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Ground Distance Relays Understanding the Various Methods of Residual Compensation, Setting the Resistive Reach of Polygon Characteristics, and Ways of Modeling and Testing the Relay

Jun Verzosa Doble Engineering Company Watertown, Massachusetts, USA

Presented to Protection Testing User’s Group Salt Lake City, Utah 26-28 September 2005

Topics Covered

• Why this paper?

• Residual compensation or Zero-sequence current compensation

• Typical Polygon characteristics and resistive reach setting

• Modeling and testing ground distance characteristics and influence of residual compensation

Ground Distance Compensation Factors – Survey of Terminology (1)

Names

• Residual compensation

• Zero-sequence current compensation

• Ground (or earth) – return compensation

• Neutral (or earth or ground) impedance correction

Ground Distance Compensation Factors – Survey of Terminology (2)

Symbols

• KN

• K0

• KE

• KZN, KZPh

• Z0/Z1

• RE/RL, XE/XL

KG

Etc.

Some relays have no factor setting but internally calculate compensation from:

R1, X1, R0, X0

Z1 and Z0

Power system – Phase A to Ground Fault

n
Es
R Ia .
F
Z1S, Z0S
Z1, Z0
VaR
21G
A-N
Fault

Symm. Component sequence circuit

F1
F2
F0
Fault Location F, VF=0
I1
I2
I0
V1R
V2R
V0R
nZ1
nZ2 = nZ1
nZ0
Relay Location R
ZS1
ZS2
ZS0
Pos.
Neg.
Zero.
Seq.
Seq.
Seq.
E1
Network
Network
Network
N1
N2
N0
I1 = I2 = I0
.

Symmetrical Component Network for SLG fault at F

Residual Compensation (1)

The voltage at the fault point F is zero (assuming a bolted fault), and the sequence voltages are:

= V2R = I2nZ1 V0R = I0nZ0

V1R

I1nZ1

And the PhA-N voltage at the relaying point is:

VaR = V1R

+

V2R

+

V0R

= I1nZ1 + I2nZ1 + I0nZ0

Residual Compensation (2)

The phase A current Ia at the relaying point is then

Ia = I1 + I2 + I0

and, since I1 = I2 = I0, the residual (neutral) current is

In = Ia + Ib + Ic = 3I0

I0 = In / 3 = Ia / 3

Residual Compensation (3)

If we add and subtract I0nZ1 in the voltage equation, factor out nZ1 and I0, and substitute the Ia and I0 equations

VaR = I1nZ1 + I2nZ1 + I0nZ1 – I0nZ1 + I0nZ0

= ( I1

+

I 2

I0nZ1

+

+ I0nZ0

I0 ) nZ1

= Ia nZ1

= Ia nZ1

+ I0 (Z0 Z1) n + (Ia/3) (Z0 Z1) n

Residual Compensation (4)

If we use the voltage VaR and the current Ia directly for measurement the apparent impedance that is measured is

ZRapparent = VaR / Ia = n Z1 + (Z0 Z1)n/3

The extra second term makes the result not very usable.

To make the relay easier to use, the objective in the design of most ground distance relays is to make the relay measure only

the first term, nZ1

Residual Compensation (5)

If we substitute In/3 for I0 in the voltage equation and multiply the second term by Z1/Z1

VaR = IanZ1 +(In/3)(Z0 Z1)nZ1/Z1

and simplify the equation to express the impedances as a factor of Z1, we obtain

VaR

= [Ia + In(Z0 Z1)/(3Z1)] nZ1

If we define a constant KN= (Z0 Z1)/(3Z1), VaR simplifies to

VaR

= (Ia + KNIn) nZ1

Residual Compensation (6)

Zrelay = VaR / (Ia + KNIn) = nZ1 where: KN = ( Z0 – Z1) / 3Z1 = ( Z0/Z1 – 1) / 3

Residual Compensation is a technique that allows measurement of the fault impedance in terms of positive- sequence impedance, by adding a portion, KN, of the residual current In to the phase current.

KN = residual compensation factor

Ground-return Impedance (1)

Considering the previous voltage equation

VaR = [Ia + In(Z0 Z1)/(3Z1)] nZ1

If we express the voltage drops in terms of Z1

VaR

= Ia nZ1 + Inn(Z0 – Z1)/3

This is the loop voltage from the relay terminal to the fault

point and back, through a ground-return impedance

nZN= n(Z0-Z1)/3, to the neutral of the relay location.

Ground-return Impedance and Simplified Network Equivalent Circuit (2)

Relay

Location

IA

EA
EB

F

Zs

n*Z1
Ph A–N
Fault
IB = 0
Zs
n*Z1
VaR
IC =0
Zs
n*Z1
IN
ZNs
n*ZN
EC

=n *(Z 0 - Z 1) /3

Ground-return Impedance (3)

The impedance ZN is called the ground-return (or residual) impedance and is defined as

ZN =

( Z0 – Z1 ) / 3

Note also the relationships

Or

ZN =

KN Z1

KN = ZN / Z1

Relay Implementation of Residual Compensation

A

B

C

IA
A-N
Fault
Van
Ia
Relay
Comparator
Z1
Z1
Z1
Circuits
Replica
Circuits
In
ZN

Zero-sequence Current Compensation (1)

Considering the previous voltage equation and and if we replace In by 3I0 we get

VaR = [Ia + 3I0(Z0 Z1)/(3Z1)] nZ1 = [Ia + I0(Z0 Z1)/(Z1)] nZ1

We introduce K0 = (Z0-Z1)/Z1

VaR = (Ia + K0 I0) nZ1

Zero-sequence Current Compensation (2)

Zrelay = VaR / (Ia + K0I0) = nZ1 where: K0 = ( Z0 – Z1) / Z1 = Z0/Z1 – 1

Zero-sequence Current Compensation is a technique that allows measurement of the fault impedance in terms of positive-sequence impedance, by adding a portion, K0, of the zero-sequence current I0 to the phase current.

K0 = residual compensation factor

Residual Compensation Factors – RE/RL and XE/XL (1)

Relay
IA
Location
F
EA
Zs
*ZL
=RL + j XL
IB = 0
EB
Zs
ZL
VaR
IC =0
EC
Zs
*ZL
Ph A–N
Fault
IN
ZNs
ZE
=RE + j XE
=(Z0 - Z1)/3

Residual Compensation Factors – RE/RL and XE/XL (2)

X

XE
RE
RL=R1
ZE = ZN
RLoop
ZLoop
ZL = Z1
XLoop
XL=X1
.

R

Residual Compensation Factors – RE/RL and XE/XL (3)

ZE = ZN = (Z0 Z1) / 3

= [ (R0 – j X0) – (R1 + j X1) ] / 3

= (R0 – R1)/3 + j (X0 – X1)/3

= RE

+

j

XE

ZL = R1 + j X1 = RL + j XL

Residual Compensation Factors – RE/RL and XE/XL (4)

If we express ZLoop into its resistive and reactive components, and express them in terms of RL and XL, we can introduce ratio constants RE/RL and XE/XL

ZLoop = RLoop + j XLoop RLoop = RL + RE

= RL (1 + RE/RL)

XLoop = XL + XE

= XL (1 + XE/XL)

Residual Compensation Factors – RE/RL and XE/XL (5)

The compensation constants can be derived from equations of RE, RL, XE and XL

RE/RL = [ (R0 – R1)/3 ] / R1 =

XE/XL = [ (X0 – X1)/3 ] / X1 =

RE
1
=
⎛ R 0 −1 ⎞ ⎟
RL
3
R 1

XE

XL

3

X 1

=

1 ⎛ ⎜ X 0

1 ⎟ ⎞

Survey of Formulas, Names and Symbols

Common factors and formulas (1)

• KN = (Z0/Z1 – 1) / 3

• K0 = (Z0/Z1 – 1)

• K0 = Z0/Z1

• K0ratio = Z0/Z1 magnitude and angles of Z1 & Z0

• K0x = (X0/X1 – 1) / 3

magnitude & angle magnitude & angle magnitude & angle

scalar

Common factors and formulas (2)

RE/RL=(R0/R1-1)/3 & XE/XL=(X0/X1-1)/3

• Some relays do not require a compensation factor setting but internally calculate KN or K0 from from the positive- and zero-sequence impedance settings

- Z1 and Z0

- R1, X1, R0, X0

- ZN and Z1

Conversion from one form to another

Conversion from one form to another

Why Convert?

• Test system does not support form of compensation

• Try testing with a different compensation form

• Using existing relay setting on another relay

• Replacing an existing relay

Spreadsheet (1) – mode selection

Spreadsheet (2) – data entry

Enter setting values

Spreadsheet (3) – converted values

Spreadsheet (4) – converted values

Spreadsheet (5) – converted values

Spreadsheet (6) – Z plot

Loop impedance diagram

XLoop
ZNang
R1
RN
ZLoop = Z1 + ZN
X1
ZN
ZLoopAng
Z1ang
RLoop
Z1

XN

 ZN = KN*Z1 = 1/3 (Z0/Z1 – 1) K0 = (Z0/Z1 – 1) KN = K0 / 3 RL = R1 XL =X1 ZE = ZN

RE/RL = 1/3 (R0/R1 – 1) XE/XL = 1/3 (X0/X1 – 1)

Loop Impedance Calculation

Fault Resistance (1)

Z1

AN fault

21
IaR
VaR
ZN

Rarc

Rtf

• Arc Resistance, Rarc

• Tower Footing Resistance, Rtf

Fault Resistance (2)

R Loop

XLoop
ZNang
R1
RN
ZLoopAng = Z1 + ZN
X1
ZLoopAng
Z1ang
ZN
Z 1

XN

R FLoop = R arc + R tg

VaR/Ia = Z1 + ZN + Rarc + Rtf = ZLoop + RFLoop

RFLoop

Rarc

Rtf

Fault Resistance setting (1)

Z1

AN fault

21
IaR
VaR
ZN

Rarc

Rtf

RFLoop = (1.1 to 1.2) * (Rarc + Rtf)

Fault Resistance setting with Remote Infeed (2)

RFLoop

= (1.1 to 1.2)

Iremote

 ⋅ ⎜ 1 + ⋅ (Rarc + Rtf )

IaR

Characteristic Shapes, Residual Compensation and Resistive Reach (1)

NoNo ResistiveResistive ReachReach SettingSetting

Characteristic Shapes, Residual Compensation and Resistive Reach (2)

Characteristic Shapes, Residual Compensation and Resistive Reach (2)

RFLoop
= (1.1
to
1.2)⋅ ⎜ 1+
Iremote ⎞
(Rarc + Rtf )
Iar

Characteristic Shapes, Residual Compensation and Resistive Reach (3)

RFph

= (1.1

to

1.2)

 ⎛ ⎜ 1 + ⎝ Iar ⎠

Iremote ⎞ ⎟⋅

(

Rarc

+ Rtf

)

1 + KNx

Characteristic Shapes, Residual Compensation and Resistive Reach (4)

⎜ 1 +
Iremote ⎞
⎟⋅
(
Rarc
+ Rtf
)
Iar
RFph
=
(1.1 to 1.2)
RE
1 +
RL

Characteristic Shapes, Residual Compensation and Resistive Reach (5)

Regardless of the characteristic type the maximum resistive reach setting is affected by other factors

• Relay maximum resistive setting,

• Use of load encroachment feature,

• Relay current sensitivity,

• Tilting effect of remote infeed current.

Fault Resistance Coverage (1)

RFph
RFLoop
ZLoop
XLoop
Z1
X1

Less fault resistance coverage

RFLoop = RFph*(1+KNx)

XLoop = X1 * (1+KNx)

Fault Resistance Coverage (2)

PhiLoop
Phi1
ZLoop
Z1
XLoop
X1
RFLoop
PhiLoop
Phi1
RFLoop
ZLoop
Z1

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (1)

KN = (Z0/Z1-1) / 3

Z1L
P2L
Loop
Characteristic
Z1
P2
P3L
Per Phase
Characteristic
P3
P4L
P4
O

------ complex

Per-phase model

Constant test current method VaR = Ia * ZFault * (1+KN)

Constant test voltage method Ia = VaR / (ZFault * (1+KN))

Loop Model

Constant test current method

VaR = Ia * ZFltLoop

Constant test voltage method Ia = VaR / ZFltLoop

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (1)

KN = (Z0/Z1-1) / 3

Z1L
P2L
Loop
Characteristic
Z1
P2
P3L
Per Phase
Characteristic
P3
P4L
P4
O

------ complex

Per-phase model looks more like actual setting.

Both models work well.

Loop model needs extra calculation of ZLoop reach and ZLoop angle.

Characteristic Modeling & Testing(2)

K0x = (X0/X1-1) / 3

------ Scalar

P1L
P2L
P4L
P3L
P1
P4
P2
P3
P5L
P5
RFph
P6
P6L
X1

Per-phase model looks more like actual setting.

Both models work well.

Use Per-phase model Va/Ia = Zfault (1+ KNx)

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (11)

Scalar factors -- RE/RL and XE/XL Per-phase model

Loop Model

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (11)

Scalar factors -- RE/RL and XE/XL Per-phase model

Loop Model

Per-phase model looks more like actual setting. Both models work well.

Loop model requires extra complex calculations.

If software supports RE/RL & XE/XL compensation, use per-phase model.

Characteristic Modeling & Testing(3)

KN = (Z0/Z1 – 1) / 3

&

Z1 is per-phase
Phi1
RFLoop
is Loop
Z1

RFLoop

n*Z1
Ia
+
Va
RFLoop
Ia

n*Z1*KN

Characteristic does not include ground return impedance. It is included in the KN setting

Characteristic Modeling & Testing(4)

Loop model

Z1L
Q
RFLoop
Z1
PhiLoop
PhiLoop
RFLoop
ZLoop

Loop model includes the

ground return impedance.

Resistive Reach is the same for per-phase and loop models and remains the same throughout.

Hence, we can model per-phase using separate fault resistance.

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (5)

Z1L
RF
PL
P’L
Z1
RF
P’
P
Phi1

Separate Fault Resistance – How to calculate loop impedance for testing

Draw horizontal line to the Zline to

intersect at P’ P’x = Px

P’r = P’x/tan(Phi1)

RF = Pr – P’x

P’L = P’ *(1+KN)

PL = P’L + RF

ZN

Z1L

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (6)

RF2

P’2L

P2L

Z1

RF3

P3L

P’2

RF2

RF3

P3

RF4

RF4

RF5

P5 = P5L

P4

P2

P4L

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (7)

Allows testing using separate fault resistance for points -To the right of the line angle only -To the left of the line angle only - both left and right of line angle

If not checked, ZPLoop = ZP (1 + KN)

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (8)

Per-Phase Testing

Loop Testing

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (8a)

Per-Phase Testing

Loop Testing

Per-phase model looks more like actual setting.

Both models work well.

Loop model requires extra complex calculations.

If software supports complex KN compensation, use per-phase model,

if reactance line tilt is small

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (9)

Tilt angle
RF
P’L
PL
Tilt angle
P’
P
RF
Rs1
Rs2
ZLoop

If tilt angle is more than +/-3 deg using separate fault resistance is erroneous.

Use Loop Impedance model only.

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (10)

Loop
phiN
Per-phase
phiLoop
phi 1
phi1
RFloop
ZLoop
X1
XN

Angle of resistance blinder is different from loop angle, phiLoop.

Use Loop Impedance model only

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (11)

Some test software allow selection of several types of compensation factors.

Use these features if per-phase modeling and testing provides correct results for type of characteristic tested

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (12) User-interface helps in modeling using setting

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (12a) User-interface helps in modeling using setting

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (12b) User-interface helps in modeling using setting

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (13)

Importing characteristics exported by relay software

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (14)

Simultaneous testing of multiple zones with complex characteristics

•Load encroachment •Directional Lines

Loop modeling and testing

Summary (1)

• Ground distance relays employ some form of compensation of the ground-return impedance in order to measure (and also to allow the relay to be set) in terms of positive-sequence impedance. A derivation these forms of compensation is presented.

Summary (2)

• The many names, symbols and formulas that are in use for residual or ground-return compensation pose a challenge to personnel who set and test the relays.

• Some forms of compensation that use different formulas are called by the same name and symbol. This can result in applying the wrong setting if one is not careful and may result in either relay misoperation or failure to trip.

Summary (3)

• The fault resistance reach, for polygon-shaped characteristics, is set in Ohms per phase in some relays while in other relays it is set in Ohms per loop. In some relay manuals this fact is not explicitly indicated.

• The ground-return compensation affects the fault resistance reach and the angle of the resistive blinder in different ways, depending on the design of the relay.

Summary (4)

• Each form of ground-return impedance compensation can be converted to another form. Formulas are derived to perform this conversion. These formulas are handy when a relay being tested has a compensation setting that is not supported by the relay test system.

• A spreadsheet that implements these formulas makes conversion easy and avoids calculation errors.

Summary (5)

• Testing the reactance line and résistance blinder of polygon characteristics can be done

– Both in the per-phase impedance plane

– Both in the loop impedance plane,

– A 3 rd test method models the reactance line in per-phase and treats the fault resistance separately from the main impedance.

Summary (6)

• Selecting the most suitable model for testing depends on assessment of – How the angle of the resistive blinder is affected by the residual compensation – Tilt angle of the reactance line. Testing

points for a reactance line that has a large tilt angle, using a separate fault resistance, will result in test errors.

Summary (7)

• Personnel who set relays and those who test them must have a good understanding of the methods of residual compensation, how the resistive reach is set and affected by the compensation and how the relay characteristics are modeled.

• Cooperation between these personnel is very important to actually verify their understanding of the settings and relay behavior and that the models are suitable.

Summary (8)

• The relay operation in the 2 nd and 4 th quadrants of polygon characteristics is affected by additional factors – including the

– behavior of the directional lines,

– the type of characteristic lines (straight lines or circular arcs),

– and the source impedance.

Summary (9)

• Automated software allows easy modeling and correct testing of complex ground distance polygon characteristics with various forms of residual compensation factors.

Questions?