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keoctoots 8eacLanLs are Lhe sLarLlng subsLances ln Lhe chemlcal reacLlon

ltoJocts roducLs are Lhe subsLances produced ln a chemlcal reacLlon
coosetvotloo of Moss Chemlcal equaLlons show LhaL aLoms are conserved ln Lhe reacLlon Lhls ls
known as Lhe conservaLlon of mass
ln a chemlcal reacLlon no aLoms are desLroyed or creaLed
ltopettles of AclJs Aclds have cerLaln properLles whlch dlsLlngulsh lL from bases
4 @asLe sour
4 Corroslve
4 8eacL wlLh solld subsLances
ltopettles of 8oses 8ases have cerLaln properLles whlch dlsLlngulsh lL from aclds
4 @asLe 8lLLer
4 8eacL wlLh Lhe hydrogen ln aclds
lndlcaLors are subsLances LhaL can be used Lo Lell wheLher a subsLance ls an acld or base
@pes of loJlcotots
An example of an lndlcaLor ls llLmus paper
4 Acld Lurns blue llLmus paper red
4 Aclds do noL change Lhe colour of red llLmus paper
AnoLher example of an lndlcaLor used for aclds ls Lhe meLal LesL
4 Aclds wear away meLals
4 ydrogen gas ls glven off whlle Lhe meLal ls changlng

Dolvetsol loJlcotot pn
p ls a measure of Lhe acldlLy or baslclLy of a soluLlon
4 @he lower Lhe p Lhe more acldlc Lhe soluLlon
4 Lrongly acldlc soluLlons have p around 0 Lo 2
4 @he hlgher Lhe p Lhe more baslc Lhe soluLlon
4 Lrongly baslc soluLlons have p around 12 Lo 14

cbemlcol keoctloos
A chemlcal reacLlon ls when subsLances comblne Lo form new subsLances
4 lndlcaLed by change ln colour odour
4 xoLhermlc (glves off heaL)
4 ndoLhermlc (heaL ls absorbed)
4 as ls glven off
A Chemlcal equaLlon
Meta|]ac|d keact|on ac|d+meta|sa|t+hydrogen gas
@o LesL for Lhe presence of hydrogen gas you brlng a llL Laper nexL Lo Lhe gas and lL should pop
@he name of Lhe salL changed dependlng on Lhe name of Lhe acld and meLal
l ydrochlorlc +Magneslum Magneslum Chlorlde + hydrogen

-eutra||sat|on (ACID]8ASL react|on) ac|d + basesa|t +water
l ulfurlc acld + calclum ydroxlde calclum + waLer
Ac|d]carbonate keact|on ac|d+carbonate sa|t +carbon d|ox|de +water
ln anoLher words acld carbonaLe reacLlon ls when llmewaLer goes from vlslble Lo cloudy/Lurbld
nlLrlc Acld + calclum carbonaLe calclum nlLraLe + Co2 +2o

@ypes of chemlcal reacLlons
CombusLlon 8urnlng lL ls a selfsusLalnlng chemlcal reacLlon LhaL occurs aL
LemperaLures hlgher Lhan Lhe surroundlngs
Corroslon ls Lhe eaLlng away of meLal so LhaL lL loses sLrengLh and become unable Lo do
lLs lnLended purpose
reclplLaLlon Lhe formaLlon of a solld from 2 soluLlons
neuLrallsaLlon Lhe reacLlon beLween an acld and a base
ecomposlLlon Lhe breaklng of a compound lnLo more slmple subsLances
@he ArrangemenL of Lhe erlodlc @able
@he elemenLs are arranged ln Lhe perlodlc Lable accordlng Lo Lhelr lncreaslng aLomlc number
@he elemenLs are arranged ln rows and columns
4 8ows are called perlods
4 Columns are called groups

ttoctote of oo otom
@he aLoms of all maLLer are elecLrlcal and are made up of Lhree small subaLomlc parLlcles
O lecLrons whlch carry negaLlve charges
O roLons whlch carry poslLlve charges
O neuLrons whlch carry no charge
ALoms are held LogeLher by a sLrong aLLracLlon beLween proLons and elecLrons
arLlcles wlLh opposlLe charges aLLracL one anoLher g opposlLe poles of a magneL
ALom an aLom ls Lhe smallesL unlL ln an elemenL LhaL can exlsL by lLself
Molecule a molecule ls 2 or more aLoms [olned LogeLher
lemenL lemenL ls made from one Lype of aLoms only
Compound A compound ls made up from many molecules [olned LogeLher

Atttoctloos betweeo loos
@he aLLracLlon of Lhe lons forms new compounds
More elecLrons Lhan elecLrons ls negaLlve
More proLons Lhan elecLrons ls poslLlve
@he elecLrons and proLons keep Lhe compound LogeLher
@he chemlcal bond ls called lonlc bond
@he dlfference ln charge keeps Lhem LogeLher
A compound sLays LogeLher because Lhey share elecLrons and proLons from each oLher

ttoctote of oo Atom
@be otoms of oll mottet ote electtlcol ooJ ote moJe op of tbtee smoll
sobotomlc pottlcles
O /ectrons whlch carry poslLlve charges
O 9rotons whlch carry poslLlve charges
O -eutrons whlch carry no charge
roLons and neuLrons make up Lhe very dense nucleus of Lhe aLom
and Lhe Llny elecLrons are arranged ln shells of dlfferenL energy levels
and orblL around Lhe nucleus
@he maxlmum number of elecLrons ln Lhe flrsL shell ls always Lwo Lhe
second ls elghL and Lhe Lhlrd ls elghL lecLrons flll Lhe lnslde shells flrsL
4 ALoms are held LogeLher by a sLrong aLLracLlon beLween Lhe proLons and elecLrons
4 arLlcles wlLh opposlLe charges aLLracL one anoLher llke opposlLe poles of a magneL
4 @he aLLracLlons of Lhe lons form new compounds
4 More elecLrons Lhen proLons are negaLlve
4 More neuLrons Lhan elecLrons ls poslLlve
4 @he proLons and elecLrons keeps Lhe compound LogeLher
lfe ccle of o stot
@he sun ls a brlghL yellow dwarf sLar"
4 un ls abouL 46 bllllon years old
4 lL ls composed of ydrogen and a smaller amounL of hellum
4 lnslde Lhe sun hundreds of huge nuclear exploslons occur each second
alaxles are a huge collecLlon of sLars
4 @he energy leaves a sLar ln Lhe form of heaL llghL uL@8A vlCL@
8lq 8ooq
4 @he blg bang occurred around 13 bllllon years ago Lhere was a glanL exploslon ln
4 urlng Lhe 8l 8An
1 veryLhlng was compressed Lo abouL Lhe slze of an aLom
2 @here was a huge exploslon LhaL produced quanLlLles of hydrogen hellum
small amounL of llLhlum

eototes of oolvetse
4 alaxy
CollecLlon of bllllons of sLars and maLLer held LogeLher by gravlLy
alaxles are spread over Lhousands of llghL years
@he Mllky Way whlch Lhe sun belongs Lo ls an example of a galaxy
4 nebula
ls a conLracLlng swlrllng cloud of dusL lce and gas LhaL forms a concenLrlc
serles of rlngs from whlch Lhe planeLs were formed
4 8
lng a huge amounL of compacLed mass
lL makes lLs pull of gravlLy so sLrong LhaL noLhlng noL even llghL can escape
from lL
4 neuLron sLars
ense ob[ecLs
@hey form afLer a supernova occurs
4 ulsars
peclal Lypes of neuLron sLars LhaL emlL beams of radlo waves and also
4 nuclear fuslon occurs when hydrogen nuclel fuse LogeLher and release energy
ydrogen (nuclear fuslon) ellum + nergy

lecttomoqoetlc woves
@here are Lwo Lypes of waves
4 lecLromagneLlc waves and
4 Mechanlcal waves
lecLromagneLlc waves are composed of elecLromagneLlc flelds and do noL need parLlcles Lo
Lransfer energy LhaL ls Lhey can Lravel Lhrough a vacuum @he elecLromagneLlc specLrum conLalns
several Lypes of elecLromagneLlc waves
8adlo Waves @ransmlL radlo and @v lgnals radar ln alr Lrafflc conLrol
Mlcrowaves Cooklng radar speed guns used by pollce
lnfrared waves lven off by hoL ob[ecLs used Lo Lake LemperaLure plcLures and
flnd people ln collapsed bulldlngs
vlslble LlghL eelng phoLosynLhesls phoLography

neLlc waves Lravel Lhrough a vacuum aL Lhe speed of llghL
@here are 2 Lypes of lecLromagneLlc waves
4 @ransverse waves and
4 LonglLudlnal waves
@ransverse waves ln Lransverse waves Lhe parLlcles vlbraLe aL rlghL angles Lo Lhe dlrecLlon of Lhe
wave le vlbraLes up and down @he wavelengLh of a Lransverse wave ls Lhe dlsLance from one
cresL Lo Lhe nexL
LonglLudlnal waves do noL look wavy Lhey can be seen as a pulse along a sLreLched sprlng @he
wavelengLh of a longlLudlnal wave ls Lhe dlsLance beLween Lwo compresslons Llke a sllnky
Wave ample

lotts of wove
CresL CresL ls Lhe Lop parL of a wave
@rough @he Lrough ls Lhe boLLom parL of a wave
Wave LengLh Wave lengLh ls Lhe dlsLance beLween each group
AmpllLude ls Lhe dlsLance from Lhe lmaglnary llne Lo Lhe cresL or Lhe lmaglnary llne Lo Lhe Lrough
requency Lhe number of waves produced per second measured ln erLz (z)
Wave peed (m/s) requency (z) x wavelengLh (m)

lecttomoqoetlc woves
4 All waves Lransfer energy wlLhouL movlng maLerlal ln Lhe dlrecLlon LhaL Lhey are movlng
@hey may be vlbraLlons LhaL go up and down or back and forLh
1 @he lower Lhe frequency ln a wave Lhe longer Lhe wave lengLh
2 @he hlgher Lhe frequency Lhe shorLer Lhe wave lengLh
LlghL Lravels ln a sLralghL llne lL moves along 300 000 km/s llghL doesn'L need any medlum ln order
Lo Lravel
When llghL sLrlkes maLLer 3 Lhlngs happen lL can be absorbed reflecLed or LransmlLLed
1 When llghL ls absorbed lL's Laken ln by Lhe maLLer lL sLrlkes ubsLances llke wood and meLal
do noL LransmlL llghL Lhey only absorb we can'L see Lhrough Lhem aL all @hey are called
2 When llghL ls reflecLed lL bounces off Lhe subsLance lL sLrlkes A mlrror ls a common
example LlghL LhaL ls LransmlLLed passes Lhrough Lhe maLLer lL sLrlkes @ransparenL
subsLances LransmlL llghL eg wlndow glass waLer and alr
uv 8ays luorescenL lamps sLerlllslng
x 8ays 8adlography LreaLlng cancer flndlng faulLs ln meLals examlnlng
amma 8ays Measure Lhlckness of meLals sLerlllse medlcal equlpmenL
3 ubsLances LhaL scaLLer Lhe llghL are called @8AnLuCn@ because we can see Lhe llghL
Lhrough Lhem buL we cannoL see any deLalls eg waxed paper and frosLed glass
4 Angle of reflecLlon ls Lhe angle beLween Lhe normal and
Lhe reflecLed ray
4 Angle of lncldence ls Lhe angle beLween Lhe normal and
Lhe lncldenL ray
4 Angle of lncldence and angle of reflecLlon are always equal

O 8efracLlon ls Lhe bendlng of llghL as lL passes from
one medlum Lo anoLher
O When llghL passes Lhrough a glass slab Lhe llghL ls LransmlLLed and benL
O LlghL benL when Lhe medlum changed
O peed depends on denslLy

Laws of 8efracLlon
1LlghL LhaL moves aL an angle from a ales dense medlum Lo a more dense medlum bends
Lowards Lhe normal
2LlghL LhaL moves sLralghL on from one medlum Lo anoLher does noL bend lL ls noL refracLed
3LlghL LhaL moves aL an angle from a denser medlum Lo a less dense medlum bends away
from Lhe normal

keptoJoctloo keptoJoctloo ls o llfe fooctloo lt meoos cteotloq oew llfe
Asexual 8eproducLlon
Asexual reproducLlon occurs when Lhere ls only on parenL lL occurs ln less complex organlsms
such as unlcellular organlsms
exual 8eproducLlon
exual reproducLlon lnvolves 2 parenLs a male and female lL occurs ln more complex llvlng
MlLosls ls Lhe Lype of cell dlvlslon LhaL leads Lo Lhe growLh and developmenL of an organlsm
MlLosls occurs ln all cells excepL for sex cells uman cells have 46 chromosomes'
@pes of cells Mltosls ltoJoces
Cells needed Lo make an adulL organlsm from a ferLlllsed egg
Cells needed Lo heal cuLs wounds and broken bones
Cells LhaL replace dead skln cells
ltocess of Mltosls
Lep Cne
4 Cell becomes larger
4 Chromosomes become vlslble
Lep @wo
4 Chromosomes double by spllLLlng lnLo Lwo and palr up
Lep @hree
4 ouble chromosomes llne up across Lhe equaLor of Lhe cell
4 Membrane of nucleus dlsappears
Lep our
4 oubles separaLe
4 Chromosomes move on Lhe splndle form Lo go Lo opposlLe poles (ends) of Lhe cell
Lep lve
4 Membrane dlvldes Lhe cell lnLo Lwo
4 ach new cell have Lhe same number of chromosomes as Lhe orlglnal
Lep lx
4 Chromosomes form nucleuses of Lhe new cells
Melosls ls Lhe dlvlon of cells Lo creaLe sex cells ex cells only have 23 chromosomes
ltocess of Melosls
Lep Cne
4 Cell becomes larger
4 Chromosomes become vlslble
Lep @wo
4 Chromosomes double by spllLLlng lnLo Lwo and palr up
Lep @hree
4 Membrane dlvldes Lhe cell lnLo four
4 ach new sex cell has half Lhe number of chromosomes as Lhe orlglnal
Lep our
4 Chromosomes form nucleuses of Lhe new cells
eoetlcs tefets to tbe stoJ of beteJltot ooJ lobetlteJ cbotoctetlstlcs
Long Lhln Lhreads
ConLalns chemlcals whlch conLrol whaL Lhe cell does
uman cells have 46 chromosomes excepL for sex cells whlch have 23 chromosomes
Chromosomes hold nA as a compacL coll
-A eoxyrlbonuclelc Acld
Lores Lhe coded lnformaLlon LhaL deLermlnes human characLerlsLlcs
nA conslsLs of nucleoLldes
8ulldlng blocks of nA arranged Lo form a geneLlc language or code
nucleoLldes make up genes
ecLlons of nA whlch conLaln compleLe messages or seLs or parLlcular lnsLrucLlons
Locus Lhe poslLlon occupled by Lhe gene on Lhe chromosome
enome ame seL of genes ln each cell of an organlsm
@he message ln Lhe gene ls Lhe coded formula needed Lo produce proLeln
lnsLrucLlons ln Lhe gene code for Lhe producLlon of proLeln whlch are essenLlal Lo Lhe cell
@he llfe processes lnslde your body are carrled ouL by a group of proLelns called enzymes
8efore Lhe lnsLrucLlon can be carrled ouL lL musL be copled so LhaL Lhe masLer plan remalns ln
Lhe cell
Copy of Lhe nA sequence
asses Lhrough Lhe pores of Lhe nuclear membrane lnLo Lhe cyLoplasm Lo Lhe rlbosomes where
proLelns are manufacLured
Code for Lhe producLlon of Lhe proLeln ls carrled ln messenger 8nA

enoLype enoLype ls a person's geneLlc codlng
henoLype henoLype ls how llvlng Lhlngs appear and funcLlon @hls ls caused by Lhe comblned
effecL of Lhelr genoLype and Lhelr envlronmenL

-A Mototloo
4 MuLaLlons are Lhe conLlnual source of varlaLlon on whlch naLural selecLlon can acL
4 Cancers are due Lo a geneLlc change ln a slngle cell
4 MuLaLlons LhaL occur ln body cells are known as somaLlc muLaLlons
4 MuLaLlons are a source of new alleles ln an organlsm

cbooqes lo -A sepoeoce
4 MosL muLaLlons lnvolve changes ln Lhe nA sequence
4 Large changes may alLer Lhe sLrucLure of chromosomes
4 When groups no longer share a pool of common genes Lhey are llkely Lo become separaLe
specles over Llme
-A ttoctote
cleotlsts tespooslble fot Jlscovetloq tbe -A?
4 @he sLrucLure of nA was worked ouL ln 1933 by !ames WaLson and rancls Crlck ln whaL
became one of Lhe famous sclenLlflc dlscoverles of modern sclence
-A @kDc@Dk
4 nA eoxyrlbonuclelc acld
4 @he molecule of nA conLalns mllllons of aLoms and ls found ln Lhe cell nucleus
4 lL ls made up of 2 sLrands whlch LwlsL around each oLher Lo form a shape called a double
4 @he sLrands are held LogeLher by Lhe bases
4 @he exacL sequence of Lhese bases forms geneLlc lnformaLlon LhaL varles from one llvlng
Lhlng Lo anoLher

4 8ases always palr up preclsely Lhese are called base
4 Adenlne always palrs wlLh Lhymlne and cyLoslne always palrs wlLh guanlne (nucleoLldes)
4 @hls preclse palrlng of bases provldes a complemenLary copy of Lhe flrsL hellx sLrand

4 When a cell dlvldes lLs nA molecules copy
Lhemselves or repllcaLe ln order Lo pass on a seL of
lnsLrucLlons Lo each new cell
4 urlng repllcaLlon each nA molecule 'unzlps' lLself so
LhaL lLs sLrands separaLe
4 @he Lwo sLrands Lhen from complemenLary coples of
4 @wo new nA molecules are produced each wlLh one old sLrand and one new sLrand

-oclelc AclJs
O nuclelc aclds are organlc compounds made up of small molecules called nucleoLldes
O @here are 2 Lypes of nuclelc acld nA and 8nA
O 8nA acLs as a shuLLle servlce copylng Lhe nA's lnformaLlon and carrylng lL Lo where lL ls puL
lnLo acLlon
@pes of cells
O A homozygous ce|| ls a cell LhaL has ldenLlcal alleles LhaL conLrol lLs parLlcular feaLures @hey
are elLher boLh domlnanL or recesslve
O A heterozygous ce|| ls a cell LhaL has one domlnanL and one recesslve allele for lLs
keproduct|ve Systems
emale 8eproducLlve ysLem
@wo ovarles
Clrcular ln shape
roduce eggs and oesLrogen
olloploo @obes
rovlde a passageway beLween ovarles and uLerus for Lhe
eggs Lo Lravel
erLlllsaLlon occurs ln falloplan Lubes
Where Lhe ferLlllsed egg lmplanLs lLself grows and develops from a zygoLe Lo an embryo Lo a
Wall of Lhe uLerus provldes nuLrlenLs for embryo
upporLs baby durlng pregnancy

Male 8eproducLlve ysLem
roduce sperm and LesLosLerone
Ios efeteos
Also known as sperm ducL
@ube whlch connecLs Lhe LesLes Lo Lhe ureLhra provldlng
paLhway for Lhe sperm
rlmary [ob carry urlne
econdary [ob LransporL sperm
emlool Ieslcle
roduces fluld Lo nourlsh sperm

coottol ooJ cootJlootloo -etvoos stem
@he nervous sysLem ls dlvlded lnLo 2 parLs
4 @he CenLral nervous ysLem and
4 @he erlpheral nervous ysLem
@he CenLral nervous ysLem ls dlvlded lnLo 2 parLs @he braln and Lhe splnal cord

@he splnal cord carrles ouL 2 maln funcLlons
4 ConnecLs large parLs of Lhe perlpheral nervous sysLem Lo Lhe braln

@be btolo
4 @he braln ls parL of Lhe nervous sysLem
4 cetebtom MeJollo ooJ cetebellom
4 Analyses and sLores daLa dlrecLs Lhe acLlon Lo Lhe body

tlmolos kespoose

A stlmolos ls wbot cooses oo otqoolsm to teoct
A response ls a reacLlon Lo Lhe sLlmulus
@here are varlous nerves ln Lhe body whlch deLecL sLlmull
1 When a sLlmulus ls deLecLed your braln sends Lhe message Lo your muscles

@he paLh of sLlmulus
Llmulusense Crganensory neuronlnLo Lhe neuronsMoLor neuronsffecLors Muscle

-etves/ -etve cells
nerves are parL of Lhe nervous sysLem
4 nerves carry elecLrlc pulses backwards and forwards from Lhe braln splnal cord and
4 @hey have Lhe speclal name of neuron or neurone
4 nerves are bundles of neurons

4 8ecepLors are hlghly speclallsed cells LhaL are able Lo plck up a sLlmulus
4 @ypes of recepLors
1 LlghL recepLors
2 @asLe recepLors
3 mell recepLors
4 ound recepLors
3 @ouch recepLors
4 ffecLors are Lhe parLs of Lhe body LhaL respond Lo a sLlmulus
when lL ls senL Lo Lhem

ndocrine 5ystem
ndocrlne sysLem helps Lhe body Lo ad[usL Lo Lhe changeas ouLslde
and lnslde Lhe body
WhaL does Lhe ndocrlne ysLem do?
1 lL produces hormones (Chemlcal messages)
2 elps conLrol chemlcal reacLlons
3 ormones move Lhrough ducLs and Lhey do noL empLy dlrecLly
lnLo Lhe blood sLream where Lhe hormones are used
4 ucLs are Lubes
arLs of Lhe ndocrlne ysLem
lands LocaLlon ormones
1 @he @hyrold gland ALLached Lo wlndplpe @hyroxlne ConLrols Lhe speed of
chemlcal reacLlons ln cells
2 Adrenal lands Cn Lop of Lhe kldney Adrenalln repares your body for
3 Cvarles 8eproducLlve sysLem CesLrogen lves glrls Lhelr female
feaLure such as breasLs sofL
skln and a femlnlne volce
4 lLulLary glands under Lhe braln Makes many
ConLrol growLh
ln females lL conLrols Lhe
release of eggs from ovarles
Lhe blrLh of a baby
3 @he pancreas 8elow Lhe sLomach lnsulln lnsulln conLrols Lhe amounL
of glucose ln Lhe blood
6 @esLes 8eproducLlve sysLem @esLosLerone lve boys Lhelr male
feaLures such as deeper
volces and more body halr
Lhan females

@toosmlssloo of lseoses
A dlsease ls a condlLlon LhaL prevenLs or sLops Lhe body or any of lLs parLs from worklng well
lseases are lnfecLlous or nonlnfecLlous

lofectloos Jlseoses
4 lnfecLlous dlseases are Lhose LhaL can be spread or Lransferred from one person Lo anoLher
4 lnfecLlous dlsease ls Lrlggered by an lnfecLlon or Lhe growLh of paLhogen

4 A dlsease produclng organlsm
4 aLhogenlc bacLerla damage Lhe cells of anlmals and planLs causlng dlsease
4 omeLlmes Lhey produce polsonous wasLes or Loxlns
4 8acLerla are onecelled organlsms
4 8acLerla cells don'L have a deflnlLe nuc leus
4 Lhey are carrled by alr or movlng waLer
lseoses cooseJ b boctetlo
lsease WhaL lL does ow lL spreads
@onsllllLls eadache sore LhroaL ralsed
neezlng coughlng splLLlng
4 vlruses are bundles of geneLlc maLerlal LhaL aLLack cells and Lake chemlcals from Lhem
4 @hey cannoL exlsL on Lhelr own
4 ome vlruses are easler Lo caLch Lhan oLhers and someLlmes you develop an lmmunlLy

xomples of vltoses
lsease WhaL lL does ow lL spreads
lnfluenza Aches palns runny nose hlgh LemperaLure WaLer dropleLs ln Lhe alr
4 A paraslLe ls an organlsm LhaL beneflLs aL Lhe expense of Lhe hosL
lseoses cooseJ b potosltes
lsease WhaL lL does ow lL spreads
Malarla evere recurrlng fever MosqulLo

4 1hey ure seclul roLelns LhuL ure roduced by cells of Lhe lmmune sysLem und clrculuLe ln
Lhe blood.
4 nLlbodles uLLuck uLhogens when Lhey enLer Lhe body, Lhe lmmune resonse mukes Lhe
lnvuder hurmless.
4 1he lmmune sysLem roduces subsLunces LhuL ure seclflcully selecLed Lo uLLuck u urLlculur
lnvudlng uLhogen.

Orqonisotion of orqons in humon body
4 @here are many dlfferenL organs ln Lhe body Lhe llver kldneys hearL even Lhe skln ls an
15ke/eto/ system @he maln role of Lhe skeleLal sysLem ls Lo provlde supporL for Lhe body
2,uscu/or system @he maln role of Lhe muscular sysLem ls Lo provlde movemenL Muscles
work ln palrs Lo move llmbs and provlde Lhe organlsm wlLh moblllLy Muscles also conLrol Lhe
movemenL of maLerlals Lhrough some organs
3ircu/otory system @he maln role of Lhe clrculaLory sysLem ls Lo LransporL nuLrlenLs gases
(such as oxygen and CC
) hormones and wasLes Lhrough Lhe body
4-ervous system @he maln role of Lhe nervous sysLem ls Lo relay elecLrlcal slgnals Lhrough
Lhe body @he nervous sysLem dlrecLs behavlour and movemenL and along wlLh Lhe endocrlne
sysLem conLrols physlologlcal processes such as dlgesLlon
3espirotory system @he maln role of Lhe resplraLory sysLem ls Lo provlde gas exchange
beLween Lhe blood and Lhe envlronmenL rlmarlly oxygen ls absorbed from Lhe aLmosphere
lnLo Lhe body and carbon dloxlde ls expelled from Lhe body
6iqestive system @he maln role of Lhe dlgesLlve sysLem ls Lo breakdown and absorb
nuLrlenLs LhaL are necessary for growLh and malnLenance
xcretory system @he maln role of Lhe excreLory sysLem ls Lo fllLer ouL cellular wasLes
ndocrine 5ystem @he maln role of Lhe endocrlne sysLem ls Lo relay chemlcal messages
Lhrough Lhe body ln con[uncLlon wlLh Lhe nervous sysLem Lhese chemlcal messages help
conLrol physlologlcal processes such as nuLrlenL absorpLlon growLh eLc
9 eproductive system @he maln role of Lhe reproducLlve sysLem ls Lo manufacLure cells LhaL
allow reproducLlon ln Lhe male sperm are creaLed Lo lnsemlnaLe egg cells produced ln Lhe
Lymphotic/-ervous system @he maln role of Lhe lmmune sysLem ls Lo desLroy and
remove lnvadlng mlcrobes and vlruses from Lhe body @he lymphaLlc sysLem also removes faL
and excess flulds from Lhe blood
O Allele one of Lwo or more forms of Lhe same gene
O A dom|nant a||e|e ls Lhe allele LhaL wlll mosL llkely express lLself omlnanL characLerlsLlcs
are wrlLLen as caplLal leLLers
O A recess|ve a||e|e ls parLnered by a domlnanL allele ls usually masked by Lhe domlnanL one
lL ls parL of Lhe genoLype and can be passed on Lo Lhe nexL generaLlon 8ecesslve
characLerlsLlcs are noLaLed wlLh lower case leLLers
eoetlc oqloeetloq
O ln geneLlc englneerlng sclenLlsLs dellberaLely change genoLypes by movlng genes from one
organlsm Lo anoLher
O eneLlc englneerlng can Lherefore glve an organlsm characLerlsLlc LhaL lL does noL normally

CurrenL (ynamlc) lecLrlclLy CurrenL (dynamlc) elecLrlclLy ls elecLrlclLy LhaL ls movlng @he elecLrons
move around ln a seL paLh (clrculL)
etles cltcolt
lecLrons have only one paLh Lo follow
Cpen swlLch elecLrlclLy dlsconnecLs clrculL ls lncompleLe
Closed swlLch elecLrlclLy ls connecLed clrculL ls compleLe
Cne appllance breaks down whole clrculL sLops worklng
Appllances share elecLrlclLy

lotollel cltcolt
lecLrons have Lwo or more paLhs Lo follow
ach paLh has lLs own swlLch
When one appllance ln one paLh breaks down all oLher appllances ln
oLher paLhs sLlll work
Appllances do noL share elecLrlclLy

lecLrlc CurrenL
@he slze of elecLrlc currenL depends on how many elecLrons pass a polnL ln a clrculL every second
evlce used Lo measure Lhe slze of an elecLrlc currenL

@he unlL ln whlch Lhe slze of an elecLrlc currenL ls measured

orce (volLage)
@he name for a force or pressure LhaL pushes elecLrons ls volLage or elecLromoLlve force
evlce used Lo measure Lhe sLrengLh of Lhe M
unlL ln whlch Lhe M ls measured
8eslsLance ls a measure of Lhe elecLrlcal conducLlvlLy of Lhe conducLor
unlL ln whlch Lhe amounL of reslsLance ls measured
ymbol U
Chms Law
Chms law shows LhaL currenL volLage and reslsLance are all relaLed
MaLhemaLlcally 8 v/l
cltcolt etles
lsoJvootoqes of cltcolt setles
@wo lamps are only half s brlghL as one lamp because Lhe elecLrons use Lhelr
energy Lo llghL Lhe lamp you can make Lhem brlghL by lncreaslng Lhe
volLages and you can only Lurn off boLh lamps LogeLher lf one lamp breaks
Lhe oLher breaks Loo

arallel erles
AJvootoqes of potollel setles
8rlghLness of Lhe globes does noL change @he lamps are equally as brlghL each lamp
can be Lurned on and off wlLhouL affecLlng anoLher lamp
lsoJvootoqes of potollel setles
arallel serles are hard Lo seL

ovltoomeotol lmpocts of ptoJocloq electtlclt
lobol wotmloq
4 g @hese chemlcals cause changes ln Lhe cllmaLe
nlLrous oxlde
lecttlclt ltoJoctloo
4 Modern Lechnology uses large amounLs of elecLrlcal power @hls ls normally generaLed aL
power planLs whlch converL some oLher klnd of energy lnLo elecLrlcal power

lmple Machlnes
lmple Mocbloes
4 A machlne ls a devlce LhaL makes a physlcal Lask easler lL can change speed make force
sLronger or change dlrecLlon used ln every day llfe
@pes of slmple mocbloes ooJ exomples
O Lever a slmple machlne LhaL ls uses Lhe Lurnlng effecL of a force Lo make a Lask
easler g Can opener sclssors Longs spanners hammers brooms Lennls rackeL
4 Makes a physlcal Lask easler
4 elps us Lo do our [obs buL lL sLlll needs Lhe same force
4 A machlne does noL mulLlply a force wlLhouL charglng a prlce
4 When a machlne mulLlplles a force lL also lncreases Lhe efforL dlsLance
kev neoJs (-ewtoos lows)
1 -ewtoos ltst low l-k@lA
Ao object wlll temolo ot test ot wlll oot cbooqe lts speeJ Jltectloo ooless lt ls octeJ opoo b
oo ootslJe fotce

2 -ewtoos secooJ low
otce moss x occeletotloo

J -ewtoos @bltJ low
ot evet octloo tbete ls oo epool ooJ opposlte teoctloo

Moss ooJ welqbt
Mass ls Lhe measure of Lhe amounL of maLLer ln an ob[ecL @he unlL used Lo descrlbe mass ls
@he larger an ob[ecL's mass Lhe more force ls needed Lo sLarL lL movlng and Lo sLop lL movlng
4 Mass force / acceleraLlon
WelghL (n) mass (kg) x acceleraLlon due Lo gravlLy (n/kg) wm x g

Acceletotloo ooJ Jeceletotloo
4 AcceleraLlon ls a measure of Lhe raLe aL whlch lL changes speed or when an ob[ecL moves ln
a sLralghL llne
4 @o calculaLe Lhe acceleraLlon average acceleraLlon Change ln speed
@lme Laken

peeJ/tlme ooJ Jlstooce telotloosblp

4 peed lsLance/Llme
4 lsLance speed x Llme
4 @lme lsLance/speed

@beot of llote tectoolcs/ttotlqtopb

ot cootloeot
4 @he conLlnenLs LhaL exlsL Loday developed from one glanL conLlnenL called angaea
4 @he edges of LecLonlc plaLes are slLes of lnLense geologlcal acLlvlLy such as earLhquakes
volcanoes and mounLaln formaLlon
@be tbeot of cootloeotol Jtlft
4 @he Lheory LhaL Lhe conLlnenLs have moved ln relaLlon Lo one anoLher

4 8emalns of planLs and anlmals
4 @hey are usually found ln sedlmenLary rocks

volotloo Joe to oototol selectloo

4 @he Lheory of naLural selecLlon proposes LhaL lL ls Lhe envlronmenL LhaL selecLs favourable
varlaLlons and ellmlnaLes harmful ones
4 voluLlon can only Lake place lf Lhe llvlng Lhlngs ln a populaLlon are noL all Lhe same
cbotles otwlos @beot of volotloo
ln any populaLlon Lhere are varlaLlons all Lhe members of one specles are noL ldenLlcal
ln any generaLlon Lhere are offsprlng LhaL do noL reach maLurlLy and reproduce Lhe
characLerlsLlcs of Lhese organlsms are removed from Lhe populaLlon
@hose organlsms LhaL survlve and reproduce are well adapLed Lo LhaL envlronmenL Lhey have
favourable varlaLlons
avourable varlaLlons are passed on Lo offsprlng Lhey become more and more common ln Lhe

8lotlc ooJ oblotlc feototes of tbe eovltoomeot
4 Lcosystem ls any envlronmenL llvlng organlsms LhaL lnLeracL wlLh each oLher and wlLh Lhe
nonllvlng parLs of Lhe envlronmenL
4 nvlronmenLs have
Ablotlc ooJ blotlc feototes
O AbloLlc means nonllvlng Lhey lnclude physlcal and chemlcal facLors such as Lhe
LemperaLure ralnfall Lype of soll and Lhe sallnlLy of Lhe waLer
O 8loLlc means llvlng lL lncludes all Lhe llvlng organlsms how many Lypes Lhere are
Lhelr numbers dlsLrlbuLlon and lnLeracLlons

Cyc|es of nature
@be wotet ccle
4 WaLer ln Lhe aLmosphere falls Lo Lhe earLh's surface as raln or snow
4 WaLer falllng on land wlll evaporaLe back lnLo Lhe aLmosphere draln lnLo Lhe oceans vla
lakes or rlvers or become Lrapped far below Lhe surface ln arLeslan baslns
4 WaLer ln Lhe oceans and ln all bodles of waLer on land such as ponds lakes and rlvers
evaporaLe lnLo Lhe aLmosphere compleLlng Lhe cycle

@be cotboooxqeo ccle
4 Carbon dloxlde ls absorbed from alr by land planLs durlng phoLosynLhesls and lncorporaLed
lnLo planL compounds Cxygen ls released back lnLo Lhe alr by planLs
4 8esplraLlon by llvlng organlsms uses oxygen and reLurns some carbon dloxlde Lo Lhe
O hoLosynLhesls ls Lhe process by whlch planL cells capLure energy from sunllghL and use lL Lo
comblne carbon dloxlde and waLer Lo make sugars and oxygen

O 8esplraLlon ls Lhe process by whlch cells obLaln energy
oetq flow tbtooqb o oototol ecosstem
ooJ cbolos
teeo ploot plooteotetoolmoleotet
4 ooJ cbolos beqlo wltb ploots (ptoJocets) lloot eotets ote betblvotes Aolmol
eotets ote cotolvotes Aolmols tbot eot botb ploots ooJ oolmols ote omolvotes
netblvotes cotolvotes ooJ omolvotes ote oll coosomets
4 coveoqets ote coosomets tbot eot JeoJ oolmols
4 ecomposets bove oo lmpottoot tole to plo tbe moke tbe motetlols ptoJoceJ b
Jecomposltloo ovolloble to ploots
ooJ webs
O ood webs are a serles of lnLeracLlng food chalns llnk up Lo form a food web