Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

1. No-Profit-no-Loss Pricing: Under their Memorandum of Association, Hindustan Insecticides and Hindustan Antibiotics follows this price policy.

2. Profit Pricing: Indian Railways, Sindri Fertilisers, Hindustan Machine Tools adopt this policy to contribute to public exchequer and to plough back their earnings. 3. Subsidized Pricing: Enterprises running schemes for public welfare follow this policy, e.g., the State Bank of India Rural Branch Expansion Scheme, State Electricity Boards, Food Corporation of India 4. Import Parity Pricing: Hindustan Shipyard and such other enterprises follow this policy whose products have to compete with the foreign products. The landed price of imported products is considered. 5. Concessional Pricing for long-term contract or bulk purchases: Hindustan Steel Ltd. Charges concessional prices on bulk purchases and Chittranjan Locomotives for longterm contract for the supply of locomotives. 6. Cost plus Pricing: Hindustan Aeronautics, Indian telephone industries, Hindustan Cables and the Posts and Telegraphs Department fix prices by adding a certain margin (often 10%) of the cost of production. 7. Dual Pricing : Under this policy higher prices are charged from rich buyers an lower prices from poor buyers. 8. Pooled Pricing: Prices of fertilizers are fixed on the basis of the fertilizer pool. This pool comprises of retention prices paid to public sector fertilizer units and the price paid for imported fertilizers. 9. Other practices: Some other pricing practices followed by public enterprises are as follows: (a) Enterprises like Air India, Shipping Corporation of India fix their rates as per trends in the international market. Similarly petrol prices depend on international prices of oil. (b) Enterprises with a captive market charge prices so as to generate surplus for expansion, e.g., public sector hotels. (c) STC, MMTC, etc. operate on the basis of the certain percent service charge on foreign operations. (d) The Indian Oil Corporation pays to the ONGC prices based on government award. The ARC Study Team on Public Undertakings suggested the following criteria for price policy in public sector: 1. Public enterprises must at least pave their way and not run into losses unless there are clear and overriding reasons on pu1. No-Profit-no-Loss Pricing: Under their Memorandum of Association, Hindustan Insecticides and Hindustan Antibiotics follows this price policy. 2. Profit Pricing: Indian Railways, Sindri Fertilisers, Hindustan Machine Tools adopt this policy to contribute to public exchequer and to plough back their earnings.

3. Subsidized Pricing: Enterprises running schemes for public welfare follow this policy, e.g., the State Bank of India Rural Branch Expansion Scheme, State Electricity Boards, Food Corporation of India 4. Import Parity Pricing: Hindustan Shipyard and such other enterprises follow this policy whose products have to compete with the foreign products. The landed price of imported products is considered. 5. Concessional Pricing for long-term contract or bulk purchases: Hindustan Steel Ltd. Charges concessional prices on bulk purchases and Chittranjan Locomotives for longterm contract for the supply of locomotives. 6. Cost plus Pricing: Hindustan Aeronautics, Indian telephone industries, Hindustan Cables and the Posts and Telegraphs Department fix prices by adding a certain margin (often 10%) of the cost of production. 7. Dual Pricing : Under this policy higher prices are charged from rich buyers an lower prices from poor buyers. 8. Pooled Pricing: Prices of fertilizers are fixed on the basis of the fertilizer pool. This pool comprises of retention prices paid to public sector fertilizer units and the price paid for imported fertilizers. 9. Other practices: Some other pricing practices followed by public enterprises are as follows: (a) Enterprises like Air India, Shipping Corporation of India fix their rates as per trends in the international market. Similarly petrol prices depend on international prices of oil. (b) Enterprises with a captive market charge prices so as to generate surplus for expansion, e.g., public sector hotels. (c) STC, MMTC, etc. operate on the basis of the certain percent service charge on foreign operations. (d) The Indian Oil Corporation pays to the ONGC prices based on government award. The ARC Study Team on Public Undertakings suggested the following criteria for price policy in public sector: 1. Public enterprises must at least pave their way and not run into losses unless there are clear and overriding reasons on public interest as indicated in an open directive issued by the government. 2. Public utilities and services should lay more stress upon the achievement of optimum size then upon return on investment. 3. While determining the price structure commensurate with the surpluses expected from them, public enterprises should keep the level of output as near the rated capacity as possible, subject to the volume of demand for the products. 4. Discriminating or differential rate pricing maybe adopted when it is observed that well-to-do people

should pay more than poor ones for the same product or service. 5. Public enterprises of industrial and manufacturing type, should as an obligation earn sufficient surplus so as to make a substantial contribution to capital formation in the country. The ARC study team found that with the exception of those working under a system of administered prices, public enterprises in India have formulated their pricing with a view to covering costs and making a surplus on the basis of whatever assumptions they had of their financial obligations. blic interest as indicated in an open directive issued by the government. 2. Public utilities and services should lay more stress upon the achievement of optimum size then upon return on investment. 3. While determining the price structure commensurate with the surpluses expected from them, public enterprises should keep the level of output as near the rated capacity as possible, subject to the volume of demand for the products. 4. Discriminating or differential rate pricing maybe adopted when it is observed that well-to-do people should pay more than poor ones for the same product or service. 5. Public enterprises of industrial and manufacturing type, should as an obligation earn sufficient surplus so as to make a substantial contribution to capital formation in the country. The ARC study team found that with the exception of those working under a system of administered prices, public enterprises in India have formulated their pricing with a view to covering costs and making a surplus on the basis of whatever assumptions they had of their financial obligations.