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Rajasthan State Electricity Board started working from Ist July 1957. T5h5i5s5 5i5s5 5t5h5e5 5t5o5 5b5o5d5y5 5o5f5 5b5i5g5 5o5r5g5a5n5i5z5a5t5i5o5n5 5a5n5d5 5i5s5 5f5u5n5c5t5i5o5n5 5u5n5d5e5r5 5o5f5 5l5i5m5i5t5e5d5 5T5h5e5 5n5o5t5 5a5n5d5 5o5f5 5d5o5e5s5 5a5r5t5i5c5l5e5 5p5r5o5v5i5s5i5o5n5 5p5u5b5l5i5c5 5c5o5m5p5a5n5i5e5s5.5 5b5o5a55r5d5 5h5a5v5e5

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22s22i22m22u22l22t22a22n22e22o22u22s22l22y2 multiplexed Tele-operation signals in SSB technique over high voltage lines 22cables.22 The transmitted intelligence is suitable for : Telephony Tele operations

- Telemetry

- Remote Control Remote

analogue Metering - Tele printer

Tele protection signals for

High voltage power

Equipments - High voltage power lines







facilities are typically used for economics control and supervision of energy network. The Teleprotection channels are kept continuously on hot stand by and are used only in rare cases of a power fault for the planning of new network and the extension of existing equipment, the ETI series offer a complete range of variation made possible by a combination of tiers and plug in PCB.

The equipment is built of 3 main parts.

(1) THE LOW FREQUENCY MULTIPLEX SECTION With the speech and upto five Tele-operation channels, together with an optional speech commander. (2) THE CARRIER FREQUENCY SECTION

Designed for single channels duplex or double channel duplex working in a 4 KHz or 2.5 KHz raster. The carrier frequency range is from 24 KHz to 500KHz and with transmitted power of 20 watts or a variant 100 watts. (3) POWER SUPPLY UNIT Which can be operated from 110/220v, 50/60Hz or a separate battery or charges unit of 24v, 48v or 60v. The techniques of simple side band modulation with double conversion provides frequency equalization, automatic gain control and frequency synchronization and ensures perfect reproduction of the transmitted intelligence, proper distribution of the transmitting power in normal operation and for the boosting of protection trip signals enables optimum distance to be converted. The front panel arrangement of operational and servicing elements such as switches, potentiometer, lambs etc. allows the non specialist to carry out maintenance of the equipment with the aid of a built in test oscillator and handy audio test

instrument, a quick test and level adjustment can be carried out so that with the local transmitter and receiver connection back to back a complete stimulation of the PLC link is establish.






The power line carrier (PLC) equipments and the associated protection signaling units are required to be situated in the area of the high voltage apparatus, thereby facilitating connections equipment. usually to In the PLCs line the coupling telephone in a contrast, conveniently

exchange and Tele - control equipments are more situated control building some distance from the high voltage equipment. According to the type of installation

various arrangements are possible. These are briefly explained in the following : (1) PLC EQUIPMENT AND AF MULTIPLEXER AS A COMBINED UNIT The majority of electricity authorities

adopt this arrangement since the complete PLC is contained in a single cabinet or rack and is easily placed in a suitable telecommunication room. From this room the

individual connections are taken directly to the associated HV protection circuits and via an appropriate distribution frame, connection to the telephone and Tele control equipments. REMOTE AT MULTIPLEXER CONNECTED BY A LONG CABLE The case here is that the high voltage lines are terminated in the sub- stations as the edge of the city while the associated control building or load dispatching office is situated some KM. away in the center of the city. A long 4-wire interconnection cable (Zo=600 chms) connects the parent PLC equipment with the remote multiplexer.


Cable Attenuation maximum : Planning value 26 dB : Permitted 32 dB

Frequency band

: 300 to 3700 HZ : 300 to 3400 HZ


Adjustable attenuation equalizes for loaded lines, located at both ends.

The Facilities Available are


4 wire duplex speech, from remote location. Duplex Tele-operational channels, from remote Location. Duplex pilot/signaling channel, from remote location. Possibilities connections of Tele-operation signals from PLC for input and output


Optional parent PLC




equipment to opposite PLC station.





When the distance between the PLC and remote multiplexer is relatively short, i.e. up to about 3 Kms. and in connected by a 4 wire pilot cable (Zo=600 ohm). Due to the lower cable attenuation the line amplifier unnecessary terminated with and on line the the equalizer cable will is be


input/output circuit (03EA/S respectively).

Remote AF Multiplexer Cable Terminal Type KTI :

Cable attenuation :

Permitted < / = 7 dB with a cable distortion loss of, / = 2 dB in the frequency band 3003700 Hz. This is equivalent to a distance of 3 Km. Maximum with an unloaded 600 ohms cable. - Frequency band : 300 to 3700 Hz

: optional

300 to 3400 Hz






In addition to the remote AF multiplexer, Teleprotection signaling equipment can be coupled directly to the PLC equipment. Such an arrangement must of course be reliable and safe so that even with a possible favour of the remote multiplexer or connection cable the protection equipment continues to work perfectly. This means the PLC equipment has to function fully independently of the transmit signals from the remote multiplexer. This will be the case when a pilot signal P-1 is used from AF multiplexer to PLC equipment. A further pilot tone P-2 of the same frequency is transferred from the PLC equipment to the opposite PLC station. The signaling impulses carried by the pilot tones are looped from P-1 to p2 in DC from at the PLC equipment. The pilot tone P3 from the opposite station is received directly at the remote multiplexer.

When several transmission section are joined together to form a long transmission path, the ETI equipment the carrier can serve be as repeater at the intermediate stations. In each transmission section signals at each individually regulated, will be synchronized and equalized and the transmitted intelligence repeater station demodulated and passed on to the next section. The method allow the insertion of Tele-operation signals at the repeater station provided, of course, free space in the 4 KHz band is available. The transit filter E3ET prevents the tone P-1 entering the neighbouring section.

The PLC equipments, built in MODULE

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM (MES) is especially compact. For all equipment, the single channel equipment ETI 21 can be accommodated in 3 tiers, the double channel equipment ETI-22 in 4 and the double

channel, 40W equipment ETI-22(s) in 6 tiers. Further more, a mechanical coding system ensures all plug in units can only be inserted in their correct position.

The ABB free standing cabinet type E-35 can for example, accommodate two single channel PLC equipments with the associated protection signaling units and an electronic trunk-dialing unit for eight (8) telephone subscribers.

A nameplate on the front door of the carrier cabinet carriers relevant information of the PLC link, such as equipment type, station name, carrier frequency etc.



printed any









required, there is on the rear side a strapping field for the initial programming of the system variant

and also for the adjustment of the PLC equalizer. Further of course, all terminal strips and connectors are easily accessible on the rear side.


The PLC equipment is suitable for connecting to a telephone exchange and further more, a 4 wire remote/emergency call station can be created by operating it in parallel with the built in service telephone equipment. The transmission facilities for Tele operation working (telemetry), tele-control & protection signals) use separate input and separate output circuit according to their classifications. When 4 the kHz speech equipment and carries



signals, they are transmitted in frequency multiplex and accordingly the audio frequency band is divided into two parts. The lower part of the band is used for speech and the upper part for Tele-operation signals.

The associated automatic telephone exchange (PAX) is suitable for a network with a limited number of subscribers. Between the PAX and P:LC channels, controls circuit give out signals for the setting up, dialing and later releasing a telephone connection and the switching criteria between PAX and PLC equipment is performed by potential free

contracts. The PAX sending contract will, via the PLC signaling channel close an output contract in the PLC received and the distant end of the link. The dialing impulses are transmitted over the combined pilot and signaling channel which has a maximum transmitted speech of 50 baud. It should be noted that because of the various possibilities of telephone switching, more functions are built into the speech circuit than are actually needed by some PAX types.




The inclusion of a compander improves the carrier signal equality of the speech and in normally reserved for use over lines with high noise. The improvement in the signals to noise ratios is approximately 12 dB. When the speech is carried over several PLC links in series, it is recommended that only one compander be used, the compressor being installed at the sending end of the line and the expander in the farthest receiving station.

The ETI series is fully wired for a later inclusion of the compander equipment when required.


The equipment, especially in the extension phases can, without additional units in the HF equipment is equipped throughout with hand/emergency call telephone. This telephone with DC bell can be connected directly via a 6 wire extension cable. The calling of the opposite station is accomplished lifting the handset and pressing the calling button in the opposite station after a two second delay the bell rings as long as the push button is pressed. By lifting the handset the called station, the bell is automatically disconnected. After the Call is completed both handsets must be replaced. The calling tone is fixed at 1 kHz in the speech band.


With the help of the built in speech facilities, service calls can be carried out in 4 wire from the

front panel associated equipment, including the DC belt and the plug in 4 wire handset are supplied.


Individual and adjustable Tele operation inputs are the essential requirement of the PLC equipment for the interfacing with the various manufactures low frequency transmission channels and for PLC through switching/transit working. The 5 input and 3 output possibilities, each individually adjustable and fully the de-coupled necessary for together flexibility. choosing with A the separated field is of terminals. For protection signaling equipment, offer strapping various provided operation. the modes


The equipment offer the possibility of signal boosting of one or two especially important signals, for example protection signals for high voltage lines






during During as

unfavourable transmission conditions caused by perhaps fault condition on the power line. the speech are disconnected boosting, the less importing channels, for example (known disconnected channels) whereas other channel can be allowed to work normally (non-disconnectable channels). The period of disconnection by which more power is switched to the boosting channel, occurs for an extremely short period of time and id typically of the order of approximately 100 milliseconds. The arrangement of speech and Tele operation channels falls into one of three categories and is achieved by connecting to one of the following input : - The disconnectable bus (D) - The non-disconnectable bus (ND) - Signal boosting bus (B) with a predetermined amplification.




The carrier frequency techniques with single side band transmission is, due to the high quality band filters and converters, free from disturbing by products and spurious signals. Optimum selectivity is achieved only in the intermediate frequency (IF) stages by the filtering are out of the required side band. Here, therefore lines the task of the carrier frequency section to move the AF intelligence from its low frequency position of 300 to 300 HZ (respectively 300 to 2200 and HZ) first to the IF stage and then into carrier frequency (HF) band.

The carrier frequencies are spaced on a 4 KHZ (respectively 2.5 KHZ) raster. This arrangement required the use of two conversions in each of transmit and receive direction so that the intermediate frequency is fixed at 16 KHZ and the carrier channel has a variable frequency which can be programmed to provided a large number of HF carriers. In the single channel equipment and channel 1 of the twin channel equipment, the lower side band is used throughout all frequency conversions. The useful band is inverted in the IF stage and the HF stage placed in the erect position. Contrary to this channel 2 of the twin channel equipment is erect in the IF stage and inverted in the HF stage.

- Carrier frequency range - Gross channel bandwidth - Useful AF band KHZ : 40 to 512 KHZ : 4 KHZ : 300 to 3,700

(2) IN


Data guaranteed within reliable : 0 to 45

degree Centigrade

Operation guarantee degree

: 20 to 45

Centigrade Frequency stability of R.F. oscillator : 5 HZ

R.F. transmitting power : Peak envelope power Side band power : 25 W : 15 W

Auxiliary carrier frequency : 16 KHZ

At frequency 250 KHZ their power lower by 2 dB.

I.F. carrier frequency : 16 KHZ

Pilot tone Test tone

: :

3600 HZ 1000 HZ

- Synthesizer reference frequency : 8 KHZ - Dummy load : 20 OHMS


TRUNK DIALING Shifting the pilot oscillator frequency of 3600

+/- 30 transmits dialing criterions of a speed of normally 1 pulses per second. (5) POWER SUPPLY DC Supply : 49 TO 60(-10/+25%), 180 W

Approximate maximum supply 2 percent - Capacity - A.C. Supply HZ - Power consumption : < 80 W : 800 AH. : 220 +/-15%, 50





In normal rooms the ETI equipment generally erected on an open rack or on a frame of freestanding cabinet. The room for the erection of the equipment should have a dust free floor, which is washable. The room should be well ventilated and of normal temperature & humidity and where necessary provided with a ventilator fan having a dust filters. The cabinets should prevent from titling when opened. Cabinets should prevent from titling when opened.

Before opening the hinged frame, make sure that the cabinet can not tip forward.




Test oscillator enables the commissioning of the PLC link without aid of external signals, pressing the CALL button intimate a test tone of 1 KHZ which is fed to the voice amplifier and passes through all transmit stages of the PLC equipments with the exception of the telephone adapter. It is possible to check at any test point the dBr value printed in the front side of the equipment is against the measured dB reading. It simplifies also. The following signals can be checked in the AG section of the equipment : Speech, Teleoperation/data dialing.


In fault analysis the faulty devices are checked

in this serial or manner : - Telephone or Tele operation signals - Cabling low frequency circuits power supplies - PLC equipments - HF transmission path or DC

Comparisons with the transmission levels and working voltages measured under healthy conditions are valuable aids to fault analysis. The back to back testing of the equipment using the dummy load is also a very useful aid. The presence of AF signals in the various stages of the equipment can be checked using the telephone handset and test load connected

between the associated measuring point audio testing.


In PLCC the higher mechanical strength and insulations level of high voltage power result in increased reliability of communication and lower attenuation over long-distance. The idea of using power lines of transmission lines for communication purpose was the first thought of at about the beginning of the century and the practical applications were made in several countries from 1920 onwards. These systems have now developed into extremely sophisticated and complicated systems and widely used in all modern power systems. Since telephone communication system can not be directly connected to the high voltage lines, suitably designed coupling devices have therefore to the employed. These usually consists of high

voltage capacitors or capacitor with polaritical devices used in conjunction with suitable line matching units 9LMUs for matching the impedance of line to that of the co-axial cable connecting the unit to the PLC transmit receive equipment.







communication have to be prevented from entering the power equipment used in GSS as this would result in high attenuation of even complete loss of communication signals when earthed at isolator. To prevent this loss, wave traps or line traps are employed. These consist of suitably designed choke coils connected in series with the line, which offer negligible impedance to RF carrier currents. Wave traps also usual have one or more suitably designed capacitors connected in parallel with the choke coils so as to resonate at carrier frequencies and thus offer even higher impedance to the flow of RF currents. The basis arrangement of connecting the WT and coupling capacitor in PLCC communication is shown in the above figure :

As can be seen from the sketch, the power frequency and radio frequency component are sorted out by this arrangement. The RF is prevented from entering the stations bus and the power frequency is blocked of coupling capacitor.


Earlier coupling devices used were antenna as similar to these used in radio work. This was because capacitor capable of withstanding the high voltages used in transmission of electrical power were not available at that time. The antennas used for coupling the PLC equipment to the transmission line were usually erected below the line and parallel

to it. They were usually more than 300 ft long and were tuned to the carrier frequency employed. These were rather inefficient and the systems were affected but interference from nearby long wave radio transmitters. By about 1930, suitably paper and oil capacitor were developed which could withstand the high voltage and serve as affective coupling units to PLC equipments.

A modern coupling capacitor consists of a stack of flat would elements of pure cellulose paper and aluminum coils held between insulating roads under optimum pressure to minimize capacitance the changes with time and temperature. The interconnection are designed to obtain highest possible range withstand capacity and highest cut off frequency. The entire stack assembly as placed in a suitable pro claim insulating shall fill with insulating coils and hermetically sealed by metallic flanges and gaskets of synthetic rubber with a dry

nitrogen gas cushion. The mechanical strength of the shell and flanges are carefully matched. Coupling capacitors are designed for outdoors use and withstand normal atmospheric phenomenon such as temperature and humidity rain, show etc. The capacitors used in modern PLCC systems have a capacity between 2000 and 8000 ft. The usual value is between 3000 and 5000 ft. The units are designed to have a very low loss (<0.5dB). They are usually mounted on pedestals below the line conductors. In many cases the capacitive voltage dividers are used for communication system and voltage is used for synchronizing purpose or voltage measurement.


WT = wave trap. LMU = line matching unit. TR = transmission and receiving equipments. CC = coupling capacitor As can be seen from the figure, the wave traps and coupling capacitors are all connected to one conductor of the power line. The remaining two conductor, through not directly connected to the line carry a portion of the returning carrier current because these two conductors do not have wave traps, a portion of the carrier energy is 1 lost. Also radiation losses are goes high as earth forms a part of the circuit and the noise pickup is correspondingly higher. The method of connecting is inefficient and the connection at the receiving and can not be made to match the line perfectly. This is because the impendence of the line can not be calculated correctly as it depends partly on the soil conductivity enrote the line which varies from place to place and time to time and partly on station switching condition. (b) PHASE TO PHASE COUPLING

This type of coupling was formally being used to improve the reliability of communication case of breakage of one of the coupled conductors. The system used double the number of wave traps and coupling capacitors used in phase to ground and hence is costlier. This coupling capacitor at each and have the line are connected in parallel to the LMUs as shown in this sketch figure

Through reliability of



coupling the





therefore from radio transmission and monitoring possibilities are all higher than those of phase to ground coupling. Hence this type of coupling has been discontinued and super sided by the phase to - phase coupling system.


This type of coupling uses the same number of wave traps and the capacitor as two phase coupling but the capacitance are not connected in parallel as in the case of that type of coupling. The two power conductors used in this case may be considered as metallic go and return lines for the carrier currents. The conductor has no appreciable influence on the carrier currents. The third on the conductor the carrier switching has no appreciable transmission. influence Hence current


attention is less because two conductors are used instead of one conductor and earth. This type of coupling is more reliable over longer distance and is

generally used load dispatch work, though it is lightly costlier than the two - phase system. (d) INTERLINE OR INTER CIRCUIT COUPLING This is the same as phase to phase coupling but with the difference that the two conductors used for communication belong to two difference power circuits carrier on common towers. This type of coupling is not employed where the two circuits are carrier on two separate sets of towers as it then behaves more like a double phase to ground coupling and is found to be impracticable.

This type of coupling is even more reliable than phase to phase coupling on the same circuit in that it permits operation with one of the two circuits opened out and founded for maintenance purpose. Inter-phase or inter systems coupling are

always employed on 220 KV and 400 KV lines where the interference levels are therefore also used on very long 100 KV lines where attenuation become a problem. This type of coupling permit higher reliability of operation under breaker conductor conditions and are always employed where carrier line protection systems are employed. COMPARISON OF PHASE TO PHASE AND

PHASE TO GOUND COUPLING The phase to ground coupling has the advantage of requiring only half the number of wave traps and coupling capacitors in comparison to phase to phase coupling. But it is inferior to many as would be evident from the following points. The phase - to - ground coupling has higher attenuation and unlike phase - to - phase


coupling, the attenuation varies with station switching conditions. 2. The variation of attenuation function with changes in weather condition is greater in phase to grounds coupling.

Reflection and echoes due to mismatch difficulties are much greater in phase - to coupling. grounds

4. Signal to noise ratio is poorer due to longitudinal noise voltages induced in the line. In phase to phase coupling the noise voltages tend to cancel themselves as equal voltages are induced in the coupled circuit. conductors, which oppose each other in the

5. Radiation from phase to ground case is about double than that in the other case. A break or fault of some other kind will hamper the transmission in phase to ground coupling much more seriously than in phase to phase coupling. Hence, phase to ground due to coupling is used


its cheapness, especially when frequency

used and distances to be covered are suitable, and radiation not particularly objectionable, as may be the situation in sparsely populated areas.


Wave traps (WTs) are used between the transmission line and the power stations to avoid carrier power dislocation in the power plant and cross talk with other power line carrier circuits

connected to the same power station. WTs also ensure proper operating conditions and signal levels at the PLCC transmit receive equipment irrespective of switching conditions of the power circuits and equipment in the station.

A wave trap must satisfy the following requirements :

(1) It must block the carrier currents. By blocking, we mean that the track should attenuate the H.F. signals by at least 8 to 10 dB. (2) It must carry the power frequency current safely during normal operation as well as short circuit fault conditions.


All wave traps have a choke as a main part. This choke may be a single layer or a multi-layer coils made of special aluminum alloy and is

designed to carry the full load current the power circuit continuously and also to withstand normal short circuit currents in the event of a fault on that line for a short time until the current in the event of a fault on circuit breakers clears the fault without suffering any mechanical or thermal damages. The inductance of the choke varies from 100 Micro Henrys to 2 milli Henrys depending on the pass band required. The 100 or 200 Micro Henry wave trap will in conjunction with a suitable tuning capacitor block a band of a few tens of KHz, the blocked land width being dependent on the carry frequency. The one milli Henry traps will clock periodically the whole range of carrier frequency employed in PLCC a 2.o mH traps can be used without a tuning capacitor across it. It will still blocked almost all carrier frequency in use effectively, but its inherent capacitance of about 100PF, will cause it to resonate at the high end of the PLCC band (250 to 500 KHZ). The low inductance respant types of traps are usually wound as a narrow cylindrical single layer, whereas the high inductance broadband traps are invariably wound as large diameter discoshed coils.

The cost of the wave trap increased with the rated power current to be carrier by it as well as with the inductance required. A trap with a nominal rated current of 1600n Amp. Designed to withstand a short circuit current of look. A may cost 10 times as much as trap rated for a nominal current of 400 Amp and a short circuit current of 50 KA. Similarly a 2.0 mH trap may cost several times as much as 100 micro Henry traps for the same nominal power current. Therefore, wherever the nominal load currents and expected short circuit currents are high smaller inductances are used with tuning arrangement to obtain broadband trap. Suspension mounting of wave trap is preferred to rigid mounting on coupling capacitors as this arrangement enables it to withstand the dynamic stresses created by short circuits better and because it is more economical but high current, high inductance traps, which are very heavy may have to be mounted on pedestals insulators or coupling capacitors. Wave traps are made in various is a standard sizes and rating and to various specifications.

Standard 2.0 mH.





recommended by IEC are 0.2, 0.25, 0.4, 0.5, 1.0 and

Lightning is one of the most serious causes of over voltage. It the power equipment especially at out doors is not protected, the over voltage will cause burning of insulations. The ground wires running over the towers provides an adequate protection against lighting and also reduced the induced electrostatic or electromagnetic voltage but such a shield is inadequate to protect any travelling which reaches terminals of electrical equipment and such waves can cause internal flash over between inter-turns of transformers and the high peak voltage of surge may cause external flash over between terminals of the electrical equipment which results in damage of insulators.

A good light arrester must pass the following properties:

It should not absorb any current during normal operation, but during over voltage surge it must provided an easy way to the earth. After the first discharge of current has taken place through then must be capable of carrying the discharge current for same interval of time without any damage to them. After the over voltage discharge, it must be capable of interrupting the normal frequency of current from flowing to ground as soon as voltages reaches below break down value. In addition to tuning devices, which usually consist of a capacitor or capacitor, a lightning arrester is invariably connected across the choke coils of the wave traps.

The lightning arrester used may be vacuum type arrester whose are over voltage lies below the rated voltage of the tuning capacitors, but about the voltage produced across the coils during a short circuit current over surge. The lightning by arrester travelling therefore protects the turning capacitors against momentary voltage caused waves. Sustained over voltage resulting from short circuits currents are not high enough to case the lightning arrester to be over. Hence, a sustained are and consequent destruction of the arrester are avoided.


Used are high voltage, high stability mica capacitors with low losses. For lower voltage class of tuning units (with impulse test voltage rating upto 40 KV) polystyrene capacitors are used by some manufactures. For higher voltage class of tuning units with impulse test voltage rating upto 150 KV), capacitors with mineral oil impregnated paper dies electric are used which are similar in

construction to coupling capacitors. All types are moulded in epoxy resin. Single frequency traps have a single and double frequency traps have a double tuned parallel reasonant circuit. All the elements belonging to the tuning circuit are usually mounted in a common housing, which can be revolved and substituted with another similar tuning device to reasonate trap to a different frequency.



PLCC (Power Line Carrier Communication) works on rectified AC or main, when make supply goes off. We use of a device for proper functioning supply to of the PLCC, PLCC called BATTERY for CHARGER. This is the device that provides equipment uninterrupted working. It provides DC to the

panel by battery of 48 V. In this type 24 batteries capacities. are connected in series and individually per battery has approximately 2 V

Battery charges mainly consists of 4 sections :Float charges Boost charges section Control section




Alarm section All the four sections are situated in


mounted sheet steel. The sides and tops of the frame are provided with removable panel suitable recess has been provided in front panel to prevent the component from projection out. All meters indicating lamps, push buttons have been counted on from panel.


- Normal input 415 V AC 3 phase +/- 20% of voltage

- Input variation -

FLOAT CHARGES DC Output Output current ampere 50 v+/- 1 % 20 to 40

Line regulation & load regulation - +/-1% Individual Ripple to Efficiency peak ) - > 70 % 0.6 Vpp (peak

68 DC Output V 43.2 TO 67.2

Output current Amps Over load Efficiency -

25 70

10 % > 80 %

The float charges is basically static type 3 phase charger with stabilized output DC voltage. The charges output DC voltage is constantly compared with standard DC reference voltage and error voltage is again amplified. This amplified voltage control the triggering signals of all the 3 thyristors of 3 phase bridge control rectifier, as the output voltage tends to decrease than its selected value, it makes the triggering signals of each thyristor of all 3 phase, to advance for firing them, so that the output voltage remains within the specified accuracy. If the output voltage tends to increase more than the selected value, the triggering pulses of these

thyristors of all 3 phase are delayed in firing operations in such a way so that the output DC voltage is again brought back to its stabilized voltage. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION :

The 3 phase AC input is applied through the 3 poles 2 way switch (RS-1) and fuse F-18 to F-20 to the float input contractor (CON-1) Resistance R-3, capacitor C-2 and also resistance R-2, capacitor C-1 are incorporated to remove the instabilities like hunting. Operational amplifier IC-2 I liner amplifier the mv drop across shunt. The ratio of R-14/R-15 determine the gain of the amplifier and RV-2 on sub assembly sets the charging current. When charging current increases the mv drop across pin No. 2 & 3 of IC 2 will increased. This voltage is applied to the base of TR-4 through R-11. Transistor TR-4 will be the base current of TR-3 and TR-3 will increase the

voltage from D-2 will control the voltage correcting operational amplifier IC-1. This will result in decrease in DC output voltage to keep the battery current at set level, which can be adjusted by potentiometer RV-2. It is desired that output of the rectifier attain its steady state value slowly rather than by step. Fuse Fail Alarm : Fuse fail alarm is also available in float charges. In the event of any HRC fuse failure. Corresponding types fuse blows and trip the corresponding relay.


Description of Circuit

Boost charges is used to charge the batteries after power resumption. The input supply is switched on mains of rotatory switch RS 1, three numbers HRC fuses. F-21 to F-23 has been provided for over current protection AC contractor CON-2 has also been provided. Transformer 6 steps down the input AC voltage to suitable level. Necessary taps are provided in the primary of transformer to cater for varying input voltage that may prevail at sub-station. The secondary voltage of transformer-6 is applied to a bridge rectifier, which consists of 6 silicon diodes D-6 to D-11, for rectification of AC to DC. These diodes are mounted on individual heat sinks for cooling so that junction temperature of the device is within specified limit. The diodes are protected by capacitors and resistances against have storage effects and transit over voltage in also by HRC fuses F-10 to F-15.

The battery can be charged by using the two rotatory switches provided on front panel for coarse and fine control and that charging current can be read by ammeter A-3 provided on the front panel. The operator must ensure that the rotatory switches are in minimum position charges. before switching on the boost

The float or boost charges can be

switches ON by means of selector switch RS1. Thus at a time only one charger either float or boost can be operated. When the charges is operated in float mode the battery is on float charge and all the VDDs are by passed through the contracts of DC contractor. This enables complete voltage appearing on the load. In case of mains fall also the entire battery voltage is available on

load through contracts of DC contractor. When the charger is operated on boost mode, the contracts of DC contractor opens. Load voltage can be adjusted by VDD switch RS-8 as per the requirement main switch RS-9 have been provided to isolate the charger from load and battery. When the selector switch RS-9 is in charger mode then it will supplying load as well as trickle charger. The batteries in float and boost charger, the batteries mode when the switch RS-9 is in main mode, then the load will be supplied by the battery and the charges is totally isolated from battery for charger main purpose.


checked. The



1.All connections should be thoroughly control circuit boards should be inserted far firmly in their respective sockets before energizing the battery charger.




bolt/screws energizing

should as





mounting will cause vibrations. 3.The charger should be switched off once in every month and the connections and mounting should be checked. 4.The that. battery terminals should be

connected first and the AC input after










communication purpose, as the power lines

themselves constructing saved.




well lines

as is

communication signals. Hence the cost of separate telephone


When compared with ordinary lines the power remain lines. lines have appreciably under the higher mechanical strength. They would normally unaffected conditions, which might seriously damage telephone


Power lines usually provide the shortest route between the power stations.

4. Power lines have large cross-sectional areas resulting in very low resistance per unit length. Consequently the carrier signals suffer much less attenuation than when they travel on usual telephone lines of equal lengths.

5. Power lines are well insulated to provide only negligible leakage between conductors and ground even in adverse weather conditions.

6. Largest spacing between conductors reduces capacitance, which results in smaller attenuation at high frequencies. The large spacing also reduces the cross talk to a considerable extent.

1. Proper care has to be taken to guard carrier equipment and persons using them against high voltages and currents on the lines. 2. Reflections connected increases problems. 3. High voltage lines have transformer are to produced high and on spur lines. lines This other




connections, attenuate carrier currents. Sub station equipments adversely affect the carrier currents.

4. Noise introduced by power lines is far more than in case of telephone lines. This is due to

the noise generated by discharge across insulators, corona and switching processes. It is obvious that an effective power lines carrier system must overcome these and many other difficulties.