Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

SECTION A

Answer all question in this section


1.

The reaction between hydrogen and iodine can be represented by the following
equation:
H2(g) + I2(g)

2HI(g)

H = +52 kJ mol1

Kinetic data are available for both forward and reverse reactions. A series of
experiments to investigate the kinetics of the forward reaction was carried out at
a constant temperature. The results are shown in Figure 1.
Experiment

Initial
concentration of
H2 / mol dm3

Initial
concentration of
I2 / mol dm3

Initial rate
/ mol dm3 s1

2.0 103

3.0 103

l.2 106

6.0 103

3.0 103

3.6 106

6.0 103

6.0 103

7.2 106

Figure 1
(a)

Explain the meaning of each of the following terms:


(i)

rate constant;

(1)

(iii)

overall order of reaction.


(2)

(b)

(i)

Use the results in Figure 1 to work out the order of the forward
reaction with respect to both hydrogen and iodine, explaining your
reasoning.
(3)

(ii)

Write the rate equation for the reaction between hydrogen and
iodine.

(1)
(iii)

Calculate the value of the rate constant for the forward reaction and
give its units.

(2)
(c)

The experiment was repeated with the following initial concentrations for
reactants:
[H2] = 4.0 103 mol dm3

[I2] = 5.0 103 mol dm3

Calculate the initial rate of the reaction.

(1)
(Total 10 marks)

2.

(a)

Write an equation for the reaction which occurs when the weak acid HA is
added to water.

.......................................................................................................................
.
(1)
(b)

Write an expression for the dissociation constant, Ka, for the weak acid
HA.

.......................................................................................................................
.
(1)
(c)

The dissociation of the acid HA is an endothermic process. Deduce the


effect, if any, of
(i)

an increase in temperature on the value of the dissociation constant,


Ka
..............................................................................................................

(ii)

an increase in temperature on the pH of an aqueous solution of the


acid
..............................................................................................................

(iii)

an increase in the concentration of the acid on the value of Ka

..............................................................................................................
.
(3)
(d)

Identify a compound which could be added to aqueous ethanoic acid so


that the pH of the resulting solution would not change significantly if a small
volume of dilute hydrochloric acid were added. State the name given to
solutions which behave in this way.

Compound......................................................................................................

Name..............................................................................................................
3

(2)

(e)

The diagram below shows the trend in the first ionisation energies of the
elements from neon to aluminium.

First
ionisation
energy

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

Element

(i)

Draw crosses on the graph to show the first ionisation energies of silicon,
phosphorus and sulphur.
(1)

(ii)

Explain why the first ionisation energy of neon and that of magnesium are
both higher than that of sodium.
Explanation for neon

.......................................................................................................................

Explanation for magnesium

......................................................................................................................

(2)

(Total 10 marks)

3. a. The ionic radius of the Group 2 element is given in the table below.
Ion
Ionic radius (nm)
(i)

Be2+
0.027

Mg2+
0.072

Ca2+
0.099

Sr2+
0.113

Ba2+
0.136

Write the electronic configuration of Mg2+ ion and Sr2+ ion.


Mg2+ ion :....................................................................................................................
Sr2+ ion :.....................................................................................................................

(ii) How would you expect the ionic radius of Al3+ ion to be compared to that of Mg2+
ion. Explain your answer.

...................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
(iii) The hydrated Be2+ ion has the formula, [Be(H2O)4]2+. State one property shown by
beryllium salts in water.
..................................................................................................................................
(5)
b. The carbonates of the Group 2 elements decompose on heating.
(i) Write the chemical equation for the decomposition of magnesium carbonate.
...................................................................................................................................
(ii) Explain why magnesium carbonate does not decompose spontaneously.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(iv) The thermal stability of the carbonates increases with the proton number of the
element. Suggest an explanation for the effect of the size of the cation on the
thermal stability of the carbonates.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................
(5)

4. a. Benzene undergoes electrophilic substitution reaction. In the nitration process,


nitrobenzene is obtained by the mixture of two acids and benzene.
(i) Name the two acids, the condition and write a balanced equation for the reaction.
Name of acids:............................................................................................................
Condition:...................................................................................................................
Equation:....................................................................................................................
(3)
(ii) State the electrophile in the above reaction.
...................................................................................................................................
(iii) Using balanced equations, describe the mechanism for the substitution reaction.

(iv) State one importance of benzene in the chemical industry.


.......................................................................................................................................
(4)
b. Give the structural formulae of the organic products formed from the following
reactions.
(i) CH3COCl + C6H5NH2

(ii)

CH3 + H2SO4 conc

H20

(iii) (CH3)2CCHCH3 + Br2(aq)


6

(3)

SECTION B
Answer any 4 question in this section.
5.

(a)

Define the term electronegativity and explain why the electronegativity


values of the Group II elements BeBa decrease down the group.
(4)

(b)

Name the strongest type of intermolecular force between hydrogen fluoride


molecules and draw a diagram to illustrate how two molecules of HF are
attracted to each other.
In your diagram show all lone pairs of electrons and any partial charges.
Explain the origin of these charges.
Suggest why this strong intermolecular force is not present between HI
molecules.
(7)

(c)

Crystals of sodium chloride and of diamond both have giant structures.


Their melting points are 1074 K and 3827 K, respectively. State the type of
structure present in each case and explain why the melting point of
diamond is so high.
(4)

6. Methanol, CH3OH, is a convenient liquid fuel.


(a)

An experiment was conducted to determine the enthalpy of combustion of


liquid methanol. The energy obtained from burning 2.12 g of methanol was
used to heat 150 g of water. The temperature of the water rose from 298
(i)

Define the term standard enthalpy of combustion.

(ii)

Use the data above to calculate a value for the enthalpy of


combustion of one mole of liquid methanol.
(7)

(b)

Methanol can be synthesised from methane and steam by a process that


occurs in two stages.
Stage 1 CH4(g) + H2O(g)
3H2(g) + CO(g) is
H
= +206 kJ mol1
Stage 2 CO(g) + 2H2(g)

CH3OH(g)
= 91 kJ mol 1

(i)

Explain why, in Stage 1, a higher yield of hydrogen and carbon


monoxide is not obtained if the pressure is increased.

(ii)

Stage 2 is carried out at a compromise temperature of 500K. By


considering what would happen at higher and lower temperatures,
explain why 500 K is considered to be a compromise for Stage 2.
(5)
7

(c) The standard enthalpies of combustion of carbon monoxide and of hydrogen


are 283 kJ mol1 and 286 kJ mol1, respectively. Use these data and the
enthalpy change for Stage 2 to calculate a value for the standard enthalpy of
combustion of gaseous methanol.

(3)

7. (a) An solution of sodium chloride of concentration 2.00 mol dm-3 is electrolysed for 25
minutes using graphite electrodes. The resulting solution is then treated with
hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.25 moldm-3. If the volume of hydrochloric acid
needed to complete titration is15.50 cm3, calculate the magnitude of the current
used during the electrolysis.
(7)
(b) the partition coefficient for a solute S between ether and water is 12.50.
(i)

Referring to solute S, ether and water, explain what is meant t by


partition law.

(ii)

suggest the conditions at which the partition law holds true.

(iii)

calculate the mass of S remaining in 25.0 cm3 of water that originally


contains 8.00 g of S after separate extraction with 25.0 cm3 of ether and
two separated portion of 12.50 cm3 of ether.
(8)

8. (a) By referring to the physical and chemical properties of aluminium, describe the
property of an aqueous solution of aluminium salt.

(5)

(b) By writing equations for the reactions involved, explain;


(i) the reaction of anhydrous aluminium chloride with water.
(2)
(ii) why aluminium carbonate cannot be prepared from a solution containing
the Al3+ ion.

(4)

(iii) Aluminium chloride is a white solid that fumes in moist air and sublimes at 180
C.
(4)
9. (a) The table below shows the molecular formulae and dissociation constants, Kb at
250C for ammonia, ethylamine and phenylamine.
Compound
Ammonia
Ethylamine
Phenylamine

Formula
NH3
CH3CH2NH2
C6H5NH2

Kb / moldm-3
1.8 x 10-5
5.4 x 10-4
5.0 x 10-10

(i) Arrange the compounds according to increasing basic strength.


(ii) Discuss the factors that determine the relative base strength of the compounds
above.
(5)

b. Give reagents, condition, and equations to show how each of the following compounds
can be prepared from methylbenzene in the laboratory.

(i)

(ii)

CONH2

CH2OH

Explain one simple test to show the presence of hydroxyl group, -OH in compound (ii).
Write equations for reactions occurred.
(10)

10. a. A sweet smelling liquid organic compound X has a molecular formula of C10H12O2
undergoes acidic hydrolysis to produce an acid and an alcohol,Y. The alcohol Y reacts
with bromine water to produce a white precipitate. Reduction of X with lithium
tetrahydridoaluminate (III) followed by acid hydrolysis produces two alcohols Y and Z.
On dehydration by concentrated sulphuric acid, Z produces 2-methylpropene.
Determine the structures of X, Y and Z. Write equation for all the reactions involved.
Name compound X.
(11)
b. Grignard reagents are organometallic compounds that are very important in the
synthesis of organic compounds.
(i) State how ethyl magnesium bromide can be prepared from a named haloalkane.
(ii) Write the reaction sequence in the preparation of 2-methyl-2-butanol from ethyl
magnesium bromide.
(4)

END OF THE QUESTION PAPER