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# Contents

4 MATRIX ALGEBRA 2
4.1 Some Denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4.1.1 Matrix Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4.1.2 Inverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.1.3 Determinant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1.4 Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1.5 Kronecker Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1.6 Vectorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2 The Summation Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2.1 Orthogonal Idempotent Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.2.2 General Orthogonal Idempotent Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.3 Rank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.3.1 Some Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.4 Quadratic Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.4.1 Denite Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.4.2 Matrix Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.4.3 Orthogonality and Matrix Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.5 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Symmetric Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.5.1 Basic Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.6 Matrix Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.6.1 Taylor Expansions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.7 Appendix: More Results on Disjoint Idempotent Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1
Chapter 4
MATRIX ALGEBRA
4.1 Some Denitions
It is assumed that the meaning of vectors, both rows and columns, and matrices are known. The
denitions of vector and matrix addition and subtraction are also omitted. In this section we only
state without proofs the most important properties of ve matrix operations multiplication,
inverse, determinant, trace, Kronecker product. Proofs can be found in many standard matrix
algebra textbooks.
4.1.1 Matrix Multiplication
If a and b are two n-dimensional column vectors, then
a

b = [ a
1
a
2
. . . a
n
]
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
b
1
b
2
.
.
.
b
n
_

_
= a
1
b
1
+a
2
b
2
+ +a
n
b
n
=
n

i =1
a
i
b
i
.
Note that the apostrophe

means the transpose of the vector or matrix.
Let A be an n k matrix and B a k m matrix. If C = AB, then the (i, j )th element of the
n m matrix C is
c
i j
= a
i
b
j
= [ a
i 1
a
i 2
. . . a
i k
]
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
b
1 j
b
2 j
.
.
.
b
kj
_

_
=
k

=1
a
i
b
j
,
where a
i
is the i th row of A, a
i
is the (i, )-th element of A, b
j
is the j th column of B, and
b
j
is the (, j )th element of B. Here, we note the column number of A must be the same as
the row number of B before A can be multiplied to B, in which case A and B are said to be
conformable for multiplication.
A few special cases of the matrix multiplication should be worked out: If Ais a vector while
B is a matrix, then A must be a row vector (i.e., n = 1) and the product C is a row vector. If A
is a matrix while B is a vector, then B must be a column vector (i.e., m = 1) and the product C
2
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 3
is a column vector. If both A and B are vectors, then A must be a row vector and B must be a
column vector and the product C is a scalar.
It is important to knowhowthe multiplication between an nk matrix Xand a k-dimensional
column vector b works. The result of such a multiplication is a column vector which can be
viewed from two different angles according to how we partition the X matrix when we perform
the multiplication:
1. X is partitioned horizontally into k columns:
Xb =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
x
11
x
12
x
1k
x
21
x
22
x
2k
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
x
n1
x
n2
x
nk
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
b
1
b
2
.
.
.
b
k
_

_
= [ x
1
x
2
. . . x
k
]
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
b
1
b
2
.
.
.
b
k
_

_
= b
1
x
1
+b
2
x
2
+ +b
k
x
k
,
where x
1
, x
2
, . . . x
k
are the k columns of the matrix X. So the product Xb can be viewed
as the weighted sum of the k columns of X with the elements b
i
of b being the weights.
(Note that when a scalar like b
i
is multiplied to a vector x
i
, then b
i
is multiplied to each
element of x
i
and the result is a vector.)
2. X is partitioned vertically into n rows:
Xb =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
x
1
x
2
.
.
.
x
n
_

_
b =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
x
1
b
x
2
b
.
.
.
x
n
b
_

_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
b
1
x
11
+b
2
x
12
+ +b
k
x
1k
b
1
x
21
+b
2
x
22
+ +b
k
x
2k
.
.
.
b
1
x
n1
+b
2
x
n2
+ +b
k
x
nk
_

_
,
where x
1
, x
2
, . . . x
n
are the n rows of the matrix X. So the product Xb can also be
viewed as a column with each element being a linear combination of a row of X using the
elements of b as weights.
The notation x
j
for the columns of X and x
i
for the rows of X are only temporary. In many
occasions in the future we will also denote the rows of X by x

i
so that
X =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
x

1
x

2
.
.
.
x

n
_

_
.
That is, while x
i
itself is a column vector, its transpose is the i th row of the matrix X.
Here are two basic properties of matrix multiplication:
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 4
1. For any conformable matrices A and B, (AB)

= B

.
2. For any conformable matrices A, B, and C, (AB)C = A(BC).
4.1.2 Inverse
Lets rst dene a special n n matrix the identity matrix which is denoted as I
n
, or
simply I, and is a matrix where the diagonal elements are all 1 and the off-diagonal elements
are 0. A nonsingular or invertible matrix A is a square matrix that has an inverse A
1
such that
AA
1
= A
1
A = I. Here are some properties about the inverse:
1. For any nonsingular matrices A and B, (AB)
1
= B
1
A
1
.
2. For any nonzero scalar a and nonsingular matrix A, (aA)
1
=
1
a
A
1
.
3. For any nonsingular matrix A, (A

)
1
= (A
1
)

.
4. For any nonsingular matrices A
1
and A
2
,
_
A
1
0
0 A
2
_
1
=
_
A
1
1
0
0 A
1
2
_
.
5. For any nonsingular matrices A
1
and A
2
,
_
A
1
B
C A
2
_
1
=
_
X
1
Y
Z X
2
_
,
where
X
1
= A
1
1
+A
1
1
BX
2
CA
1
1
= (A
1
BA
1
2
C)
1
, Y = A
1
1
BX
2
= X
1
BA
1
2
,
X
2
= A
1
2
+A
1
2
CX
1
BA
1
2
= (A
2
CA
1
1
B)
1
, Z = A
1
2
CX
1
= X
2
CA
1
1
.
6. Given that ad bc = 0,
_
a b
c d
_
1
=
1
_
d b
c a
_
.
7. For any nonsingular matrix A and two column vectors b and c,
(A bc

)
1
= A
1

1
1 c

A
1
b
A
1
bc

A
1
.
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 5
8. For any nonsingular matrices A and C,
(A BCB

)
1
= A
1
A
1
B(C
1
B

A
1
B)
1
B

A
1
.
9. Given Ax = b, for any nonsingular matrix A, and two column vectors x and b, then we
can solve x = A
1
b.
4.1.3 Determinant
The determinant |A| of a square matrix A is a complicated sum of products involving all the
elements of A. In particular, for simple 2 2 and 3 3 matrices, we have

a b
c d

= ad bc and

a b c
d e f
g h i

## = aei +bf g +cdh ceg af h bdi.

1. For any nonsingular matrices A and B, |AB| = |A||B|.
2. For any nonzero scalar a and any n n matrix A, |aA| = a
n
|A|.
3. For any nonsingular matrix A, |A

| = |A|.
4. For any nonsingular matrix A, |A
1
| = |A|
1
.
5. For any nonsingular matrices A
1
and A
2
, we have

A
1
0
0 A
2

= |A
1
||A
2
|.
6. Given that A
1
and A
2
are nonsingular,

A
1
B
C A
2

= |A
2
||A
1
BA
1
2
C| = |A
1
||A
2
CA
1
1
B|.
4.1.4 Trace
The trace tr(A) of a square matrix A is the sum of all diagonal elements.
1. For any n k matrix A and k n matrix B, tr(AB) = tr(BA).
2. For any scalar a and any square matrix A, tr(aA) = atr(A).
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 6
4.1.5 Kronecker Product
For any n k matrix A and p q matrix B, the Kronecker product of A and B is dened to be
A B =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
11
B a
12
B a
1k
B
a
21
B a
22
B a
2k
B
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n1
B a
n2
B a
nk
B
_

_
.
The result is an np kq matrix.
1. ab

= a b

= b

a.
2. (A B)

= A

.
3. (A B)
1
= A
1
B
1
.
4. For any n n matrix A and any k k matrix B, we have |A B| = |A|
k
|B|
n
.
5. tr(A B) = tr(A)tr(B).
6. (a B)C = a BC.
7. A(b

C) = b

AC.
8. (A b)C = AC b.
9. A(B c

) = AB c

.
10. Diag(A B) = Diag(A) Diag(B),
where Diag(A) denotes a diagonal matrix with the same diagonal elements as those of A.
11. a

bCD = (a

C)(b D).
4.1.6 Vectorization
Given an n k matrix A =
_
a
1
a
2
. . . a
k
_
, where a
j
s are columns of A, the vectorization of
A, denoted as vec(A), is an nk 1 column dened as:
vec(A) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
1
a
2
.
.
.
a
k
_

_
.
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 7
1. vec(ABC) = (C

A)vec(B).
2. vec(ab

) = b a.
3. vec(a

B) = a vec(B).
4. vec(a
B
nk
) = (I
k
a I
n
)vec(B) = vec(B a

).
5. tr(AB) = vec

(A

)vec(B) = vec

(B

)vec(A).
6. tr(ABCD) = vec

(A)(B D

)vec(C

) = vec

(A

)(D

B)vec(C).
7. a

BcDF = (c

D)[vec(B) F].
8.
A
nk
b c

D
mj
= (b

I
n
)vec(A)vec

(D

)(c

I
m
) = (b

I
n
c

)[vec(A) D].
4.2 The Summation Vector
We now consider a special n-dimensional column vector the column vector of ones which is
denoted as 1
n
and is called the summation vector because it helps sum the elements of another
vector x in a vector multiplication as follows:
1

n
x = [ 1 1 . . . 1 ]
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
x
1
x
2
.
.
.
x
n
_

_
= x
1
+ x
2
+ + x
n
=
n

i =1
x
i
.
Note that the result is a scalar, i.e., a single number.
The summation vector can be used to construct some interesting matrices as follows:
1. Since 1

n
1
n
= n and (1

n
1
n
)
1
= 1/n, we have
(1

n
1
n
)
1
1

n
x =
1
n
n

i =1
x
i
,
which is the average of the elements of the vector x and is usually denoted as x.
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 8
2. We can expand the scalar x to a vector of x by simply multiplying it with 1
n
as follows:
1
n
(1

n
1
n
)
1
1

n
x =
_
1
n
n

i =1
x
i
_
1
n
= x 1
n
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
x
x
.
.
.
x
_

_
.
3. By subtracting the above vector of the average from the original vector x, we get the
following vector of deviations:
x 1
n
(1

n
1
n
)
1
1

n
x = x x 1
n
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
x
1
x
x
2
x
.
.
.
x
n
x
_

_
=
_
I
n
1
n
(1

n
1
n
)
1
1

n
_
x,
where I
n
is the n n identity matrix.
We note that 1
n
(1

n
1
n
)
1
1

n
and I
n
1
n
(1

n
1
n
)
1
1

n
in (2) and (3) are both n n matrices.
They possess some important properties which will be discussed in the next subsection. Lets
denote them as follows:
P
1
1
n
(1

n
1
n
)
1
1

n
and M
1
I
n
P
1
.
It is interesting to point out that all the elements of P
1
are identically 1/n.
4.2.1 Orthogonal Idempotent Matrices
A symmetrical matrix A is said to be idempotent if AA = A. Also, two matrices A and B
are orthogonal (or disjoint) if AB = O. For the two matrices P
1
and M
1
generated from the
summation vector we have the following results:
1. P
1
and M
1
are a pair of symmetrical, idempotent, and orthogonal matrices:
(1) Symmetry: P

1
= P
1
and M

1
= M
1
.
(2) Idempotency: P
1
P
1
= P
1
and M
1
M
1
= M
1
.
(3) Orthogonality: P
1
M
1
= 0.
2. P
1
is called an averaging matrix, since as shown in the previous subsection
P
1
x = x 1
n
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
x
x
.
.
.
x
_

_
.
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 9
Moreover,
x

P
1
x = x

P
1
P
1
x = x
2
1

n
1
n
= n x
2
,
which is a scalar.
3. M
1
is called a deviation matrix, since
M
1
x = (I
n
P
1
)x = x P
1
x = x x 1
n
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
x
1
x
x
2
x
.
.
.
x
n
x
_

_
.
We have the following result
x

M
1
x = x

M
1
M
1
x = x

1
M
1
x = (M
1
x)

(M
1
x) = (x x 1
n
)

(x x 1
n
)
=
n

i =1
(x
i
x)
2
, (4.1)
which is the sum of squared deviations.
4. The pair of orthogonal idempotent matrices P
1
and M
1
are related to 1
n
as follows:
P
1
1
n
= 1
n
and M
1
1
n
= 0.
4.2.2 General Orthogonal Idempotent Matrices
Following the way P
1
and M
1
are generated from the vector 1
n
, we can dene a pair of sym-
metrical orthogonal idempotent matrices based on an arbitrary n k matrix X as follows:
P X(X

X)
1
X

and M I
n
P = I
n
X(X

X)
1
X

.
An important property of these two matrices is that PX = X and MX = O.
In the appendix additional results on orthogonal (disjoint) idempotent matrices will be pre-
sented.
4.3 Rank
A set of vectors {x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
k
} are said to be linearly independent if the following equality
holds

1
x
1
+
2
x
2
+ +
k
x
k
= 0
only when
1
=
2
= . . . =
k
= 0. It is easy to see that no vector in a set of linearly
independent vectors can be expressed as a linear combination of the other vectors.
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 10
Given
X
nk
= [ x
1
x
2
. . . x
k
] =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
x
11
x
12
x
1k
x
21
x
22
x
2k
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
x
n1
x
n2
x
nk
_

_
,
if among the k columns x
j
of X only c are linearly independent, then we say the column rank
of X is c. If all k columns x
j
of X are linearly independent, then we say X has full column rank.
The row rank of X can be dened similarly. The smaller of the column rank and the row rank
of X is referred to as the rank of X and denoted as rank(X).
Given that k < n, i.e., X is not square and has more rows than columns as in most of our
future applications, then rank(X) = k if X has full column rank.
The implication of full column rank: If X is not of full column rank: rank(X) < k, then at
least one of its column is a linear combination of the other k 1 columns. For example, suppose
the rst column is a linear combination of the other k 1 columns:
x
1
=
2
x
2
+ +
k
x
k
.
then, given

= [ 1
2
. . .
k
], we have
X = [ x
1
x
2
. . . x
k
]
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1

2
.
.
.

k
_

_
= x
1
+
2
x
2
+ +
k
x
k
= 0.
Moreover, for any given vector y, if there is a coefcient vector such that
y = X = [ x
1
x
2
. . . x
k
]
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

2
.
.
.

k
_

_
=
1
x
1
+
2
x
2
+ +
k
x
k
,
then we immediately have another coefcient vector, +, that satises the equation
y = X(+) = [ x
1
x
2
. . . x
k
]
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

1
1

2
+
2
.
.
.

n
+
k
_

_
= (
1
1)x
1
+(
2
+
2
)x
2
+ +(
k
+
k
)x
k
,
This result implies that the solution to the system y = X is not unique, a situation that is
generally undesirable.
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 11
4.3.1 Some Results
1. A square matrix has full (column) rank if and only if it is nonsingular (invertible).
2. rank(X) = rank(X

X) = rank(XX

## ). Furthermore, if the n k matrix X is of full column

rank, then both the k k matrix X

## have rank k. So in such a

case X

X is nonsingular while XX

is not.
3. Given an n k matrix X, if A is an n n nonsingular matrix, then rank(AX) = rank(X).
That is, multiplying a matrix by a nonsingular matrix will not change its rank.
Given an n n square matrix A and an n-vector x, the product
x

Ax = [ x
1
x
2
. . . x
n
]
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
11
a
12
a
1n
a
21
a
22
a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n1
a
n2
a
nn
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
x
1
x
2
.
.
.
x
n
_

_
=
n

i =1
n

j =1
a
i j
x
i
x
j
,
is called the quadratic form which is a scalar.
4.4.1 Denite Matrices
The values of the quadratic forms of a symmetrical matrix A may be restricted:
If the quadratic form x

## Ax > 0 for any x = 0, then A is said to be positive denite (p. d.).

If the quadratic formx

## Ax < 0 for any x = 0, then A is said to be negative denite (n. d.).

If the quadratic form x

## Ax 0 for any x, then A is said to be positive semi-denite

(p. s. d.).
If the quadratic form x

## Ax 0 for any x, then A is said to be negative semi-denite

(n. s. d.).
Both p. d. and n. d. matrices are nonsingular, while p. s. d. and n. s. d. matrices may not be
nonsingular. Moreover, the properties of p. d. (or n. d.) matrices are similar to those of positive
(or negative) scalars in the following sense:
1. The inverse of a p. d. matrix is p. d. while the inverse of an n. d. matrix is also n. d.
2. A is p. d. if and only if there is a nonsingular matrix B such that A = B

B.
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 12
3. A is an n n p. s. d. matrix with rank m if and only if there is an n m matrix B of full
column rank such that A = BB

.
4. If X is an n k matrix with full column rank, then the k k matrix X

X is p. d. and the
n n matrix XX

## is p. s. d. But if X is not of full column rank, then X

X is p. s. d. only.
4.4.2 Matrix Comparisons
Given two square matrices A and B of the same dimension,
A > B (A is greater than B) if A B is p. d.;
A B (A is no smaller than B) if A B is p. s. d.;
A < B (A is smaller than B) if A B is n. d.;
A B (A is no greater than B) if A B is n. s. d.
The following results indicate that matrix comparisons in many ways are similar to scalar
comparisons:
1. Given that A and B are two p. d. matrices, if A > B, then
(1) A
1
< B
1
.
(2) The diagonal elements of Aare greater than those of B, respectively, so that tr(A) >
tr(B). Also, |A| > |B|.
2. Given that A p. d. and B is p. s. d., if A B, then the diagonal elements of A are greater
than or equal to those of B, respectively, so that tr(A) tr(B). Also, |A| |B|.
4.4.3 Orthogonality and Matrix Comparisons
Given two matrices X and Y of the same size, if the matrix X is orthogonal to the difference
between X and Y:
X

(Y X) = O,
then
1
Y

Y X

X = (Y X)

## (Y X), which is p. s. d. In other words, Y

Y X

X.
This result is useful for situations where we need to compare two matrices that can be
written as Y

Y and X

## X for some matrices Y and X. What we need to show is simply that X is

orthogonal to the difference between Y and X.
1
Since X

(Y X) = O implies X

Y = X

X, we have (Y X)

(Y X) = Y

Y X

Y Y

X + X

X =
Y

Y X

X X

X +X

X = Y

Y X

X.
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 13
A particularly common application is to compare two sums of squares:
y

y =
n

i =1
y
2
i
and x

x =
n

i =1
x
2
i
,
for some n-dimensional vectors y and x. To prove y

y x

## x, all we have to do is to show

x

(y x) =
n

i =1
x
i
(y
i
x
i
) = 0.
4.5 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Symmetric Matrices
Given a square matrix A, if there are a vector h and a scalar such that
Ah = h,
then h is called a eigenvector and a eigenvalue of A. For any symmetrical nn matrix A, there
are n distinctive n-dimensional eigenvectors h
1
, h
2
, . . ., h
n
with corresponding eigenvalues
1
,

2
, . . .,
n
, which may not be distinctive.
The eigenvectors can be made orthonormal: h

i
h
i
= 1 and h

i
h
j
= 0, for i = j =
1, . . . , n, and put into a matrix as follows:
H
nn
= [ h
1
h
2
h
n
],
so that
H

H =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
h

1
h

2
.
.
.
h

n
_

_
[ h
1
h
2
h
n
] =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
h

1
h
1
h

1
h
2
h

1
h
n
h

2
h
1
h

2
h
2
h

2
h
n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
h

n
h
1
h

n
h
2
h

n
h
n
_

_
= I
n
.
That is, H

= H
1
. The inverse of H is simply its transpose.
Dene the n n diagonal matrix with the n eigenvalues on the diagonal:
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

1
0 0
0
2
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0
n
_

_
,
then we have
AH = H.
Consequently, we obtain the diagonalization of A:
H

AH = H

H = .
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 14
4.5.1 Basic Properties
1. |A| = |HH

| = |H||||H

| = |||H

||H| = || =
n

i =1

i
.
2. tr(A) = tr(HH

) = tr(H

H) = tr() =
n

i =1

i
.
3. Since H is nonsingular, rank(A) = rank(HH

## ) = rank(), the rank of A is equal to the

number of nonzero eigenvalues.
4. The eigenvalues of a nonsingular matrix are all nonzero; and the eigenvalues of a p. d. (n. d.)
matrix are all positive (negative).
5. If A is p. d., then from the corresponding dingonal matrix we can dene

1/2

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

1
0 0
0

2
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0

n
_

_
,
where
1
,
2
, . . .,
n
are the positive eigenvalues of A. Moreover, we can dene
A
1/2
H
1/2
H

so that A
1/2
A
1/2
= A. Note that the eigenvalues of A
1/2
are the square roots of the
eigenvalues of A.
6. The eigenvalues of A
1
are the inverses of the eigenvalues of A.
7. The eigenvalues of an idempotent matrix are either 0 or 1. Consequently, an idempotent
matrix may be viewed as an item that serves as 0 or 1 in matrix algebra.
(1) If the rank of an idempotent matrix is k, then k of its eigenvalues are 1 and the rest
are zero.
(2) The rank of an idempotent matrix is equal to its trace.
8. The spectral decomposition of A is
A = HH

= [ h
1
h
2
h
n
]
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

1
0 0
0
2
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0
n
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
h

1
h

2
.
.
.
h

n
_

_
=
n

i =1

i
h
i
h

i
.
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 15
From the spectral decomposition, the quadratic form can be expressed as
x

Ax = x

HH

x = y

y =
n

i =1

i
y
2
i
,
where y = H

## x. In particular, if A is an idempotent matrix with rank k, then

x

Ax =
k

i =1
y
2
i
.
Note that there are only k terms in this summation.
9. Let Abe a pp matrix with p eigenvalues
i
s and Bbe a qq matrix with q eigenvalues

j
s, then the eigenvalues of A B are
i

j
, i = 1, . . . , p, j = 1, . . . , q,
4.6 Matrix Differentiation
We consider the derivatives of three types of functions involving vectors and matrices. The
issue is mostly about how to list the derivatives of scalar functions of a scalar variable in various
vector or matrix forms.
1. The scalar-valued function of a vector: let f (x) = f (x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
) be a real-valued
function of the n-dimensional vector x, then its rst-order derivative is an n-dimensional
column vector:
f
x
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
f
1
f
2
.
.
.
f
n
_

_
, where f
i
=
f
x
i
.
This vector sometimes is called the gradient of f . The second-order derivative is an nn
matrix:

2
f
xx

=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
f
11
f
12
f
1n
f
21
f
22
f
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
f
n1
f
n2
f
nn
_

_
, where f
i j
=

2
f
x
i
x
j
.
This matrix sometimes is called the Hessian of f .
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 16
2. The vector-valued function of a vector: given an m-dimensional vector of functions of the
n-dimensional vector x,
f (x) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
f
1
(x)
f
2
(x)
.
.
.
f
m
(x)
_

_
then its rst-order derivative is an m n matrix:
f
x
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
f
11
f
12
f
1n
f
21
f
22
f
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
f
m1
f
m2
f
mn
_

_
, where f
i j
=
f
i
x
j
.
3. The scalar-valued function of a matrix: let f (A) be a real-valued function of the n k
matrix A, then its rst-order derivative is an n k matrix:
f
A
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
f
11
f
12
f
1k
f
21
f
22
f
2k
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
f
n1
f
n2
f
nk
_

_
, where f
i j
=
f
a
i j
,
and a
i j
is the (i, j )th element of A.
Given these denitions, then we have the following useful results of matrix differentiation:
1.
Ax
x
= A.
2.
x

Ax
x
= (A +A

x

Ax
x
= 2Ax.
3.
x

Ay
A
= xy

## if all elements of A are different.

4.
ln |A|
A
= A
1
.
5.
x

A
1
x
A
= A
1
xx

A
1
, if A is symmetric.
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 17
4.6.1 Taylor Expansions
Most results in statistical analysis focus on linear functions of the random variables since they
can be easily analyzed. As for nonlinear functions it becomes almost a standard procedure to
approximate them by linear functions (or occasionally by some quadratic functions) before any
analysis is conducted. Taylor expansions provide us with the formulas for such approximations.
Linear Approximation
The rst-order Taylor expansion of a vector-valued function f (x) around a given vector of con-
stants x

is:
f (x) f (x

) +
_
f (x

)
x
_
(x x

) = f (x

) +
n

i =1
_
f
x
i
_
(x
i
x

i
).
Lets consider an example of the rst-order Taylor expansion of a 2-dimensional vector-valued
function of three variables:
f (x) = f (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) =
_
_
_
_
exp(x
1
+2x
2
3x
3
)
ln x
1
x
3
_

_
around the vector of constants x

=
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
2
_

_
.
We note the rst-order derivative of f (x) with respect to x is
f (x)
x
=
_
_
_
_
exp(x
1
+2x
2
3x
3
) 2exp(x
1
+2x
2
3x
3
) 3exp(x
1
+2x
2
3x
3
)
1
x
1
x
3
0
ln x
1
x
2
3
_

_
and if it is evaluated at x

, it becomes
f (x

)
x
=
_
_
_
_
e
7
2e
7
3e
7

1
2
0 0
_

_
.
Hence,
f (x) =
_
_
_
_
exp(x
1
+2x
2
3x
3
)
ln x
1
x
3
_

_
f (x

) +
_
f (x

)
x
_
(x x

_
_
_
e
7
0
_

_
+
_
_
_
_
e
7
2e
7
3e
7

1
2
0 0
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
x
1
1
x
2
x
3
+2
_

_
=
_
_
_
e
7
(x
1
+2x
2
3x
3
6)

1
2
x
1
+
1
2
_

_
.
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 18
So each nonlinear function in f (x) is approximated by a linear function in x.
It should be pointed out that the performance of the approximation differs at different x and
depends on both the complexity of the original nonlinear functions at each x and how much x
is away from x

## . In particular, the approximation is better for those x which are close to x

than
those x which are far away from x

.
It is also possible, though less frequently used, to approximate a single nonlinear function by a
quadratic function which can be expressed conveniently in a quadratic form. This is the second-
order Taylor expansion of a scalar-valued function f (x) around a given vector of constants x

:
f (x) f (x

) +
_
f (x

)
x
_

(x x

) +
1
2
(x x

2
f (x

)
xx

_
(x x

) (4.2)
= f (x

) +
n

i =1
f
x
i
(x
i
x

i
) +
1
2
n

i =1
n

j =1

2
f
x
i
x
j
(x
i
x

i
)(x
j
x

j
). (4.3)
Lets consider an example of the second-order Taylor expansion of a scalar-valued function
f (x) = f (x
1
, x
2
) =
sin(x
1
)
exp(x
2
)
around the vector of constants x

=
_
_
/6
0
_
_
.
We note the rst-order derivative and the second-order derivative of f (x) with respect to x,
when evaluated at x

are
f (x)
x
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
cos(x
1
)
exp(x
2
)

sin(x
1
)
exp(x
2
)
_

_
and
f (x

)
x
=
_
_
_
_
_

3
2

1
2
_

_
,
and

2
f (x)
xx

=
_
_
_
_
_
_

sin(x
1
)
exp(x
2
)

cos(x
1
)
exp(x
2
)

cos(x
1
)
exp(x
2
)
sin(x
1
)
exp(x
2
)
_

_
and

2
f (x

)
xx

=
_
_
_
_
_
_

1
2

3
2

3
2
1
2
_

_
.
Hence,
f (x) =
sin(x
1
)
exp(x
2
)
f (x

) +
_
f (x

)
x
_

(x x

) +
1
2
(x x

2
f (x

)
xx

_
(x x

)
CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 19
=
1
2
+
_
3
2

1
2
_
_
_
_
x
1

6
x
2
_

_
+
1
2
_
x
1

6
x
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

1
2

3
2

3
2
1
2
_

_
_
_
_
x
1

6
x
2
_

_
=
1
2
+

3
2
_
x
1

6
_

1
2
x
2

1
4
_
x
1

6
_
2

3
2
_
x
1

6
_
x
2
+
1
4
x
2
2
.
So the nonlinear function of x is now approximated by a quadratic function in x.
4.7 Appendix: More Results on Disjoint Idempotent Matri-
ces
1. Given n n symmetric matrices P
1
, P
2
, . . ., P
k
such that
k

j =1
P
j
= I
n
,
if P
1
, P
2
, . . ., P
k1
are idempotent, then
(1) P
k
is also idempotent;
(2) rank(P
k
) = n
k1

j =1
rank(P
j
);
(3) P
1
, P
2
, . . ., P
k
are all disjoint (orthogonal to each other).
Application: Suppose X =
_
X
1
X
2
_
, and let us dene
M= I X(X

X)
1
X

I P,
P
1
= X
1
(X

1
X
1
)
1
X

1
,
P

= P P
1
,
such that I = M+P
1
+P

, then P

## is idempotent (since M and P

1
are both idempotent).
Moreover, we have
rank(P

) = n rank(M) rank(P
1
) = n (n k) k
1
= k k
1
.
Finally, M, P
1
, and P

## are all disjoint.

CHAPTER 4. MATRIX ALGEBRA 20
2. If P
1
, P
2
, . . ., P
k
are disjoint idempotent matrices, then for any k + 1 scalars

,
1
, . . .,

k
, the matrix
A =

I
n
+
k

j =1

j
P
j
is p.d. and
A
1
=

I
n
+
k

j =1

j
P
j
,
where

=
1

and
j
=

j

+
j
)
,
for all j .