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Health, Education, Social Protection News & Notes 23/2011

A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit)


06 November 2011
You can download back issues (2005 - 2011) of this newsletter at: http://german-practice-collection.org/en/links/newsletters/hesp-news-and-notes or search all issues there with:

Table of Contents: BOOKS ................................................................................ 4


The State of World Population 2011: People and Possibilities in a World of 7 Billion ............ 4 Human Development Report 2011.......................................................................................... 4 Poor economics: a radical rethinking of the way to fight global poverty ................................. 4 Closing the Cancer Divide: A Blueprint to Expand Access in Low and Middle Income Countries ................................................................................................................................. 5 Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2011 ................................................................. 5 Testing Treatments: Better Research for Better Healthcare................................................... 5 Stage for Change: An Artists Guide to Gender, Sexuality, HIV & AIDS Advocacy................ 6

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS .................................................... 6


Global Health................................................................................................................ 6
User fee removal in the health sector in low-income countries: lessons from recent national initiatives.................................................................................................................................. 6 Why Population Matters .......................................................................................................... 6 Media and Global Health: From Information to Action ............................................................ 7 Global Health and the New Bottom Billion: What Do Shifts in Global Poverty and the Global Disease Burden Mean for GAVI and the Global Fund? .......................................................... 7 The Case for Europe as a Leader in Research and Innovation for Global Health.................. 7 Five Lives: How a Financial Transaction Tax Could Support Global Health .......................... 8

HIV - AIDS - STI ........................................................................................................... 8


Disease burden, proportionality and the AIDS funding debate - Towards clarity on whether the world is spending too much on HIV/AIDS........................................................................ 8 UNESCOS Strategy for HIV and AIDS................................................................................... 8 Guidelines of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) .................................................... 9 Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention ................................................... 9 HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data....................................................................... 9 Stay Healthy: A Gender-Transformative HIV Prevention Curriculum for Youth in Namibia . 10

Sexual & Reproductive Health ................................................................................... 10


Against Her Will: Forced and Coerced Sterilization of Women Worldwide........................... 10 Strengthening the adolescent component of HIV/AIDS and reproductive health programmes ............................................................................................................................................... 10

Maternal & Child Health ............................................................................................. 11


Improving Womens Health in South Africa........................................................................... 11 Incidence of severe acute maternal morbidity associated with abortion: a systematic review ............................................................................................................................................... 11 Integrated Management of Childhood Illness: Caring for Newborns and Children in the Community ............................................................................................................................ 11 2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis ................................................................................................................. 12

HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 1

Disseminating Maternal Health Information to Rural Women: A User Centered Design Framework ............................................................................................................................ 12

Malaria........................................................................................................................ 13
Atlas of Malaria-Eliminating Countries .................................................................................. 13 Country Road Maps to Achieve 2011 Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Targets ............................. 13 A whole parasite vaccine to control the blood stages of Plasmodium the case for lateral thinking .................................................................................................................................. 13 Malaria Elimination in Zanzibar: A Feasibility Assessment................................................... 14 Travel risk, malaria importation and malaria transmission in Zanzibar................................. 14 Implementing ideal health policy in a fragile health system: the example of expanding the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in mainland Tanzania ................................................. 14 Validity of Verbal Autopsy Procedures for Determining Malaria Deaths in Different Epidemiological Settings in Uganda...................................................................................... 15

Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................... 15
Integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis services in sub-Saharan Africa ........................ 15 Systematic review of cost and cost-effectiveness of different TB-screening strategies ....... 15 MDR-TB Planning Toolkit...................................................................................................... 16

Other Infectious Diseases .......................................................................................... 16


Working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases - Update 2011 ....... 16 The Neglected Tropical Diseases of India and South Asia: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Control or Elimination................................................................................. 16 Report of the Independent Monitoring Board of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative........ 17 Cholera - Modern Pandemic Disease of Ancient Lineage .................................................... 17 Toward Sustainable and Comprehensive Control of Schistosomiasis in China: Lessons from Sichuan.................................................................................................................................. 17 Sleeping Sickness in Travelers - Do They Really Sleep?..................................................... 18

Essential Medicines.................................................................................................... 18
Understanding and responding to pharmaceutical promotion: A practical guide.................. 18 A win-win solution?: A critical analysis of tiered pricing to improve access to medicines in developing countries ............................................................................................................. 18

Social Protection ........................................................................................................ 19


Cash or Condition? Evidence from a Cash Transfer Experiment ......................................... 19 Building Resilience & Opportunity......................................................................................... 19 Social Protection Floor for a Fair and Inclusive Globalization............................................... 19 Children and social protection in the Middle East and North Africa ...................................... 20

Human Resources...................................................................................................... 20
Outreach Services as a Strategy to Increase Access to Health Workers in Remote and Rural Areas ........................................................................................................................... 20 Thirty years after Alma-Ata: a systematic review of the impact of community health workers delivering curative interventions against malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea on child mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa ...................................................................... 20 Lay health worker attrition: important but often ignored........................................................ 21 Health Worker Shortages and Global Justice ....................................................................... 21

Health Systems & Research ...................................................................................... 21


Priorities for Research on Equity and Health: Towards an Equity-Focused Health Research Agenda .................................................................................................................................. 21 The Knowledge Translation Toolkit: A Resource for Researchers ....................................... 22 Facilitating the use of research evidence.............................................................................. 22 Health system determinants of infant, child and maternal mortality: A cross-sectional study of UN member countries ....................................................................................................... 22 Impact of Health Research Capacity Strengthening in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The Case of WHO/TDR Programmes................................................................................... 22

Information & Communication Technology ................................................................ 23


Evaluation of HIFA2015 ........................................................................................................ 23 10 Portal Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them............................................................................. 23 The Health Communicators Social Media Toolkit ................................................................ 23

Education ................................................................................................................... 24
Global Education Digest 2011: Comparing Education Statistics Across the World.............. 24 Why Did Abolishing Fees Not Increase Public School Enrollment in Kenya? ...................... 24 Guidelines for Open Educational Resources (OER) in Higher Education ............................ 25

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Building Support for Gender Equality among Young Adolescents in School: Findings from Mumbai, India........................................................................................................................ 25

Harm Reduction and Drug Use .................................................................................. 25


The Rehab Archipelago: Forced Labor and Other Abuses in Drug Detention Centers in Southern Vietnam.................................................................................................................. 25

Millennium Development Goals.................................................................................. 26


A post-2015 global development agreement: why, what, who?............................................ 26 Keeping the promise: realizing the Millennium Development Goals for persons with disabilities towards 2015 and beyond ................................................................................... 26

Development Assistanc.............................................................................................. 26
On the Road to Busan: What is at stake for gender equality and womens rights?.............. 26 Innovation with Impact: Financing 21st Century Development ............................................. 27 Can we obtain the required rigour without randomisation? Oxfam GBs non-experimental Global Performance Framework ........................................................................................... 27 Commitment to Development Index 2011............................................................................. 27 A Mile Wide and an Inch Deep? Understanding Support for Aid in the UK ........................ 27 A New Instrument to Advance Development Effectiveness: Program-For-Results Lending 28

Others......................................................................................................................... 28
Transfer of evidence-based medical guidelines to low- and middle-income countries......... 28 Mapping Violence Against Women ....................................................................................... 29 Poverty and mental disorders: breaking the cycle in low-income and middle-income countries ................................................................................................................................ 29 Addressing Health of the Urban Poor in South-East Asia Region: Challenges and Opportunities ......................................................................................................................... 29

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ............................................ 30


The UNESCO Global Open Access Portal ........................................................................... 30 HIV Prevention Knowledge Base .......................................................................................... 30 Bulletin of the World Health Organization ............................................................................. 30

INTERESTING WEB SITES .............................................. 30


CrowdOutAIDS...................................................................................................................... 30 The World at 7 Billion ............................................................................................................ 31 AIDS Prevention and Health Promotion Workplace Programmes in Southern Africa (AWiSA) Network ................................................................................................................................. 31 SciDev.Net's Sub-Saharan Africa ......................................................................................... 31

JOB OPPORTUNITIES...................................................... 31
Public Health Expert at the Swiss Centre for International Health........................................ 31

CARTOON ......................................................................... 32 TIPS & TRICKS ................................................................. 32


Windows Experience Index ................................................................................................... 32 What Does that Program Do? ............................................................................................... 33

HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 3

BOOKS
The State of World Population 2011: People and Possibilities in a World of 7 Billion
by Barbara Crossette, Richard Kollodge, Rune Froseth et al. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), October 2011 132 pp. 5.2 MB: http://foweb.unfpa.org/SWP2011/reports/EN-SWOP2011-FINAL.pdf This years State of World Population report looks at the dynamics behind the numbers. It explains the trends that are defining our world of 7 billion and documents actions that people in vastly different countries and circumstances are taking in their own communities to make the most of their - and our - world. The report makes the case for sound planning and investing in people. ***

Human Development Report 2011


Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All by Jeni Klugman, Francisco Rodrguez, Shital Beejadhur et al. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), November 2011 185 pp. 5.8 MB: http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf This Report explores the integral links between environmental sustainability and equity and shows that these are critical to expanding human freedoms for people today and in generations to come. The point of departure is that the remarkable progress in human development over recent decades cannot continue without bold global steps to reduce environmental risks and inequality. The report identifies pathways for people, communities, countries and the international community to promote environmental sustainability and equity in mutually reinforcing ways. ***

Poor economics: a radical rethinking of the way to fight global poverty


by Abhijit V. Banerjee and Esther Duflo PublicAffairs Books, 2011 You need the free EPUBReader add-on for your browser to read the book, e.g. http://www.addictivetips.com/windows-tips/top-4-free-epub-reader-software/ 289 pp. 512 kB:
http://www.filesonic.com/file/1454212704/Poor_Economics_A_Radical_Rethinking_of_the _Way_to_Fight_Global_Poverty.epub (choose Slow download

For Multimedia Information per chapters see: http://www.pooreconomics.com/chapters/1-think-again-again Billions of government dollars, and thousands of charitable organizations and NGOs, are dedicated to helping the worlds poor. But much of their work is based on assumpHESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 4

tions that are untested generalizations at best, harmful misperceptions at worst. The authors have pioneered the use of randomized control trials in development economics. Work based on these principles, is being carried out in dozens of countries. Drawing on this and their 15 years of research from Chile to India, Kenya to Indonesia, they have identified wholly new aspects of the behavior of poor people, their needs, and the way that aid or financial investment can affect their lives. ***

Closing the Cancer Divide: A Blueprint to Expand Access in Low and Middle Income Countries
by Felicia Marie Knaul, Julio Frenk and Lawrence Shulman for the Global Task Force on Expanded Access to Cancer Care and Control in Developing Countries, Harvard Global Equity Initiative, October 2011 286 pp. 29.1 MB(!): http://ghsm.hms.harvard.edu/uploads/pdf/ccd_report_111027.pdf This Report provides a blueprint for expanding access in low and middle income countries to reduce the immense disparities in outcomes that constitute the cancer divide. In three sections, the Report outlines what should, what could, and what can be done to close this divide. The proposed strategies can strengthen health systems in ways that will benefit all countries. ***

Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2011


by Rikke Munk Hansen, Eric Hermouet, Krisana Boonpriroje et al. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 2011 312 pp. 9.1 MB: http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/syb2011/ESCAP-syb2011.pdf The fourth edition of the revised Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific presents comparable, cross-sectoral statistical data and analyses on population, the environment, the state of the economy and connectivity for the Asia-Pacific region, including subregional, regional and global aggregates which help place regional developments in a global context. This publication is the result of contributions from numerous regional and global offices of the United Nations system. ***

Testing Treatments: Better Research for Better Healthcare


by Imogen Evans, Hazel Thornton, Iain Chalmers and Paul Glasziou British Library - Second Edition 2011 226 pp. 2.8 MB: http://www.testingtreatments.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/TTinteractive-optimised.pdf How do we know whether a particular treatment really works? How reliable is the evidence? And how do we ensure that research into medical treatments best meets the needs of patients? These are just a few of the questions addressed in this book. Testing Treatments urges everyone to get involved in improving current research and future HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 5

treatment, and outlines practical steps that patients and doctors can take together. ***

Stage for Change: An Artists Guide to Gender, Sexuality, HIV & AIDS Advocacy
by Sara Mabelis, Lea L. Espallardo, Emma Rose Quesada-Medina et al. PETA and UNESCO Bangkok, 2011 148 pp. 20 MB(!): http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002125/212596e.pdf As a culturally rooted communication medium, performing arts across the world have traditionally been used as not only a form of entertainment, but also to convey essential messages, knowledge and skills from one generation to the next. Movement, drama and dance can all engage audiences in a manner that transcends literacy barriers. By creating thought provoking performances that speak directly to the audience, sensitive topics can be broached, conceptions broken down, myths dispelled and a fresh understanding formed. It is these qualities that make using performing arts a powerful vehicle with which to transmit messages on gender and sexual health.

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS
Global Health User fee removal in the health sector in low-income countries: lessons from recent national initiatives
Health Policy Plan. 26(suppl 2) November 2011 Access all articles at no charge in this special edition of Health Policy and Planning at: http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/suppl_2.toc User fees have triggered impassioned discussions in international health over the last two decades. Promoted by a number of international organizations since the late 1980s as a strategy to finance struggling public health facilities in many low-income countries, recent years have seen growing criticism of the impact of fees on access to health services, particularly for the poorest groups. The debate continues and there is evidence for both sides of the argument. User fees are a barrier to users, and the poor in particular, but they also have some valuable characteristics. ***

Why Population Matters


by Shelly Amieva, Yonas Asfaw, Kristine Berzins et al. Population Action International, 2011 68 pp. 6.8 MB: http://www.populationaction.org/Publications/Report/Why_Populati on_Matters/Why_Population_Matters.pdf The report explains how population is connected to other development issues such as maternal health, poverty, security, climate change, and biodiversity. In developing counHESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 6

tries around the world, more than 200 million women want to prevent pregnancy but need modern contraception. Providing voluntary family planning allows women to improve their health, while easing pressure on natural resources, increasing resilience to climate change and making emissions easier to reduce. ***

Media and Global Health: From Information to Action


Internews, October 2011 12 pp. 848 kB: http://www.internews.org/pubs/health/IN_HealthFlyer-2011-10.pdf This publication promotes the belief that establishing, supporting, and enhancing local information platforms can contribute significantly to health-seeking behavior and community mobilization around health issues. Internews is an international media development organization whose mission is to empower local media worldwide to give people the news and information they need, the ability to connect, and the means to make their voices heard. ***

Global Health and the New Bottom Billion: What Do Shifts in Global Poverty and the Global Disease Burden Mean for GAVI and the Global Fund?
by Amanda Glassman, Denizhan Duran, and Andy Sumner Center for Global Development, October 2011 37 pp. 1.0 MB: http://www.cgdev.org/files/1425581_file_Glassman_Duran_Sumn er_MIC_global_health_FINAL.pdf After a decade of rapid growth in average incomes, many countries have attained middle-income country (MIC) status, while poverty hasnt fallen as much as one might expect. As a result, there are up to a billion poor people or a new bottom billion living not in the worlds poorest countries but in MIC. Not only has the global distribution of poverty shifted to MIC, so has the global disease burden. The paper describes trends in the global distribution of poverty, preventable infectious diseases, and health aid response to date and proposes a new MIC strategy and components, concluding with recommendations. ***

The Case for Europe as a Leader in Research and Innovation for Global Health
by Samantha Battams & Stephen Matlin Global Health Europe (GHE) Position Paper, October 2011 29 pp. 994 kB: http://www.globalhealtheurope.org/images/stories/ghe/GHE_CaseforEuropeasLe aderinGHresearch.pdf Europe is well placed to take a lead role in developing global health research and innovation. This paper explores the potential and makes recommendations for Europes role in research and innovation to improve global health. It highlights the need for coherence between Horizon 2020 and other key EU policies, including that on the EUs role in HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 7

global health, and the potential for global health research to play an instrumental role in achieving Europe 2020 goals of growth, innovation and social inclusion. ***

Five Lives: How a Financial Transaction Tax Could Support Global Health
Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), 2011 12 pp. 1.4 MB: http://www.msfaccess.org/sites/default/files/MSF_assets/CAME/Five Lives/Access_Briefing_FiveLives_ENG_2011_FINAL.pdf The financial transaction tax (FTT) proposed by France and Germany and due to be discussed in the November G20 Summit, could help save millions of lives if a percentage were allocated to global health. Five Lives outlines through five personal stories the transformative impact an FTT allocation to global health could have. It is estimated the funds raised by an EU FTT could reach 55 billion Euros per year. Even a portion of that sum would be a significant boost to tackling global health crises.

HIV - AIDS - STI Disease burden, proportionality and the AIDS funding debate - Towards clarity on whether the world is spending too much on HIV/AIDS
by Matthew MacDevette Centre for Social Science Research (CSSR) Working Paper No. 297, September 2011 67 pp. 1.5 MB: http://www.cssr.uct.ac.za/sites/cssr.uct.ac.za/files/pubs/WP297.pdf There is currently considerable uncertainty surrounding the future of HIV/AIDS funding. With pressures from the recent financial crisis forcing donors to carefully review their spending priorities, some have claimed that HIV/AIDS receives too much money relative to its disease burden. This paper seeks to clarify this issue by examining the proportionality of HIV/AIDS funding to its disease burden in the year 2008 by measuring that percentage of total health expenditure spent on HIV/AIDS against that percentage of total disease burden attributable to the disease. ***

UNESCOS Strategy for HIV and AIDS


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), June 2011 36 pp. 596 kB: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001931/193118E.pdf The new strategy for HIV and AIDS articulates UNESCOs contribution to the UNAIDS objectives outlined in the strategy Getting to Zero, and calls for the need to accelerate universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. It acknowledges that the global AIDS epidemic is changing; treatment is helping people live longer and healthier lives with HIV, and now is the time for context-specific, targeted approaches HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 8

based on evidence and good practice. ***

Guidelines of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS)


Version 6.0 - October 2011 61 pp. 3.1 MB: http://www.europeanaidsclinicalsociety.org/images/stories/EACSPdf/eacsguidelines-6.pdf The new edition of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) treatment guidelines for people with HIV was published recently at the 13th European AIDS Conference in Belgrade, Serbia. The guidelines make no fundamental changes to the CD4 count criteria for starting antiretroviral therapy (ART), retaining 350 cells/mm3 as the threshold. But they extend the range of situations in which ART is recommended for people with higher CD4 cell counts and also include a range of situations in which ART should be considered. ***

Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention


by G. Kahn, A. James, Elliot Marseille, et al. Current HIV Research, Vol. 9, Nr. 6, September 2011, pp. 405-415 11 pp. 264 kB:
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/search/download;jsessionid=1ogj4fhxpp0f.victoria ?pub=infobike%3a%2f%2fben%2fchr%2f2011%2f00000009%2f00000006%2fart00007&m imetype=application%2fpdf

Recent empirical studies and analyses have heightened interest in the use of expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of HIV transmission. However, ART is expensive, approximately US$ 600 per person per year, raising issues of the cost and costeffectiveness of ambitious ART expansion. The goal of this review is to equip the reader with the conceptual tools and substantive background needed to understand and evaluate the policy and programmatic implications of cost-effectiveness assessments of ART for prevention. For more freely accessible articles on Exploring the Role of Treatment as Prevention see: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/chr/2011/00000009/00000006 ***

HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data
by Sam M Mbulaiteye, Kishor Bhatia, Clement Adebamowo et al. Infectious Agents and Cancer 2011, 6:16 (17 October 2011) 40 pp. 236 kB: http://www.infectagentscancer.com/content/pdf/1750-9378-6-16.pdf The impact of HIV infection on cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of the epidemic is concentrated, remains poorly understood. In this paper, the authors review current literature and explore merits for integrating cancer research in established HIV programs to obtain timely data about the incidence and burden of cancer in HIV-infected persons in Africa. *** HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 9

Stay Healthy: A Gender-Transformative HIV Prevention Curriculum for Youth in Namibia


by Nhlanhla Mabizela, Jeffery Monakisi, Mogomotsi Mfalapitsa et al. EngenderHealth/RESPOND and LifeLine/ChildLine Prototype, September 2011 234 pp. 2.1 MB: http://www.respond-project.org/pages/files/6_pubs/curricula-manuals/HIV-youthcurriculum-16September2011-FINAL.pdf This prototype curriculum is meant to be used to help youth better understand the role of gender norms in the HIV epidemic and adopt healthy behaviours. Stay Healthy focuses on changing three key behaviours directly related to HIV infection: (1) delaying the onset of sexual intercourse, (2) increasing the correct and consistent use of the male condom among sexually active youth, and (3) decreasing multiple concurrent partners among sexually active youth. Set in a Namibian context, this highly interactive curriculum comprises a series of 18 linked sessions that can be easily adapted for use with youth in school and non school settings, as well as with youth in other countries.

Sexual & Reproductive Health Against Her Will: Forced and Coerced Sterilization of Women Worldwide
Open Society Foundations, October 2011 12 pp. 555 kB: http://www.soros.org/initiatives/health/focus/law/articles_publicatio ns/publications/against-her-will-20111004/against-her-will-20111003.pdf Women across the globe have been forced or coerced by medical personnel to submit to permanent and irreversible sterilization procedures. Despite condemnation from the United Nations, cases of forced and coerced sterilization have been reported in North and South America, Africa, Asia, and Europe. Women who are poor or stigmatized are most likely to be deemed unworthy of reproduction. Perpetrators are seldom held accountable and victims rarely obtain justice for this violent abuse of their rights. ***

Strengthening the adolescent component of HIV/AIDS and reproductive health programmes


A five-day training course for public health managers World Health Organization, October 2011 Day 1-3 (173 pp. 2.8 MB): http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241501477_eng.pdf Day 4-5 (73 pp. 2.3 MB): http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241501477_eng_Day4-5-end.pdf A key assumption behind this course is that public health managers often have experience in designing and implementing HIV and reproductive health programmes but lack the understanding of what needs to be done differently to reach and serve young peoHESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 10

ple. This course therefore presents the key concepts and approaches needed by a public health manager in order to plan HIV and reproductive health interventions and programmes that effectively address the needs of young people.

Maternal & Child Health Improving Womens Health in South Africa


Opportunities for PEPFAR by Janet Fleischman Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), October 2011 22 pp. 1.2 MB: http://csis.org/files/publication/111024_Fleischman_ImprovingWom ensHealth_Web.pdf A period of major change is unfolding in health and HIV services in South Africa, carrying opportunities and risks for delivering effective, integrated health services that improve health outcomes and save lives. South Africa is decentralizing HIV services to the primary health care level, paving the way for greater integration to address womens health and to reduce maternal mortality. The United States can find feasible, flexible ways to support this process, even though its health program through the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is scaling down. ***

Incidence of severe acute maternal morbidity associated with abortion: a systematic review
by A. J. Adler, V. Filippi, S. L. Thomas et al. Tropical Medicine & International Health; Article first published online: 31 October 2011 14 pp. 146 kB: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02896.x/pdf The objective of the study was to systematically review articles describing complications of abortion in settings where abortions are thought to be unsafe and to determine the incidence of severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) attributed to abortion at the population level. The authors conclude that the burden of SAMM attributed to abortion is much greater than what is reported for deaths caused by abortion. However, the great heterogeneity in definitions makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. They call for future work on the burden of unsafe abortion to use strict definitions of SAMM. ***

Integrated Management of Childhood Illness: Caring for Newborns and Children in the Community
Manual for the Community Health Worker: Treat diarrhoea, confirmed malaria, and fast breathing by Bernadette Daelmans, Cathy Wolfheim, Rajiv Bahl et al. World Health Organization, October 2011

HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 11

133 pp. 3.3 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241548045_Manual_eng.pdf Facilitator Notes: (195 pp. 2.8 MB):
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241548045_Facilitator_Notes_eng.pdf

Chart Booklet for the Community Health Worker (14 pp 2.1 MB):
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241548045_Chart_Booklet_eng.pdf

Photo Book (21 pp. 2.1 Mb): http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241548045_Photo_Book_eng.pdf This course on Caring for the Sick Child in the Community helps you support families to provide good care for their children. It is part of the strategy called Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). In this course, you will learn to identify signs of illness in a sick child, age 2 months up to 5 years. You will refer some children to the health facility for more care. You will also be able to help families treat at home children with diarrhoea, malaria, or fast breathing. ***

2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
by Jacqueline E Tate, Anthony H Burton, Cynthia Boschi-Pinto et al. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Early Online Publication, 25 October 2011 6 pp. 305 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS147330991 1702535.pdf WHO recommends routine use of rotavirus vaccines in all countries, particularly in those with high mortality attributable to diarrhoeal diseases. To establish the burden of lifethreatening rotavirus disease before the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine, the authors aimed to update the estimated number of deaths worldwide in children younger than 5 years due to diarrhoea attributable to rotavirus infection. They conclude that introduction of effective and available rotavirus vaccines could substantially affect worldwide deaths attributable to diarrhoea. ***

Disseminating Maternal Health Information to Rural Women: A User Centered Design Framework
by Vikram Parmar AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2010; 592-596; Published online 13 November 2010 5 pp. 437 kB: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3041309/pdf/amia2010_sympproc_0592.pdf The delivery of primary health information to rural women is a considerable challenge for government and private sectors in rural India. This paper illustrates how by applying the proposed user centered framework dissemination of maternal health information to rural women can be improved. The results indicate that by following the proposed user centered approach to design the Primary Health Information System, a significant improveHESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 12

ment in knowledge level of rural women and positive changes in health practices are achieved.

Malaria Atlas of Malaria-Eliminating Countries


by C. Cotter, R. Gosling, C. Smith Gueye et al. University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Global Health Group and Malaria Atlas Project (MAP),October 2011 178 pp. 229 MB(!!):
http://www.malariaeliminationgroup.org/sites/default/files/atlas/global/Global-Atlas-2011.pdf

Due to the numerous maps in the Atlas, the total file size is extremely large (229 MB). It is highly recommended that you download this Atlas in sections at:
http://www.malariaeliminationgroup.org/publications/atlas-of-malaria-eliminating-countries-2011

The Atlas displays the geographic distribution of malaria today in those 36 countries that are closest to eliminating the disease - clearly outlining how much malaria remains, and where it is concentrated. Key factors for malaria elimination are visually displayed through maps that link the risk of malaria transmission with climate data, estimate the range of the dominant malaria-carrying mosquito species, and display locations of human populations at risk of malaria. ***

Country Road Maps to Achieve 2011 Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Targets
http://www.rbm.who.int/rbmroadmaps2011.html 2010 was a land mark year for malaria endemic countries, with several of them achieving universal coverage with LLINs in particular for their target population. Significant progress was also seen with the other interventions (ACTs, RDT, IRS and IPT). The 2011 country roadmaps have been developed to maintain those gains, and for the countries that did not achieve universal coverage to catch up. ***

A whole parasite vaccine to control the blood stages of Plasmodium the case for lateral thinking
by Michael F. Good Trends in Parasitology, Vol. 27, No. 8; August 2011 6 pp. 304 kB: http://www.malarianexus.com/articles/read/182/a-whole-parasitevaccine-to-control-the-blood-stages-of-plasmodium-the-case-for-lateral-thinking/ Now, 27 years following the cloning of malaria antigens with the promise of the rapid development of a malaria vaccine, we face significant obstacles that are belatedly being addressed. Poor immunogenicity of subunit vaccine antigens and significant antigenic diversity of target epitopes represent major hurdles for which there are no clear strategies for a way forward. A vaccine that uses the whole organism is now being examined and this opinion paper will outline the possibilities of developing a whole parasite vaccine for the blood stage and address some of the challenges for this strategy, which are entirely different to the challenges for a subunit vaccine. HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 13

Malaria Elimination in Zanzibar: A Feasibility Assessment


Zanzibar Malaria Control Program, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, October 2009 92 pp. 6.7 MB: http://www.malariaeliminationgroup.org/sites/default/files/MalariaEli minationZanzibar.pdf Due to the success that Zanzibar has achieved in reducing its malaria burden, the Zanzibar Malaria Control Program (ZMCP) was facing an important decision of whether to continue sustaining malaria control or to seek malaria elimination. To reach their decision, the ZMCP conducted an assessment to gauge the feasibility of reaching and sustaining malaria elimination from the operational, technical and financial perspectives. This feasibility assessment resulted in a series of evidence-based recommendations, and is the first robust analysis on the feasibility of elimination, therefore forming a strong foundation from which strategic decisions and programmatic shifts in Zanzibar can be made. ***

Travel risk, malaria importation and malaria transmission in Zanzibar


by Arnaud Le Menach, Andrew J. Tatem, Justin M. Cohen Scientific Reports, 1: 93 (15 September 2011) 7 pp. 703 kB: http://www.nature.com/srep/2011/110915/srep00093/pdf/srep00093.pdf The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Zanzibar has reached historic lows. Improving control requires quantifying malaria importation rates, identifying highrisk travellers, and assessing onwards transmission. The authors conclude that malaria infections in Zanzibar largely result from imported malaria and subsequent transmission. Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination appears feasible by implementing control measures based on detecting imported malaria cases and controlling onward transmission. ***

Implementing ideal health policy in a fragile health system: the example of expanding the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in mainland Tanzania
by Irene M Masanja, Xavier De Bethune and Jan Jacobs Malaria Journal 2011, 10:322 (28 October 2011) 13 pp. 139 kB: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-10-322.pdf Malaria confirmation before treatment provides an opportunity for improving the quality of malaria case management in endemic regions. However, increased coverage of this strategy is facing many organizational, logistical and technical challenges that threaten its success. Introducing an intervention with system-wide effect, such as the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in areas where malaria is still a public health problem, should be accompanied by system strengthening measures to better attain the goal of improving quality of care. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 14

Validity of Verbal Autopsy Procedures for Determining Malaria Deaths in Different Epidemiological Settings in Uganda
by Arthur Mpimbaza, Scott Filler, Agaba Katureebe et al. PLoS ONE 6(10): e26892 (27 October 2011) 8 pp. 280 kB:
http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=45B468FE0C44F1922D6D 11192D0A90ED.ambra01?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0026892&representation=PDF

Verbal autopsy (VA) procedures can be used to estimate cause of death in settings with inadequate vital registries. However, the sensitivity of VA for determining malariaspecific mortality may be low, and may vary with transmission intensity. The authors conclude that their VA methods have an acceptable level of diagnostic accuracy for determining malaria deaths at the population level in high and medium transmission areas, but not in low transmission areas.

Tuberculosis Integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis services in sub-Saharan Africa


by Jennifer Uyei, David Coetzee, James Macinko et al. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 11, Issue 11, pp. 855-867, November 2011 13 pp. 163 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473309911701451.pdf Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in people with HIV and about a quarter of HIV-related deaths are attributed to tuberculosis. In this review the authors identify and synthesise published evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of eight integrated strategies recommended by WHO that represent coordinated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis services. Evidence supports concurrent screening for tuberculosis and HIV, and provision of either co-trimoxazole during routine tuberculosis care or isoniazid during routine HIV care and at voluntary counselling and testing centres. ***

Systematic review of cost and cost-effectiveness of different TB-screening strategies


by Albert Nienhaus, Anja Schablon, Jos Torres Costa et al. BMC Health Services Research 2011, 11:247 (30 September 2011) 10 pp. 243 kB: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6963-11-247.pdf Interferon- release assays (IGRAs) for TB have the potential to replace the tuberculin skin test (TST) in screening for latent tuberculosis infection. The higher per-test cost of IGRAs may be compensated for by lower post-screening costs (medical attention, chest x-rays and chemoprevention), given the higher specificity of the new tests as compared to that of the conventional TST. The authors conclude that the available studies on costeffectiveness provide strong evidence in support of the use of IGRAs in screening risk groups such as healthcare workers, immigrants from high-incidence countries and close contacts. *** HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 15

MDR-TB Planning Toolkit


Version No. 1 by Sarah Royce, Tauhid Islam, Wieslaw Jakubowiak et al. WHO and PATH, September 2011 62 pp. 725 kB: http://www.path.org/files/TB_mdr-tb_planning_toolkit.pdf This set of tools is designed to help countries develop or strengthen a multidrugresistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) control component within their national TB strategy or plan. The toolkit contains key steps for the planning process, including developing objectives for a strong MDR-TB control component, identifying current gaps in service coverage, securing funding sources, and determining how to monitor progress.

Other Infectious Diseases Working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases Update 2011
Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, October 2011 25 pp. 762 kB:
http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/2010report/WHO_NTD_report_update_2011.pdf

The first report on neglected tropical diseases launched by WHO on 14 October 2010, provided evidence that existing safe, simple and effective interventions, implemented during the past seven years, are improving the health and quality of life of populations in 149 countries where many of the 17 diseases occur. One year later control of neglected tropical diseases relies on two pillars: access to treatment with safe and effective medicines available free of charge to affected populations, and judicious use of pesticides for vector control. Although prospects for scaling-up interventions look promising, there are challenges that remain. ***

The Neglected Tropical Diseases of India and South Asia: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Control or Elimination
by Derek A. Lobo, Raman Velayudhan, Priya Chatterjee et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5(10): e1222 (25 October 2011) 7 pp. 259 kB: http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F 10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0001222&representation=PDF The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are the most common infections of the world's poorest people living in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. The NTDs represent a group of chronic parasitic and related bacterial and viral infections that actually promote poverty because of their impact on child development, pregnancy outcome, and worker productivity. The authors summarize current knowledge on the prevalence, distribution, and disease burden of the NTDs in India and South Asia, focusing on aspects particular to the region. HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 16

Report of the Independent Monitoring Board of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative
by Sir Liam Donaldson, Nasr El Sayed, Jeffrey Koplan et al. Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), October 2011 27 pp. 275 kB: http://www.polioeradication.org/Portals/0/Document/Aboutus/Go vernance/IMB/4IMBMeeting/IMBReportOctober2011.pdf The boards major findings are clear and unambiguous. Their members are convinced that polio can - and must - be eradicated. They are equally convinced that it will not be eradicated on the current trajectory. Important changes in style, commitment and accountability are essential. This report explains this conclusion, offers many observations and makes five recommendations. ***

Cholera - Modern Pandemic Disease of Ancient Lineage


by J. Glenn Morris, Jr. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 17, Nr. 11; November 2011 6 pp. 183 kB: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/17/11/pdfs/11-1109.pdf Cholera has affected humans for at least a millennium and persists as a major cause of illness and death worldwide, with recent epidemics in Zimbabwe (2008-2009) and Haiti (2010). Although the environment remains a critical component of transmission, interventions focused increasingly on the household and on blocking transmission immediately after passage of feces are acutely needed. Ultimately, good sanitation (as part of a strong public health infrastructure) is the key to disease control. ***

Toward Sustainable and Comprehensive Control of Schistosomiasis in China: Lessons from Sichuan
by Edmund Y. W. Seto, Justin V. Remais, Elizabeth J. Carlton et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5(10): e1372 (25 October 2011) 4 pp. 91 kB: http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F 10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0001372&representation=PDF Triggered by a fascinating publication in the New England Journal of Medicine detailing Chinas new multi-pronged strategy to control and eventually interrupt the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum, this PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Debate critically examines the generalizability and financial costs of the studies presented from the marshlands of the lake region. The need for integrated, intersectoral, and setting-specific control measures is stressed, supported by rigorous surveillance and continuous research. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 17

Sleeping Sickness in Travelers - Do They Really Sleep?


by Karin Urech, Andreas Neumayr, Johannes Blum Negl Trop Dis 5(11): e1358 (1 November 2011) 9 pp. 513 kB:
http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=11ACF986D8731A87E1DE A70D15B5F7DB.ambra01?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0001358&representation=PDF

The number of imported Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) cases in non-endemic countries has increased over the last years. The clinical presentation in immigrants with human African Trypanosomiasis is dominated by low grade fever and neurological symptoms as well as psychiatric features. Because of the long incubation period, HAT must be considered even if the patient has left the endemic country years ago.

Essential Medicines Understanding and responding to pharmaceutical promotion: A practical guide


Editors Barbara Mintzes, Dee Mangin and Lisa Hayes World Health Organization / Health Action International, 2010 180 pp. 18.6 MB(!): http://haiweb.org/10112010/DPM_ENG_Final_SEP10.pdf There are concerns about the relationship between healthcare professionals and the pharmaceutical industry; particularly the industrys influence on prescribing and dispensing decision-making. This influence can lead to treatment choices detrimental to individual patients and public health. The publication is specifically designed to educate students before they start prescribing and dispensing medicines and provide practical training on how to recognise various promotional techniques and how to access good quality, independent information about medicines. ***

A win-win solution?: A critical analysis of tiered pricing to improve access to medicines in developing countries
by Suerie Moon, Elodie Jambert, Michelle Childs et al. Globalization and Health 2011, 7:39 (12 October 2011) 42 pp. 574 kB: http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/pdf/1744-8603-7-39.pdf Tiered pricing - the concept of selling drugs and vaccines in developing countries at prices systematically lower than in industrialized countries - has received widespread support from industry, policymakers, civil society, and academics as a way to improve access to medicines for the poor. But the authors conclude that competition should generally be the default option for achieving affordability, as it has proven superior to tiered pricing for reliably achieving the lowest sustainable prices. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 18

Social Protection Cash or Condition? Evidence from a Cash Transfer Experiment


by Sarah Baird, Craig Mcintosh, Berk zler The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2011) first published online October 13, 2011 72 pp. 691 kB: http://ipl.econ.duke.edu/bread/papers/0511conf/Baird.pdf This paper assesses the role of conditionality in cash transfer programs using a unique experiment targeted at adolescent girls in Malawi. The program featured two distinct interventions: unconditional transfers (UCT arm) and transfers conditional on school attendance (CCT arm). While there was a modest decline in the dropout rate in the UCT arm in comparison to the control group, it was only 43% as large as the impact in the CCT arm at the end of the two-year program. ***

Building Resilience & Opportunity


Consultations on the World Bank's Social Protection & Labor Strategy 2012-2022 The World Bank Group is launching a second round of consultations on its new Social Protection and Labor (SP&L) Strategy for the next decade and you are invited to be part of this process. The feedback collected during this round of consultations will serve to inform the SP&L Strategy for 20122022. To provide a basis for the discussion, a presentation which highlights key messages and sections from the draft SP&L Strategy is available online as PowerPoint Presentation (43 pp. 2.9 MB) at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOCIALPROTECTION/Resources/280558-1274453001167/70898671279223745454/7253917-1291314603217/wb_spl_strategy_phase_2.pptx

You are encouraged you to share your views at: http://www.worldbank.org/spstrategy ***

Social Protection Floor for a Fair and Inclusive Globalization


Report of the Advisory Group chaired by Michelle Bachelet; Convened by the ILO with the collaboration of the WHO, October 2011 150 pp. 2.2 MB: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/--publ/documents/publication/wcms_165750.pdf In many ways the power of the social protection floor lies in its simplicity. The floor is based on the idea that everyone should enjoy at least basic income security sufficient to live, guaranteed through transfers in cash or in kind. This report shows that the extension of social protection, drawing on social protection floors, can play a pivotal role in relieving people of poverty and deprivation. It can in addition help people adapt their skills to overcome the constraints that block their full participation in a changing economic and social environment, contributing to improved human capital development and stimulating greater productive activity. HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 19

Children and social protection in the Middle East and North Africa
A mapping exercise by Rachel Marcus, Paola Pereznieto, Erin Cullen et al. Overseas Development Institute, October 2011 62 pp. 513 kB: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/6038.pdf This Working Paper maps key social protection initiatives and stakeholders at national level in the Middle East and North Africa, with a specific focus on child-sensitive social protection. A wide range of child protection initiatives exist in the region, aiming to address such diverse problems as child labour, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), violence against children and child abandonment. With a few exceptions (e.g. cash transfers targeted at orphans living with relatives and incentives for child workers to attend school), there is relatively little integration between child protection systems and social protection systems.

Human Resources Outreach Services as a Strategy to Increase Access to Health Workers in Remote and Rural Areas
by Eric de Roodenbeke, Sev Lucas, Aurelie Rouzaut et al. World Health Organization, October 2011 48 pp. 986 kB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241501514_eng.pdf This report presents an overview of outreach services provided by health workers to remote and rural populations in different countries and contexts. It aims to highlight the potential for these alternative health service delivery models, such as mobile clinics and telemedicine, to enhance the attraction and retention of health workers in underserved areas and encourages further evaluations to be conducted in this area. ***

Thirty years after Alma-Ata: a systematic review of the impact of community health workers delivering curative interventions against malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea on child mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa
by Jason B Christopher, Alex Le May, Simon Lewin et al. Human Resources for Health 2011, 9:27 (24 October 2011) 37 pp. 241 kB: http://www.human-resources-health.com/content/pdf/1478-4491-9-27.pdf Over thirty years have passed since the Alma-Ata Declaration on primary health care in 1978. Many governments in the first decade following the declaration responded by developing national programmes of community health workers (CHWs), but evaluations of these often demonstrated poor outcomes. CHW programmes could potentially achieve large gains in child survival in sub-Saharan Africa if these programmes were impleHESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 20

mented at scale. Large-scale rigorous studies, including randomised controlled studies, are urgently needed to provide policymakers with more evidence on the effects of CHWs delivering these interventions. ***

Lay health worker attrition: important but often ignored


by Lungiswa Nkonki, Julie Cliff & David Sanders Bulletin of the World Health Organization, published online 24 October 2011 10 pp. 86 kB: http://www.who.int/bulletin/online_first/11-087825.pdf There is a lack of research on lay health worker attrition. Research that aims to answer the following three key questions would help address this knowledge gap: what is the magnitude of attrition in programmes? What are the determinants of attrition? What are the most successful ways of reducing attrition? With community-based interventions and task shifting high on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals policy agenda, research on lay health worker attrition and its determinants requires urgent attention. ***

Health Worker Shortages and Global Justice


by Paula OBrien and Lawrence O. Gostin Milbank Memorial Fund, 2011 121 pp. 845 kB: http://www.milbank.org/reports/HealthWorkerShortagesfinal.pdf The world is experiencing a critical and growing shortage of health workers needed to deliver essential health services, particularly in the poorest countries around the globe. This report details the scope of the shortage, examines its complex underlying causes within and across borders, and offers seven recommendations to the United States for using its leadership status to address the problem, while stressing the need for all countries and stakeholders to take action.

Health Systems & Research Priorities for Research on Equity and Health: Towards an Equity-Focused Health Research Agenda
by Piroska stlin, Ted Schrecker, Ritu Sadana et al. PLoS Med 8(11): e1001115 (1 November 2011) 6 pp. 103 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=D1B4494EDE70240CE7240 9740AF9C9C1.ambra01?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001115&representation=PDF

The authors argue that a paradigm shift is needed to keep the focus on health equity within the social determinants of health research agenda. Influencing regional and national research priorities on equity and health and their implementation requires joint efforts towards creating a critical mass of researchers, expanding collaborations and networks, and refining norms and standards, with WHO having an important role given recent mandates. HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 21

The Knowledge Translation Toolkit: A Resource for Researchers


Edited by Gavin Bennett and Nasreen Jessani International Development Research Centre, 2011 284 pp. 1.9 MB: http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/46152/1/132642.pdf This publication provides a thorough overview of what knowledge translation (KT) is and how to use it most effectively to bridge the know-do gap between research, policy, practice, and people. It presents the theories, tools, and strategies required to encourage and enable evidence-informed decision-making. ***

Facilitating the use of research evidence


Edited by Bradford H. Gray Milbank Quarterly Volume 83, Virtual Issue 2 The entire issue with 22 articles is available at no charge at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%2914680009/homepage/virtual_issue__facilitating_the_use_of_research_evidence.htm Facilitating the use of research is the topic of a newly published virtual issue of The Milbank Quarterly. The issue includes, in chronological order, twenty-two articles and two commentaries that were published in the Quarterly between 2001 and 2011. ***

Health system determinants of infant, child and maternal mortality: A cross-sectional study of UN member countries
by Katherine A Muldoon, Lindsay P Galway, Maya Nakajima et al. Globalization and Health 2011, 7:42 (24 October 2011) 31 pp. 1.4 MB: http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/pdf/1744-8603-7-42.pdf Few studies have examined the link between health system strength and important public health outcomes across nations. The authors examined the association between health system indicators and mortality rates. They conclude that several key measures of a health system predict mortality in infants, children, and maternal mortality rates at the national level. Improving access to water and sanitation and reducing corruption within the health sector should become priorities. ***

Impact of Health Research Capacity Strengthening in Low- and MiddleIncome Countries: The Case of WHO/TDR Programmes
by Happiness Minja, Christian Nsanzabana, Christine Maure et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5(10): e1351 (11 October 2011)

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7 pp. 306 kB: http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F 10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0001351&representation=PDF The study highlights the need for a more equitable process to improve the effectiveness of health research capacity strengthening activities. Support should be tailored to the existing research capacity in disease endemic countries and should focus on strengthening national health research systems, particularly in the least developing countries. The engagement of stakeholders at country level would facilitate the design of more specific and comprehensive strategies based on local needs.

Information & Communication Technology Evaluation of HIFA2015


by Teresa Hanley and Jackie Davies Communication for Development Consulting, September 2011 58 pp. 1.3 MB: http://www.hifa2015.org/wp-content/uploads/HIFA2015-EvaluationReport-Final.pdf HIFA2015 is a global campaign and knowledge network, launched in October 2006 to prevent avoidable death and suffering due to lack of healthcare information in developing countries. The goal of the campaign is that by 2015, every person worldwide will have access to an informed healthcare provider. This evaluation aimed to review HIFA2015 progress, to identify successes to date and lessons learned, and to make recommendations for the future. The evaluation found that HIFA2015 has become a successful, interactive, dynamic, global network involving a diverse range of healthcare providers from high and low income countries. ***

10 Portal Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them


by Catherine Fisher Institute of Development Studies (IDS), November 2009 3 pp. 32 kB: http://www.ikmediarynetwork.org/uploads/7/3/4/4/7344586/10_portal_pitfalls_an d_how_to_avoid_them.doc Dont ask stakeholders what information they would like to see on a portal. Instead ask key stakeholders what they would like to be able to do that they cant currently do because of lack of information and when and how they look for information in their work. Even if you create a portal that exactly meets the needs of your target audience, you will need to: tell them about it, remind them to use it, ask for and respond to their feedback, and make it easy for existing users to recommend your portal to their friends and colleagues. *** 2nd Edition by Diane Brodalski, Heather Brink,Jessica Curtis et al.

The Health Communicators Social Media Toolkit

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), July 2011 59 pp. 2.4 MB: http://www.cdc.gov/socialmedia/Tools/guidelines/pdf/SocialMedia Toolkit_BM.pdf?source=govdelivery In this guide, you will find information to help you get started using social media - from developing governance to determining which channels best meet your communication objectives to creating a social media strategy. You will also learn about popular channels you can incorporate into your plan, such as blogs, video-sharing sites, mobile applications and RSS feeds. This toolkit is intended for a beginner audience, although some viewers with an intermediate level may find parts of the toolkit useful.

Education Global Education Digest 2011: Comparing Education Statistics Across the World
by Albert Motivans, Hiromichi Katayama, Redouane Assad et al. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2011 312 pp. 7.5 MB: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Documents/global_education_digest_2011_en.pdf The 2011 Global Education Digest examines trends in secondary education, which is the next great challenge for many countries approaching universal primary education. Globally, the number of children enrolled at the secondary level has tripled since 1970. Yet despite this progress, access remains limited in many countries. This edition presents the different factors shaping the supply and demand for secondary education. ***

Why Did Abolishing Fees Not Increase Public School Enrollment in Kenya?
by Tessa Bold, Mwangi Kimenyi, Germano Mwabu et al. Center for Global Development, October 2011 28 pp. 560 kB: http://www.cgdev.org/files/1425590_file_Sandefur_School_Fees_ Kenya_FINAL.pdf In 2003, Kenya abolished user fees in all government primary schools. Contrary to expectations, though, net enrolment in government schools stagnated in the years following the introduction of Kenya's Free Primary Education (FPE) policy. The authors of this paper argue that social interactions explain why demand for private schooling went up when the price of government schooling went down. Pupils from poorer households were more likely to attend government schools under FPE while their more affluent peers were likely to go to private schools after the reform. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 24

Guidelines for Open Educational Resources (OER) in Higher Education


by John Daniel, Stamenka Uvali-Trumbi, Neil Butcher et al. Commonwealth of Learning and UNESCO, 2011 27 pp. 396 kB: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002136/213605E.pdf Open educational resources (OER) are materials used to support education that may be freely accessed, reused, modied, and shared. These Guidelines outline key issues and make suggestions for integrating OER into higher education. Their purpose is to encourage decision makers in governments and institutions to invest in the systematic production, adaptation and use of OER and to bring them into the mainstream of higher education in order to improve the quality of curricula and teaching and to reduce costs. ***

Building Support for Gender Equality among Young Adolescents in School: Findings from Mumbai, India
by Pranita Achyut, Nandita Bhatla, Ajay Kumar Singh et al. International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), 2011 12 pp. 504 kB: http://www.icrw.org/files/publications/GEMS%20Building%20Supp ort%20for%20Gender%20Equality%20Adolescents_0.pdf This research brief summaries key findings from the Gender Equity Movement in Schools program (GEMS), a school-based intervention that promotes gender equality by encouraging equal relationships between girls and boys, examining the social norms that define mens and womens roles, and questioning the use of violence. The findings suggest that a methodology which involves students in self-reflection has the potential to make a positive difference in attitudes and behaviours. Also, schools, as spaces for learning, have a role beyond giving knowledge to fostering support for gender equality and non-violence.

Harm Reduction and Drug Use The Rehab Archipelago: Forced Labor and Other Abuses in Drug Detention Centers in Southern Vietnam
by Human Rights Watch, September 2011 121 pp. 1.1 MB: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/vietnam0911ToPost.pdf The report is based upon the experiences of 34 former detainees from 14 of the 16 centers under Ho Chi Minh City administration. They describe how they were beaten with wooden truncheons, shocked with electrical batons, and deprived of food and water. Children who use drugs are also held in these centers, where they are forced to work, beaten, and abused. Donors and their implementing agencies should review all funding, programming, and activities directed to assisting Vietnams drug detention centers to ensure no funding supports policies or programs that violate international human rights law. HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 25

Millennium Development Goals A post-2015 global development agreement: why, what, who?
by Claire Melamed & Andy Sumner UNDP and the Overseas Development Institute, October 2011 38 pp. 1.4 MB: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/6075.pdf This paper discusses two aspects of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) agreement as global consensus on the main priorities for tackling poverty and as a political agreement about the level of accountability governments are prepared to accept for making changes. It summarises key data on progress towards the targets since the 1990s, and considers some key features of poverty and development today that are not covered by the MDGs. ***

Keeping the promise: realizing the Millennium Development Goals for persons with disabilities towards 2015 and beyond
Report of the Secretary-General, United Nations, July 2010 34 pp. 215 kB: http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/gadocs/a_65_173.doc This report presents a comprehensive biennial review on the implementation of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons, and the progress and challenges concerning the advancement of persons with disabilities in the context of development and the realization of the Millennium Development Goals. It consists of an introduction, five informative sections, and recommendations to advance disability-inclusive Millennium Development Goals and other internationally agreed development goals by member states and other stakeholders.

Development Assistanc On the Road to Busan: What is at stake for gender equality and womens rights?
by Nerea Craviotto and Anne Schoenstein Association for Womens Rights in Development (AWID), 2011 20 pp. 563 kB:
http://awid.org/content/download/124569/1407938/file/IDeA_Primer10.pdf

This primer is devoted to outlining official and civil society preparations in the lead up to the 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (HLF-4) in 2011, and what is at stake for gender equality and womens rights. Ahead of HLF-4, and given what is at stake in Busan, the voices of womens rights and gender equality advocates must be heard and translated into action. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 26

Innovation with Impact: Financing 21st Century Development


A report by Bill Gates to G20 leaders, Cannes Summit, November 2011 16 pp. 1.7 MB:
http://www.gatesfoundation.org/g20/Documents/g20-report-english.pdf

This week, as part of the G20 summit, Bill Gates, co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, delivered a report on financing for development that proposes global taxes on America and other rich nations to make the Global Poverty Act a reality. The report proposes a financial transaction tax (FTT) as well as taxes on tobacco, aviation and bunker fuel, and carbon (energy), by G20 countries and other members of the European Union. With the constellation of the occupy protests and the broad international movement for the FTT, the moment for achieving the tax, and the critical revenue it can provide to help revive struggling economies, has never been greater. ***

Can we obtain the required rigour without randomisation? Oxfam GBs non-experimental Global Performance Framework
by Karl Hughes and Claire Hutchings The International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie), August 2011 24 pp. 347 kB: http://www.3ieimpact.org/admin/pdfs_papers/WP%2013_Final.pdf Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) operating in the international development sector need credible, reliable feedback on whether their interventions are making a meaningful difference but they struggle with how they can practically access it. This paper sets out several realistic options available to NGOs to step up their game in understanding and demonstrating their impact. ***

Commitment to Development Index 2011


by David Roodman Center for Global Development, October 2011 6 pp. 207 kB:
http://www.cgdev.org/files/1425586_file_CDI_2011_brief_FINAL.pdf

The Commitment to Development Index ranks 22 of the worlds richest countries on their dedication to policies that benefit the 5.5 billion people living in poorer nations. Moving beyond standard comparisons of foreign aid volumes, the CDI quantifies a range of rich-country policies that affect poor people in developing countries. ***

A Mile Wide and an Inch Deep? Understanding Support for Aid in the UK
by Spencer Henson and Johanna Lindstrom Institute of Development Studies, October 2011

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24 pp. 177 kB: http://www.ids.ac.uk/files/dmfile/UKPOMwpdraft.pdf Despite considerable interest in the level and nature of public support for aid to developing countries, there has been relatively little academic research in this area. This paper reports analysis of survey data for the UK that explores the factors driving support for cuts in aid spending. Dominant factors are found to be beliefs in the moral imperative to help reduce poverty in developing countries versus the prioritisation of efforts to tackle poverty in the UK. ***

A New Instrument to Advance Development Effectiveness: Program-ForResults Lending


The World Bank, July 2011 105 pp. 715 kB: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTRESLENDING/Resources/Program_for_R esults_policy_paper1.pdf World Bank Management is proposing a new Program-for-Results (P4R) lending instrument to respond to changing development needs and demand from borrowing countries. P4R would focus Bank support directly on improvements in sectoral or other development programs and would place more direct emphasis on results by making them the basis for disbursement. It would also enable the Bank to leverage its own financing and collaborate with other development partners through pooling resources and focusing efforts on supporting government programs.

Others Transfer of evidence-based medical guidelines to low- and middle-income countries


by Stephan Ehrhardt and Christian G. Meyer Tropical Medicine & International Health; Article first published online: 21 October 2011 3 pp. 41 kB: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02910.x/pdf Evidence-based medicine is widely accepted to guide medical recommendations. Most clinical guidelines not directly related to tropical medicine cannot or do not consider trials performed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), because, for many medical conditions, such trials have either not been conducted there or are of questionable quality. During site-specific adaptation, a guideline might lose parts of its evidence base and may, when locally applied, be less efficient or even harmful. It is therefore suggested that guidelines should describe the intended users of the guideline (e.g. provider types, patients) and the settings in which the guideline is intended to be used. ***

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Mapping Violence Against Women


A tool to map the prevalence of the various forms of violence against women and the interventions addressing it by Rights4Change and Margreet de Boer, October 2011 60 pp. 393 kB: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/8740694/Mapping%20VAW.pdf This mapping-tool supports NGOs and service providing organisations to get an overall picture of Violence Against Women (VAW) in their country/region. What is the prevalence of the various forms of VAW? What measures are being taken by governments, service providing organisations and NGOs to address VAW? Who is working on which topic, and what are the blind spots? The tool helps to collect, to structure and to evaluate relevant information. ***

Poverty and mental disorders: breaking the cycle in low-income and middle-income countries
by Crick Lund, Mary De Silva, Sophie Plagerson et al. The Lancet, Vol. 378, Issue 9801, pp. 1502-1514, 22 October 2011 13 pp. 293 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS014067361160754X.pdf Growing international evidence shows that mental ill health and poverty interact in a negative cycle in low-income and middle-income countries. However, little is known about the interventions that are needed to break this cycle. The authors undertook two systematic reviews to assess the effect of financial poverty alleviation interventions on mental, neurological, and substance misuse disorders and the effect of mental health interventions on individual and family or carer economic status in countries with low and middle incomes. ***

Addressing Health of the Urban Poor in South-East Asia Region: Challenges and Opportunities
by Mala Rao, J. K. Lakshmi, Amit Samarth et al. World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia, October 2011 136 pp. 4.3 MB: http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Primary_and_Community_Healt h_Care_Addressing_Health_Urban_SEAR.pdf This publication provides an overview of the health of the urban poor in member-states of the WHO South-East Asia region. It describes the socio-cultural factors that impact their health and challenges in health programming for the urban poor and proposes a strategic framework of multi-sectoral action to address issues related to access and equity in health for the urban poor in South-East Asia.

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ELECTRONIC RESOURCES
The UNESCO Global Open Access Portal
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-andinformation/portals-and-platforms/goap/ The Global Open Access Portal (GOAP) presents a snapshot of the status of Open Access (OA) to scientific information around the world. Open Access is at the heart of UNESCOs mandate to provide universal access to information and knowledge, and the UNESCO Open Access programme shall continue to facilitate policy dialogue in Member States, share knowledge and best practices in the field of Open Access, and build and share local capacities through North-South and South-South co-operation to build knowledge societies for sustainable development. ***

HIV Prevention Knowledge Base


http://www.aidstar-one.com/focus_areas/prevention/pkb The HIV Prevention Knowledge Base is a collection of research and tools to help you find what works in prevention. This up-to-date collection of resources will help you identify and adapt evidence-based prevention strategies for your programme. ***

Bulletin of the World Health Organization


Volume 89, Number 11, November 2011, 777-852 http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/89/11/en/index.html Highlights from the November 2011 issue: Syphilis resurgence puts pregnant women and their babies at risk After the Arab Spring: an interview with former member of the Egyptian Senate, Hoda Rashad Bring back iodized salt in Viet Nam The rising influence of social media on public health The role of genetics in malaria drug selection Family planning gains ground in Jordan

INTERESTING WEB SITES


CrowdOutAIDS
http://www.crowdoutaids.org/ UNAIDS has just launched a process that uses crowd sourcing technologies to engage young people in the development of the future UNAIDS policy on Youth and HIV/AIDS. It is a platform that uses Facebook, Twitter, etc. to support youth engagement and action in the development of effective responses to AIDS.

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The World at 7 Billion


http://7billionactions.org/about The worlds population will top seven billion people in October 2011. This unique moment in human history represents both an achievement and a challenge, and will have an impact on every single person on the planet. A world of seven billion has implications for sustainability, urbanization, access to health services and youth empowerment however, it also offers a rare call-to-action opportunity to renew global commitment for a healthy and sustainable world. ***

AIDS Prevention and Health Promotion Workplace Programmes in Southern Africa (AWiSA) Network
Implemented by Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ) and Southern Africa HIV and AIDS Information Dissemination Service (SAfAIDS) http://www.awisa-network.net/ The vision and objective of the Network is to offer both relevant background information on all aspects of HIV and AIDS in the working world, as well as specific tools and knowhow for people and organisations working and interested in this field. Thus, the AWiSA Network is far more than just an information resource - it is also an internet-based Community of Practice (CoP) which links people, companies and organisations, providing them with a forum to exchange their experiences with HIV and AIDS in the workplace. ***

SciDev.Net's Sub-Saharan Africa


http://www.scidev.net/en/sub-suharan-africa/ SciDev.Net's Sub-Saharan Africa gateway is a leading voice in development-related science news and opinion on hot topics - such as climate change, African science policy, agriculture and malaria - from the region. Have the latest headlines delivered straight to your inbox or desktop by subscribing to the Sub-Saharan Africa RSS feed.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES
Public Health Expert at the Swiss Centre for International Health
The Swiss Centre for International Health (SCIH) of the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute is seeking a Public Health expert with project management experience in the area of reproductive health and HIV. The position is based in Basel but includes frequent international missions. The successful candidate will be part of a multidisciplinary team which is organised with a flat hierarchy and ample room for participation in management processes. We work in a stimulating academic environment, with links to bilateral and multilateral organizations, universities, and non-governmental organizations. The position is open as of March HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 31

2012. If you are interested, please address your application with letter of interest, CV and names of 2 references by the 25th November, 2011 to: Silvan Baertschi Human Resources, Swiss Tropical Institute Socinstrasse 57, CH-4002 Basel/Switzerland Tel.: +41-61-284-8317 E-mail applications are encouraged, please send them to silvan.baertschi@unibas.ch with copy to: Florence.secula@unibas.ch Download the job description at: http://www.swisstph.ch/about-us/job-opportunities.html For more information about the Swiss Centre for International Health see: http://www.swisstph.ch/services/swiss-centre-for-international-health.html

CARTOON

TIPS & TRICKS


Windows Experience Index
The Windows Experience Index measures the capability of the hardware and software installed in your computer and then gives you a measurement called a base score. This base score can go from 1 to 5.9, with 1 obviously being the lowest score, and 5.9 being the best. Each individual component in your system (processor, RAM, video card, etc.) contributes to your base score. If you find that your base score is lower than you would like, you can view the details to see what the lowest scoring component is and then based on your computer needs, upgrade it. For example, if your processor and RAM are fine, scoring at 5.8 and 5.9, respectively, but your gaming graphics capabilities only tally in at a 3.7, this score means little to you if you are not gaming, but it is still nice to know that your processor and RAM can hang in there for a while. To check your Windows 7/Vista Experience Index press the Windows key + Pause (Win+Pause), this will bring up a window with your computers basic information. Your experience index number is located under the System heading. Click on the text next to your rating number to get a breakdown of your rating, view and print details. *** HESP-News & Notes - 23/2011 - page 32

What Does that Program Do?


You probably know that if you hover over a programme in your Toolbar or on your Desktop, it gives you the programme name. Some programmes like Google Chrome and MS Word also give you a description. Wouldnt it be nice to have this for all your Programmes? Great news if you have Windows XP, Vista, or Windows 7, you can. Right-click on a desktop shortcut or toolbar item and choose Properties. In the Properties dialog box, click the Shortcut tab. You will see a box marked Comment - go ahead and type your description there. You may find that only some application shortcuts (Chrome, Firefox, Outlook, etc.) included the Comments box, so this wont work on all shortcuts. Best regards, Dieter Neuvians MD
_____________________________________________________________________________
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