safe to
assume an error. However, the analyzer must also consider other

88 89

Jazz Composition And Arranging Additional Teaching Suggestions

Text: Jazz Arranging and Composing (Dobbins) 11\111lk'111s are to learn to tap their creativity and write attractive
I, dll Y11I1Istfirstbe taughtto
11111', learn more tunes, be exposed to great
Weeks 1-2 Rhythmic rewriting of various types of melodies. it.1I!iI dll/vc never heard and/or analyzed and be shown what made
Weeks 3-4 Study of and listening to "46 Great Tunes" (instructor's "I(.' 111111"~
,~llccessful, learn how to write effective progressions and
collection). Notation and calligraphy. IIldlll III~•. 1I1d practice composing different kinds of tunes (standard,
Weeks 5-6 Re-harmonization techniques and techniques of chord hd'''II, lilOtLd, blues, contemporaty, etc.). In addition to studying the
substitution. Common aspects of chord progressions I!!~i IIIIII'~provided by the instructor, each student should be asked to
(drawn from Appendix D ofCoker's Improvising]azz). pii.dwl~.1 I:lpe of some of their currently favorite tunes and state why
Begin composing tunes. i1wl' 1;'\·1 tklL each is a good tune, being careful not to confuse
Weeks 7-8 Composing and in-class performances of original tunes liI ""11'11'1'or arrangement with the tune itself (a great tune can be
(graded). ji, """'II'd hadly and a mediocre or weak tune, with a good arrange-
Weeks 9-11 (approx.) Study of small ensemble arranging (Dob- till,III dllll/or performance can sound deceptively good).
bins), with short arranging assignments for various in- 'II It rt'spect to arranging a tune, the student should be made
strumentation. I,W ",' (01' Iltt' options they have, with regard to writing for 2-5 voices
Weeks 12-15 Original compositions/ arrangements by students, to be (,,"h,,"' .. OCl:lveS,thirds, sixths, fourths, stacked, open, drop 2, etc.),
played in class. "Il \Ill 1I1.~ I<.:xturespossible (homophonic, contrapuntal, harmoniza-
i i!ill,l.11.). ,Ine!ways to accomodatechromaticism in the melody. Keep
Hand-outs/Supplements I hI' ·1\~jl',IIIil(.'n
ts short at first, so that the students have more time to
I" I III 11"1'job with it, so that their assignments won't require as much
Lead lines (melodies) of standard tunes which are in need of '1i1H 1.1 pl.IYand tape, and so they won't risk the possibility oflaboring
rhythmic rewriting, for the purpose of adding syncopations and a '" " I I," I", :Issignment only to discover that it was all done incorrectly.
more spontaneous sort of rhythmic phrasing. 11111~~i/',IiIll(.:ntscan be lengthened later, when the students are more
"11 11111 It'.
Copies of choice tunes to be studied and analyzed for attributes.
Hand-outs pertaining to reharmonization and chord substitution 11lit\' sludents are knowledgeable about MIDI and the university
methods. IIII dll I.Il'ilil ics, much class time can be saved if the students prepared
Hand-out listing harmonic and melodic aspects of tunes that 111111
d~"j",nmcnts on MIDI rather than having to read, rehearse, and
cause them to be attractive to the listener. 1'111 dll'lll in class.
1\1 1.11
h<.:rstrict about the mechanics of arranging, especially at
Alternate Text Possibilities: 11, I. ~IIl It .ISthe quality of the calligraphy, accuracy of transposition for
Arranging And Composing For The Small Jazz Ensemble (Baker) 1\1 lilt! 1.:1, inSLruments (including the correct octave), numbers of beats

90 91

in measures, and other basic skills that pertain to the mechanical lId ~,dlll ions that were used by well-known composers/arrangers on
preparation of scores and parts. As it was mentioned about beginning 1IIIIIdilll;'~ they've heard. By merely triggering their innate creativity
improvisers who need to understand that wrong notes are unaccept- Jill~\ 1I1,IY come back with yet another solution, one that is equal or
able, and jazz theory students who need to think in terms of 100% 1011111 dun what you might have done, better than anyone of the

accuracy instead of a passing score, it is also true that young arrangers "111 it 111\ you mentioned, even better than what the well-known person
11 I 11111,,( I.
need to understand the gravity of accuracy in the score and parts.
Many good, even great arrangements have been refused by pro- 1'111 Il':lch ing melodic form, this author uses excerpts from Jazz
fessional ensembles simply because the parts were inaccurate, unnec- ';"/'u//I/II/lion (David Baker), or Arranging And Composing For The
essarily complicated (i.e., the inflated use of repeat signs, repeated ,,It/II /,/\,~\ h'nsemble (Baker), and ImprovisingJazz (Coker), all of which
measures, multiple D.S. and D,e. markings, 3rd and 4th endings, and IIll1d'" "l'gments on melodic development.

verbalized short-cuts, like "play same changes as letter A and B, but

play an Ab 7 instead of the Db -7 in the third bar, and use the 3rd ending
only"), or simply because the parts were, for calligraphic reasons, hard
to read. The student must be made to understand that they must
produce scores and parts which practically 'read themselves'. Joseph A.
Artis, who was my teacher of classical piano, theory, and arranging
when I was fifteen years old, used to say (repeatedly), "Remember, you
are always responsible for the other fellow's mistakes"! While his
memory is once again revived, let me add another axiom he used to
repeat often to composers and arrangers, this time relating to what
they might be chosing to write in their scores. He would say, "What
does not sound well should not be written"! It's easy to see why the
memory of him lingers for a lifetime, for those who were fortunate
enough to study with him. His axioms, and there were many, were
simple, true, and forever valid and helpful.
When arranging students ask for assistance or feedback from you,
don't simply tell them what you think they ought to do, as you want
to protect their creativity somewhat, rather than create a clone of
yourself. On the other hand, don't send them away to re-do the
assignment without any new input from you. The best thing you can
do for them is to trigger their own creativity by mentioning a host or
options they may have overlooked, options which could be combined,
92 93

Jazz Arranging II ! 111' 1'l'ldi'ssionalArranger/Composer (Rusell Garcia)

t "Ill i.11H .ok is about thirry-five years old, but still a fine book for
Text: Inside The Score (Wright) It I illf',illg tcchniques. Sebesky's book is a fine book for putting
11'1, 1111IlloJ'(;-:Jdvanced writers. The books by Dick Grove and
Weeks 1-5 (approx.) Study of the scores and large ensemble writi Ilj', 1,11111
I )I,l.llIlont should also be investigated as possible texts.
techniques of Nestico, Jones, and Brookmeyer (text).
Weeks 6-10 (approx.) Study of the Clare Fischer scores on "Extcll Additional Teaching Suggestions
sions" (provided by insttuctor). Study (through lisltll
ing) of other arrangers, to include Charles Mingus, Cil 1111\1'
i 1111\'will have to be spent with familiarizing the students
Evans, Ron Miller, and Coker. I1 IllIf\I~1 tn\llspositions, and idiosyncracies of the many instru-
Weeks 11-15 (approx.) Students select tunes, submit 'plans', writ(, 11jil. I,ll which they will be scoring and preparing parts. Special
scores, and copy parts for arrangements for large j:l'I.'/ lit I!, 1111.1"possible by brass mutings should also be investigated, as
ensemble, to be played and taped by the Jazz Ensembl\" !! I1I1\111111
wi od doubling possibilities and the chairs to which those
lildllil'.'l "Illlldd normally be assigned. Have them listen to some Gil
Hand-outs/Supplements ,il__, IIII~, wiil, their many hybrid combinations (mixed mutings,
11\\IIllIlwlllds with brass, ete.) and challenge them to identifY those
In this author's course, students are given copies of the scores frOll1 ilhjlllllll'I~, I 1:1 vc them listen, also, to some of Duke Ellington's
the album, Extensions, by Clare Fischer. Fischer's genius as a composn/ t,.III1I\~' 1!1IIll(; same reason, and to identifY which instrument(s)

arranger (especially in the area of harmonies and voicings) are well

j~ i111\I ) 1I11·1\'.ld:tnd where that voice occurs within a stacked chord.
known to some of us who write music (Herbie Hancock and Hill IIillIl~ st'ori ng possiblitities are taken up, in the text or from
Dobbins, for starters!). Because of a long, enduring friendship, Ihi iil 11111
111I',\Ilotes, urge the students to keep a list of those
author was fortunate enough to have received copies of ExtensiolJl, !lIlhl"I", ~II ill:l1 they can refer to the list while they are scoring, to

which, by the composer's own testimony, was some of his finest worl\, !l1I1I.!till III Ill' Ihcir many options.
So it was only natural that this material be placed in the hands OfYOllIIP, III 11 II j,~ time to have their arrangements played by an en-

arrangers who could benefit from the many revelatory aspects 01 1I!1,I\. 1IIIdlld 111(; students not to judge themselves too harshly if
Fischer's mastery of the idiom. However, as these scores are not ill .1 ti dl. Ijljlllilll<.;dby what they hear. When you add the perform-

published form, the reader may have to substitute other scores that li I1 ,I1Ill' 11) what you were hearing as you wrote it, there is often
merit careful investigation. III I,ll It. I' 111.1
t is not necessarily the arranger's fault. This author has
III 1""11 ,11 I,11l1',(;mentsbeing sight-read by an ensemble in which
Alternate Text Possibilities: 1111111111',,',nulld was deplorable. The student has to learn to
The Contemporary Arranger (Don Sebesky) "',111,I i 111'1 W\TO performance problems and compositional prob-

94 95

Advanced Improvisation .11111'Iillldllg LQ'in-class performances' ).

I1 I Idill vkt's to be used with "I Got Rhythm" progression.
Text: Wilyne Shorter play-along (Aebersold, Vat. 33) "1111 • III I 11 11cs used for study of Coltrane matrix.
"Ilil. III tll11es Llsed for 12-key study (such as "Stella By Starlight",
Week 1 Distribution of syllabus and hand-outs (4 pertaining to I loll IlIld", :lI1d others).
In-Class Performances, plus "Interval Patterns"). Begin Iil 1'"1 tIII will need some ear-training tapes for use in class.
"Interval Patterns" (continuing until all have been don"
in class) and the playing of melodies in 12 keys (melo- 1,[11111111' "t'XI Possibilities:

dies selected by instructor). "Y pl:ly-along which has a number of good, but difficult
Weeks 2-4 Demonstration of In-Class Performance by instructor, IlIltllll'lIl.lry tunes, such as Aebersold's Volume 4 (Movin' On),
followed by discussion of problems to be solved in such HillllIl I) (Woody Shaw) , Volume 10 (David Baker), Volume 19
a project. Continuance ofInterval Patterns and various I i,l\1 I 11·IIIII:1n),or Volume 35 (Cedar Walton).
melodies in 12 keys. Study and performance of tunes 1/11' IIllIsic OfRon Miller would be very appropriate, if it was not
using the Coltrane Matrix ("Giant Steps," "Counl- "'I,d, IlIvl'rcd in the sophomore course, and the new Liebman-
down," etc.). lit 11,lt (Quest-Standards) from Advance Music are fine
Weeks 5-6 Improvisation in 12 keys (Blues, "Stella by Starlight," in! "iI~ pllrpose. Some instructors may want to put together a
"Ladybird," etc.). Ear training with improvisation (on Ii'illlt,·,ill' lape for Advanced Improvisation, similar to what this
tapes). Begin work on In-Class Performance tape. IIdll iI dlll',~ ror the sophomore improvisation courses.
Weeks 7-9 Study of "I Got Rhythm" progression, in 12 keys, :11 \llllIlIlgh no text book was specified for this course, a good
various tempos, and with common devices used on that II!i~~11
tlllly I()I'that purpose would be Advanced Improvisation (David
progression. Begin tempo study (ca. 180-320).
Weeks 10-12 Perform tunes from Wayne Shorter play-along.
Weeks 13-14 (approx.) In-Class Performances by each member of' Additional Teaching Suggestions
class, plus 'post-mortem' discussion after each.
Week 15 Final examination (written). \~ 11was described in Chapter 2, the Advanced Improvisation
1"llIld 1111 ilS on topics which would have been too difficult for
Hand-outs/Supplements ita /,.111111111', j IIIprovisers, such as playing melodies and improvising in all
i·II,~,I.I~i 1('I11POstudy, improvising at sight on 'new tunes', learning to
Interval Studies. illl'l ,llIlId ,~llbstitutions and special devices over blues and "I Got
Tempo Study (see following pages). 1111""1111" 1\l11CS,interval studies, working with the Coltrane matrix,
Instructions For In-Class Performances, Preparing A Tune For Per it! 1\ 1111'. IIVI'" drones, more contemporary vehicles, and an emphasis on
formance, And In-Class Performance Evaluation (see following pages. H 'id 11 I1I V." IICS.The course also affords some time to quickly review

96 97
11AI llIlli ' Ill' ' "\ IIUII!i IH 1111',

/I'/II/lfl Study
some aspects of the sop homo re course which were difficult enouglllll
require considerable self-application during the ensuing year.
Since this course is possibly the last formal course the} Stlld~'1I1
OS\('"~I\lh llii_ tlllll)' j~ 1111'.1111
to facilitate the playing of espe-

will take in improvisation, the instructor needs to use it as .111 cially faSI \l 1I11'1Ie,.
I \1 iWCVfl'j 1I1~1111 rinsically tied to several other facets
opportunity to fill gaps, eliminate weaknesses, re-check their theol ('11 of playin\" ,11'IIIY 1[11,\111 \'111'pl:\yer must learn to identify his/her
cal understanding, set their attitudes toward improvisation for Ilfl , pwblem 1'''' "d y. it ,t., I" "1>1.-,,, is to b, solv<d with any dell'oe of
teach them how to troubleshoot their own problems provide t1l('11I efflCiency. ""1111'111111~' \111'Ilhll'\ :Iuses for experiencing difficulty with

with alist of still more things to be accomplished aftergraduation (1111 playing tCIl'1111~111;l
author's list is entitled, "Where Do We Go From Here?"). (l) a bdt III 11l~III1I\1f'"lj" Il'chnique, in terms of fmger speed.
AClll:\lIy. d\l, \11 rdlitivl Iy 1.11'<':,
as evidenced by the ability of most
I,\plllll ills, glissandi, and fall-offs with reason-
plaYl'I" 1111'1('11111'
ab\<.:t'.I~I·.\1 I~,1111111
dll·Ir~S, one possibility;
(2) difrtCllllY wldl IIIl 11,,11'1',
I.:I10ugh attention on the pulse that is
provided hy dll dlllllllller and bassist, due (usually) to getting
caugh I 11 pili d 11 11111
il :\Cics of improvising;
(3) inapprOpll.ll1 1,11/ ph,·:\sing, such as over-articulating or having
probkllH' wi d I I'l.lyill\\ swingy eighth-notes (i.e., playing dotted-
eighlhhixll'I'"lh, ills\(;ad of something closer to a 12/8 feel). No
onc call ,Ill \I.llly Idl you how to swing, though you might come
close hy lI~jlll', ,hI: \ 2/8 feel, accenting upbeats, and tongueing
upb,"" ,,,,,I sl""'i,,~ into downbeats. But even mo" applied
interprctations will only simulate the real thing. Listening to
players who arc unanimously felt to swing especially hard is
problably the best way to discover the swing feel.
I:.ven if the player experiences no difficulty with any of the foregoing,
II1\)SIplayers have a breaking point, with respect to good pulse relation.
I'\1.11is, although they have the technique, phrasing, and ability to
li~i\'l\ \0 their musical surroundings (the latter possibly still part of the
1''',h""") ,rtC< a ce"ain point in the tempO spread, ca"ful l~"ning
11\\I'vl.;\1 that the player is no longer coinciding with the provided

11I11~lij '\'I,j, is more a problem of controlled technique, coordination,

Ii 11\ I1\'11It nr I:X p<.:rienceplaying the fastertempos. And this is more the

wlltI<illg with tempos:

problem being addressed in this study, though points 1-3 above must
still be considered as contributing to the problem. I I1 ~\.I.1'III Hth notes most of the time, using them as measuring units
First the breaking point must be located, by selecting play-alongs illl I hv pulse;

that slowly climb the tempo scale, and listening carefully to detect the I,) I 11',1"
non-terminal patterns, diatonic substance, more chro-
i.~rn,'machine licks', and in general, less angularity;
first signs of a breakdown in pulse relation. The following list is a
[ \11",111111IOrecarefully to accompaniment than usual, thinking a
possibility for such a play-along sequence, focusing on tunes which
Illtll' k-,~sabout solo content;
require very little effort, harmonically, so that the concentration may
1I Iflll hl' tempo in 2, instead of 4, so as to minimize tension;
be placed on time-feel:
\', I dill ((11'look) ahead more, concentrate harder, and don't wilt or
Title Source I ill illto lOO many short, choppy phrases;
It" I1 1ll',ilit'l1phrase units;
190 In Case You Haven't Heard JA-9 I 1,/11:'/11111(;
chotuses before playing them, so you won't be dis-
200 What Is This Thing Called Love JA -15 11111\ 'd hy the problems of playing the instrument;
224 Impressions (slower version) JA-28 1111~IIIVI' 101'all emphatic feeling of swing and phrasing, for building
232 Tenor Madness JA-8 I ~111'1l'
11('conviction and commitment;

240 F Blues with Bridge JA-3 [I) 111111'0111('1"

learning to play some drums or bass (it certainly worked
260 Mr. P.c. JA-27 11111\ 1il«· Brecker, Randy Brecker, and Dave Liebman, among
284 Nutville JA-17 1"IIII'il);
300 Impressions (fast version) JA-28 HilllI .\11111pr:lctice (when not using play-alongs), increase dramati-
320 Lover RR-9 I 1111)' 111l'Il"mpos of 'heads', patterns, scales, ete., perhaps using a

When the breaking point has been determined, note the tempo.
Then, using a copy of a tempo legend (ask me for one), back up aboul
10-15 'notches' on the tempo (selecting any tune you wish at that
tempo), and slowly work your way back up to, and hopefully past, th'"
tempo that first gave you problems. Remember, if you have a tape
player with variable speed, you can play the tune in a different key (and
tempo), if the tune is not too difficult, giving you some tempo
flexibility that can fill gaps where you don't own a listed play-along.
Each half-step change in pitch alters the tempo by about 1~
Finally, the following list is provided as a helpful set of guidelines,
100 101