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Call Setup and Release

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Call Setup and Release

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This document is intended for the use of Nokia Networks' customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Networks. The document has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be considered binding but shall be defined in the agreement made between Nokia Networks and the customer. However, Nokia Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Networks will, if necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the document. Nokia Networks' liability for any errors in the document is limited to the documentary correction of errors. Nokia Networks WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE IN ANY EVENT FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENT OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING MONETARY LOSSES), that might arise from the use of this document or the information in it. This document and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright according to the applicable laws. NOKIA logo is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective companies, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Copyright Nokia Networks Oy 2001. All rights reserved.

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Contents
Contents 3 List of tables 4 List of figures 5 1 2 3 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 5 6 Purpose of call setup and release 7 Functionality of real-time services 9 Functionality of non-real-time services 15 Call setup and release procedures 27 Paging 28 Paging an idle mode MS (paging procedure) 28 Paging a connected mode MS (UE dedicated paging procedure) 29 RNC originated paging 31 RRC connection setup 31 RRC connection release 33 Radio link setup 33 Radio link reconfiguration 36 Radio link deletion 37 Radio access bearer setup 38 Radio access bearer reconfiguration 40 Radio access bearer release 42 Signalling connection release 43 Direct transfer 45 Ciphering and integrity protection setup 46 Cell update 47 URA update 49 Parameters 50 Statistics 50 Alarms 52 Related features 53 Restrictions 55 Glossary 57

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List of tables
Table 1. MS cell states. 20

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List of figures
Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Mobile originated call (CS), 1/2. 10 Mobile originated call (CS), 2/2. 11 Mobile terminated call (CS), 1/2. 12 Mobile terminated call (CS), 2/2. 13 Mobile originated call (PS), 1/2. 16 Mobile originated call (PS), 2/2. 17 Mobile terminated call (PS), 1/2. 18 Mobile terminated call (PS), 2/2. 19 MS cell state transitions. 20

Figure 10. CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH state transition using Radio Bearer Reconfiguration. 22 Figure 11. CELL_FACH to CELL_DCH UL state transition. 23 Figure 12. CELL_FACH to CELL_DCH DL state transition. 24 Figure 13. Cell update due to UL data transmission. 25 Figure 14. Paging an MS in idle mode. 29 Figure 15. Paging an MS in connected mode (CELL_FACH or CELL_DCH state). 30 Figure 16. Paging an MS in connected mode (CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state). 30 Figure 17. RNC-originated paging. 31 Figure 18. Setting up an RRC connection. 32 Figure 19. RRC connection setup failure and retry. 32 Figure 20. RRC connection release in CELL_DCH state. 33 Figure 21. Radio link setup. 34 Figure 22. Radio link setup failure. 35 Figure 23. Synchronisation failure. 35 Figure 24. Synchronised radio link reconfiguration. 36 Figure 25. Radio link reconfiguration failure. 37 Figure 26. Radio link deletion. 38 Figure 27. Radio access bearer establishment procedure (DCH to DCH). 39 Figure 28. Failure in radio access bearer establishment. 40

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Figure 29. Radio access bearer reconfiguration procedure (DCH to DCH). 41 Figure 30. Failure in radio access bearer reconfiguration. 42 Figure 31. Radio access bearer release. 43 Figure 32. Signalling connection release requested by the CN. 44 Figure 33. Signalling connection release requested by the MS (all flows are not released). 45 Figure 34. Signalling connection setup. 46 Figure 35. Setting up ciphering and integrity protection. 47 Figure 36. Cell update due to periodic update. 48 Figure 37. Periodic URA update. 50

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Purpose of call setup and release

Purpose of call setup and release


Call setup and release refers to setting up or releasing a speech or data connection between the end-user mobile station (MS) and the core network. When the MS is in idle state, it has no radio resource control (RRC) connection to the radio access network. Radio resource control (RRC) connection is set up when the MS requests it or when it is paged. The RRC connection is needed for radio access bearer establishment. Radio access bearer services can involve a circuit switched speech call, a circuit switched data call or a packet switched call. For more information, see: 2Functionality of real-time services 3Functionality of non-real-time services Call setup and release procedures Related features

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Functionality of real-time services

Functionality of real-time services


Real-time services involve mobile-originated and mobile-terminated speech or data calls. The following figures illustrate the process of establishing these two types of call. Individual procedures mentioned in the figures are described in section Call setup and release procedures.

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MS

BTS

RNC

MSC

RRC:RRC CONNECTION REQUEST NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE

AAL2 Setup RRC:RRC CONNECTION SETUP L1 synchronisation NBAP:SYNCHRONIZATION INDICATION RRC:CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE RRC:INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER RANAP:INITIAL UE MESSAGE

MS-CN signalling MS-CN signalling RANAP:COMMON ID RANAP:SECURITY MODE COMMAND RRC:SECURITY MODE COMMAND RRC:SECURITY MODE COMPLETE RANAP:SECURITY MODE COMPLETE

Figure 1.

Mobile originated call (CS), 1/2.

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MS MS

BTS

RNC

MSC

RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST NBAP:RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARE NBAP:RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION READY

AAL2 Setup

AAL2 Setup NBAP:RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION COMMIT RRC:RADIO BEARER SETUP RRC:RADIO BEARER SETUP COMPLETE RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE

Connection established

Figure 2.

Mobile originated call (CS), 2/2.

The following figure illustrates the mobile terminated circuit switched call. The only difference between a mobile originated and mobile terminated call is that only mobile terminated calls include paging the MS.

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MS

BTS

RNC

MSC RANAP: PAGING

RRC: PAGING TYPE 1 RRC:RRC CONNECTION REQUEST NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE

AAL2 Setup RRC:RRC CONNECTION SETUP L1 synchronisation NBAP:SYNCHRONIZATION INDICATION RRC:CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE RRC:INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER RANAP:INITIAL UE MESSAGE

MS-CN signalling MS-CN signalling RANAP:COMMON ID RANAP:SECURITY MODE COMMAND RRC:SECURITY MODE COMMAND RRC:SECURITY MODE COMPLETE RANAP:SECURITY MODE COMPLETE

Figure 3.

Mobile terminated call (CS), 1/2.

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MS MS

BTS

RNC

MSC

RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST NBAP:RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARE NBAP:RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION READY

AAL2 Setup

AAL2 Setup NBAP:RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION COMMIT RRC:RADIO BEARER SETUP RRC:RADIO BEARER SETUP COMPLETE RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE

Connection established

Figure 4.

Mobile terminated call (CS), 2/2.

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Functionality of non-real-time services

Functionality of non-real-time services


Non-real-time services involve packet switched data calls. For NRT (non-real time) services, the radio access bearer is created without immediately reserving radio resources. The resources are allocated on demand by using the signalling link between the MS and the RNC. The following figures illustrate the process of establishing a packet switched call.

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MS

BTS

RNC

SGSN

RRC:RRC CONNECTION REQUEST NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE

AAL2 Setup RRC:RRC CONNECTION SETUP L1 synchronisation NBAP:SYNCHRONIZATION INDICATION RRC:CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE RRC:INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER RANAP:INITIAL UE MESSAGE

MS-CN signalling MS-CN signalling RANAP:COMMON ID RANAP:SECURITY MODE COMMAND RRC:SECURITY MODE COMMAND RRC:SECURITY MODE COMPLETE RANAP:SECURITY MODE COMPLETE

Figure 5.

Mobile originated call (PS), 1/2.

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MS MS

BTS

RNC

SGSN

RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST GTP Tunnel setup RRC:RADIO BEARER SETUP RRC:RADIO BEARER SETUP COMPLETE RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE

Connection established (CELL_DCH state)

Figure 6.

Mobile originated call (PS), 2/2.

The following figure illustrates the mobile terminated packet switched call. The only difference between mobile originated and mobile terminated calls is that only mobile terminated calls include paging the MS.

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MS

BTS

RNC

SGSN RANAP: PAGING

RRC:PAGING TYPE 1 RRC:RRC CONNECTION REQUEST NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE

AAL2 Setup RRC:RRC CONNECTION SETUP L1 synchronisation NBAP:SYNCHRONIZATION INDICATION RRC:CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE RRC:INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER RANAP:INITIAL UE MESSAGE

MS-CN signalling MS-CN signalling RANAP:COMMON ID RANAP:SECURITY MODE COMMAND RRC:SECURITY MODE COMMAND RRC:SECURITY MODE COMPLETE RANAP:SECURITY MODE COMPLETE

Figure 7.

Mobile terminated call (PS), 1/2.

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MS MS

BTS

RNC

SGSN

RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST GTP Tunnel setup RRC:RADIO BEARER SETUP RRC:RADIO BEARER SETUP COMPLETE RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE

Connection established (CELL_DCH state)

Figure 8.

Mobile terminated call (PS), 2/2.

When the MS has a dedicated physical channel, it is in CELL_DCH state. State transitions are illustrated in the following figure:

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RAN Connected Mode

URA_PCH

CELL_PCH

CELL_DCH

CELL_FACH

Release RRC connection Establish RRC connection


Idle Mode

Release RRC connection

Figure 9.

MS cell state transitions.

Table 1.

MS cell states. Description


MS receives and transmits on the dedicated trafc channel (DCH). The location of the MS is known on cell level. MS receives on the forward access channel (FACH) and transmits on the random access channel (RACH). The location of the MS is known on cell level. MS receives on the paging channel (PCH). The location of the MS is known on cell level. If the MS has something to transmit, it transfers to CELL_FACH state. MS receives on the paging channel (PCH). The location of the MS is known on URA level. If the MS has something to transmit, it transfers to CELL_FACH state.

MS cell state
CELL_DCH

CELL_FACH

CELL_PCH

URA_PCH

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When the RNC detects inactivity in either uplink or downlink, it starts an inactivity timer in that direction. If the timer in both directions expires and the inactivity continues, the RNC releases the dedicated resources and starts the MS's transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH state. The transition is usually done with the radio bearer reconfiguration procedure. In some special cases it is done with either the physical channel reconfiguration procedure or the radio bearer release procedure. The radio bearer reconfiguration procedure is used, if the RLC parameters of the NRT RB need to be reconfigured when the DCH of the NRT RB is released. The physical channel reconfiguration procedure is used, if the DCH of the NRT RB is released, and there are no other DCH allocations. The radio bearer release procedure is used when a NRT RAB and a RT RAB are simultaneously used for the same MS, and the NRT RAB has been inactive (the inactivity timer has expired) when the CN releases the RT RAB. The following figure illustrates the state transition using radio bearer reconfiguration:

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MS

BTS

RNC

MS is in CELL_DCH state

Inactivity timer expires RRC:RADIO BEARER RECONFIGURATION CELL UPDATE CELL UPDATE CONFIRM RRC:RADIO BEARER RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE

MS is in CELL_FACH state NBAP: RADIO LINK DELETION REQUEST NBAP: RADIO LINK DELETION RESPONSE

Figure 10. CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH state transition using Radio Bearer Reconfiguration. The transition from CELL_FACH state to CELL_DCH state is started when the RNC has user or control data waiting for transmission in downlink direction or when the MS requests capacity for user data in uplink direction. The RNC's RM (resource manager) checks that there are resources available and allocates the requested resources. It also requests a radio link setup procedure (refer to section Radio link setup). Once a radio link is set up, the transition is done either with the transport channel reconfiguration procedure, the radio bearer reconfiguration procedure, or the radio bearer setup procedure. The transport channel reconfiguration procedure is used, if a state transition is needed and it does not need reconfiguration. The radio bearer reconfiguration procedure is used, if the RLC parameters of the NRT RB need to be reconfigured.

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The radio bearer setup procedure is used, if a NRT RAB already exists and a new RT RAB must be established. The following figure illustrates the state transition from CELL_FACH to CELL_DCH:

MS

BTS

RNC

MS is in CELL_FACH state RRC:MEASUREMENT REPORT

NBAP Radio Link Setup RRC: RADIO BEARER RECONFIGURATION RRC: RADIO BEARER RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE

MS is in CELL_DCH state

Figure 11. CELL_FACH to CELL_DCH UL state transition.

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MS

BTS

RNC

MS is in CELL_FACH state DL capacity need detected

NBAP Radio Link Setup RRC: RADIO BEARER RECONFIGURATION RRC: RADIO BEARER RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE

MS is in CELL_DCH state

Figure 12. CELL_FACH to CELL_DCH DL state transition. Uplink data transmission may cause a cell update as illustrated in the figure below.

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MS

BTS

RNC

MS is in CELL_PCH state or URA_PCH state

UL capacity need is detected by MAC

MS moves to CELL_FACH state RRC:CELL UPDATE RRC:CELL UPDATE CONFIRM RRC:RNTI REALLOCATION COMPLETE(only URA_PCH)

MS is in CELL_FACH state

Figure 13. Cell update due to UL data transmission.

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Call setup and release procedures

Call setup and release procedures


This section describes the procedures involved in real-time and non-real-time call setup and release. See sections Functionality of real-time services and Functionality of non-real-time services for the illustration of call setup and release phases. This section also briefly describes parameters and statistics. The signalling protocols mentioned in the figures are: RANAP (radio access network application part) RNSAP (radio network subsystem application part) NBAP (Node B application part) RRC (radio resource control)

RANAP layer

RANAP layer includes all the RANAP signalling entities of the RNC and the related application for RANAP signalling entity management. RANAP signalling entity is a serving RNC functionality responsible for the RANAP-connection-specific signalling and information management between the RNC and core network for one MS.
RNSAP layer

RNSAP layer includes all the RNSAP signalling entities of the RNC and the related application for RNSAP signalling entity management. RNSAP signalling entity is an RNC functionality responsible for RNSAPconnection-specific signalling and information management between two RNCs for one MS.
NBAP layer

NBAP layer includes all common and dedicated NBAP signalling entities of the RNC or the BTS and the related application for the NBAP signalling entity management.

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Common NBAP signalling entity is a BTS or a controlling RNC functionality responsible for the logical resource management, BCH management and communication context creation for one BTS. Dedicated NBAP signalling entity is a BTS or a controlling RNC functionality responsible for the radio link management for a group of MSs.
RRC layer

RRC layer includes all RRC signalling entities of the RNC and the related application for RRC signalling entity management. RRC signalling entity is a serving RNC functionality responsible for the RRCconnection-specific signalling and information management for one MS.

4.1

Paging
Core network (CN) requests the RNC to page an MS. RNC receives paging requests from the core network over the Iu interface. The MS may use discontinuous reception (DRX) in idle mode to reduce power consumption. In discontinuous transmission, the MS only monitors one page indicator (PI) in one paging occasion per DRX cycle. The DRX cycle is an individual time interval between the monitoring paging occasions for a specific MS. The maximum DRX cycle is the time interval for the longest possible DRX cycle in a cell. The MS may be attached to the circuit switched and packet switched core networks with different CN-domain-specific DRX cycle lengths. The MS stores each domain-specific DRX cycle length for each CN domain it is attached to and uses the shortest of those DRX cycle lengths. If the CN sends a specific DRX cycle length coefficient, RAN uses it in the paging message. If there is no CNspecific coefficient, RAN uses the default value for CN-specific DRX cycle length coefficient in the radio network database. RNC sends paging requests to all WCDMA BTSs which belong to the paging area where the MS is currently registered. The cells in a single BTS may belong to different paging areas. Each paging message on the Iu interface involves only one MS and therefore, the RNC has to pack the pages into the relevant radio interface paging message.

4.1.1

Paging an idle mode MS (paging procedure)


The RNC checks whether the paged MS is engaged in an ongoing radio resource control (RRC) connection. If there is no connection, the RNC starts the idle mode paging procedure. As a result, the MS starts the RRC connection setup procedure.

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The procedure using the PAGING TYPE 1 message is referred to as paging procedure in the 3GPP RRC specification.

MS

BTS

RNC

CN

MS has no RRC connection RANAP:PAGING PAGING TYPE 1

RRC connection establishment

Paging response

Figure 14. Paging an MS in idle mode.

4.1.2

Paging a connected mode MS (UE dedicated paging procedure)


The RNC checks whether the paged MS already has an RRC connection. If it does, the connected mode paging procedure is applied. RNC sends a paging message (RRC:PAGING TYPE 2) to an RRC-connected MS through the existing RRC connection if the MS is in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state. If the MS is in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state, the RNC originates the paging procedure (RRC:PAGING TYPE1). The procedure using the PAGING TYPE 2 message is referred to as UE dedicated paging procedure in the 3GPP RRC specification.

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MS

BTS

RNC

CN 1

CN 2

MS has signalling connection to CN1

MS is in CELL_FACH or CELL_DCH state RANAP:PAGING RRC:PAGING TYPE 2

Paging response to CN 2

Figure 15. Paging an MS in connected mode (CELL_FACH or CELL_DCH state).

MS

BTS

RNC

CN 1

CN 2

MS has signalling connection to CN1

MS is in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state RANAP:PAGING RRC:PAGING TYPE 1

Paging response to CN 2

Figure 16. Paging an MS in connected mode (CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state).

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4.1.3

RNC originated paging


To save its battery, an MS may reside on common channels (the paging channel) while still maintaining the RRC connection to RNC. In such a case, the RNC needs to page the MS when there is downlink user data or a downlink signalling message addressed to the MS. This is because in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state, the DCCH logical channel cannot be used. Therefore, the RNC transmits a paging request on the PCCH logical channel in the known cell or within the URA where the MS is located. RNC's RRC signalling entity starts the paging procedure. As a response, the MS moves to the CELL_FACH state and starts the cell update procedure with the cause paging response. If an MS in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state needs to transmit anything to the RAN, it moves to the CELL_FACH state and executes a cell update procedure with the cause UL data transmission.

MS

BTS

RNC

MS is in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state

DL data or DL signalling messages


RRC: PAGING TYPE 1

MS makes a transition from CELL_PCH or URA_PCH to CELL_FACH state

MS performs a cell update with the cause "paging response"

Figure 17. RNC-originated paging.

4.2

RRC connection setup


RRC connection is always started by the MS. MS sends a message to the RNC requesting RRC connection setup. RNC sets up a radio link and sends the MS the physical channel information. After the MS has synchronised itself to the WCDMA BTS, it transmits an acknowledgement to the RNC.. Once the MS has set up the RRC connection, it may send higher-layer messages, for instance, a call setup message.

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MS

BTS

RNC

RRC: RRC CONNECTION SETUP REQUEST

Radio link setup RRC: RRC CONNECTION SETUP

L1 synchronisation RRC: RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE

Figure 18. Setting up an RRC connection. The following figure illustrates an example of an RRC connection failure. The RNC may fail in its attempt to set up a radio link due to hardware blocking, for instance. Also, admission control may reject the setup attempt. In an error situation, the RNC transmits an RRC connection setup reject message, and the MS initiates an RRC connection setup retry timer. When the timer expires, the MS attempts to set up the RRC connection again.

MS

BTS

RNC

RRC: RRC CONNECTION SETUP REQUEST RRC: RRC CONNECTION REJECT

RRC: RRC CONNECTION SETUP REQUEST

Figure 19. RRC connection setup failure and retry.

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4.3

RRC connection release


Radio resource control connection is released when the MS no longer has an active signalling connection to any core network node. MS and CN negotiate about the release, and after that, the CN sends a release command. The MS in CELL_DCH state sends an acknowledgement message in unacknowledged mode to the radio access network. If the MS receives the release message while in CELL_FACH state, it responds in acknowledged mode to the RAN. After the MS response, the RNC starts the radio link release procedure towards BTS, releases transport bearers on the Iub interface, and sends an acknowledgement to the core network. The RNC can delete the RRC entity of the MS at the same time with the radio link release procedures.

MS

BTS

RNC

CN

MS has signalling connection to one CN RANAP: IU RELEASE COMMAND RANAP: IU RELEASE COMPLETE RRC: RRC CONNECTION RELEASE RRC: RRC CONNECTION RELEASE COMPLETE

Radio link deletion procedure

Figure 20. RRC connection release in CELL_DCH state.

4.4

Radio link setup


Radio link setup procedure is started when a new radio link is needed, for instance, when a new signalling link is set up or when handover is performed. RNC determines the radio link parameters and requests radio link activation at the BTS. In the first radio link setup, the BTS selects the traffic termination point for the communication context and sends the identification of the associated NBAP signalling link to the RNC. The radio link allocation is valid at the BTS until the RNC orders radio link deletion.

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The procedure also starts the creation or modification of a communication context. Communication context contains information about all activity in one traffic termination point concerning one MS. It is used to associate a set of radio links together at the BTS.

MS

BTS

RNC

NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST

NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE

AAL2 Setup RRC:Assignment to MS

L1 synchronisation NBAP:SYNCHRONIZATION INDICATION

Figure 21. Radio link setup. Error situations that may occur during radio link setup are illustrated in the following figures. Radio link setup may fail because resources are not available or because the controlling RNC communication context is already in use, for example. If radio link setup fails, the BTS sends a failure message to the RNC indicating the cause value. The BTS's L3 Common NBAP signalling entity sends the message to the RNC's L3 Common NBAP signalling entity.

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MS

BTS

RNC

NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST

NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP FAILURE

Figure 22. Radio link setup failure. If the BTS fails to establish synchronisation at the time defined, the BTS's L3 Dedicated NBAP signalling entity generates a failure message indicating the cause synchronisation failure.

MS

BTS

RNC

NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST

NBAP:RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE

AAL2 Setup RRC:Assignment to MS

NBAP:RADIO LINK FAILURE (SYNC FAIL)

Figure 23. Synchronisation failure.

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4.5

Radio link reconfiguration


Synchronised radio link reconfiguration is used to add, delete or modify a DCH (dedicated channel) or to modify the radio links belonging to the same communication context. The resource manager of the RNC initiates the reconfiguration procedure. The situations that may trigger the radio link reconfiguration procedure are: radio access bearer setup (AAL2 setup) radio access bearer negotiation (possible AAL2 setup, switching, and release) radio access bearer release (AAL2 release) NRT radio access bearer scheduling (AAL2 setup, possible AAL2 switching, AAL2 release).

MS

BTS

RNC

NBAP:RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARE

NBAP:RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION READY

AAL2 Setup if needed

NBAP:RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION COMMIT

RRC:Assignment to MS

AAL2 Switching if needed

AAL2 Release if needed

Figure 24. Synchronised radio link reconfiguration.

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Radio link reconfiguration may fail because of a BTS capability failure or because there are not enough resources, for example. The BTS responds with a failure message to the RNC's prepare message. The failure message indicates the failed radio links and the cause value for the failure.

MS

BTS NBAP:RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARE

RNC

NBAP:RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION FAILURE

Figure 25. Radio link reconfiguration failure.

4.6

Radio link deletion


RNC starts the radio link deletion procedure to release one or more radio links in a communication context. Resets and other error situations may trigger this procedure. If the RNC does not receive a response from the BTS before a timer expires, it sends the deletion message again three times. After that, if there is still no answer, the resource manager in the RNC starts recovery actions.

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MS

BTS

RNC

NBAP:RADIO LINK DELETION REQUEST

NBAP:RADIO LINK DELETION RESPONSE

AAL2 Release

Figure 26. Radio link deletion.

4.7

Radio access bearer setup


The procedure builds a radio access bearer service between the MS and the CN (core network). The service is negotiated between MS and CN via the signalling link between the MS and RAN (radio access network) and via the signalling connection between RAN and CN. Once the CN has all the necessary information, it forwards it to the RNC. RNC analyses the parameters for radio access bearer service and checks whether the resources needed exist. After that, the RNC activates or modifies the physical uplink and downlink radio channels from the WCDMA BTS and creates the transmission channels at the Iub and Iur interfaces according to the reserved radio resources. RNC then sends the new radio link parameters to the MS on the existing signalling link. Once the MS informs the RNC that it uses the new radio link parameters, the RNC acknowledges the information to the CN and radio access bearer establishment is then complete. The same procedure is also used for adding radio access bearers. For NRT (non-real time) services, the radio access bearers are created without immediate reservation of radio resources. Instead, radio resources are allocated on demand by using the signalling link between the MS and the RNC.

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MS

BTS

RNC

CN

Signalling link established, MM and CC signalling ... RANAP:RAB Assignment Request

Radio link reconfiguration (real time RAB) AAL2 Setup (real time RAB)

AAL2 Setup (real time RAB) RRC:RB Setup

RRC:RB Setup Complete

RANAP:RAB Assignment Response

CC continues...

Figure 27. Radio access bearer establishment procedure (DCH to DCH). Setting up a radio access bearer may fail, for instance, because the RNC cannot provide the resources requested. If the requested channel type or resource (e.g. channel rate, etc.) indicated in the RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message is not available in the RAN, a RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE message is sent to the CN. The message contains the appropriate failure cause.

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RNC RANAP:RAB Assignment Request

CN

Required resources not available RANAP:Assignment Response(cause)

CN may send a new RAB Assignment Request to establish a new RAB or Iu release Command to release all reserved resources.

Figure 28. Failure in radio access bearer establishment.

4.8

Radio access bearer reconfiguration


The MS and CN negotiate about the radio access bearer reconfiguration. MS or CN can request the procedure for radio access bearer reconfiguration. The procedure is the same whether MS or CN requests the modification. If downgrading the radio access bearer parameters is requested, the CN immediately accepts it and acknowledges the service modification to the MS. The CN then requests the RNC to modify the RAN radio access bearer. If the modification is allowed, the MS and the WCDMA BTS are informed, and also the transmission channels are modified if needed. The RAN acknowledges to the CN that the radio access bearer service was modified. If upgrading the radio access bearer parameters is requested, the CN first requests the RNC to modify radio access bearer services. If the modification is allowed, the MS and WCDMA BTS are informed, and also the transmission channels are modified if needed.

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BTS

RNC

CN

CC/SM signalling between MS and CN, modification of RAB required RANAP:RAB Assignment Request (modify) AAL2 modification

RRC:RB Reconfiguration

RRC:RB Reconfiguration Complete

AAL2 modification RANAP:RAB Assignment Response

CC/SM signalling, modification complete

Figure 29. Radio access bearer reconfiguration procedure (DCH to DCH). If the requested channel type or resource (e.g. channel rate, etc.) indicated in the RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message is not available in the RAN, a RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE message is sent to the CN. The message contains the appropriate failure cause.

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BTS

RNC

CN

CC/SM signaling between MS and CN, modification of Radio Access Bearer required RANAP:RAB AssignmentRequest (modify)

RL reconfiguration

AAL2 modification RRC:RB Reconfiguration RRC:RB Reconfiguration Failure RANAP:RAB Assignment Response (cause)

CC/SM signaling, modify failure

Figure 30. Failure in radio access bearer reconfiguration.

4.9

Radio access bearer release


The MS and CN negotiate about releasing the radio access bearer services. The CN then commands the RAN (radio access network) to release a radio access bearer service. RNC sends an indication of the release to the MS, and either releases the radio link or modifies the radio link parameters if all radio access bearers are not released. The radio links are also released or modified at the WCDMA BTS, and transmission channels are released both on the Iu and Iub interfaces. Also Iur branches are released if the MS had branches via another (drifting) RNC. The CN may also request releasing the signalling link if all radio access bearers related to the CN are released. Then the signalling connection between the RNC and CN is released. The signalling link between the RNC and MS is also released if the MS has no active connection to another CN.

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BTS

RNC

CN

RANAB:RAB Assignment Request (release) RANAP:RAB Assignment Response

AAL2 release

RL Reconfiguration RRC:RB Release RRC:RB Release Complete

AAL2 release

Figure 31. Radio access bearer release. From the Iu interface's point of view, radio access bearer release is always successful. The MS may return a release failure message to the RNC. In this case, the MS uses the old configuration.

4.10

Signalling connection release


Signalling connection release can be requested by the CN or by the MS. The MS may have an ongoing signalling connection to one circuit-switched and one packet-switched core network simultaneously. If one network then requests the release of the signalling connection by running the Iu release procedure, the RNC detects that there is still another signalling connection using the current RRC connection. The RRC connection is not released, but the MS is informed that one of the signalling connections is released.

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RNC MS-CN 2 signalling connection

CN 1

CN 2

MS-CN 1 signalling connection RANAP:IU RELEASE COMMAND RANAP:IU RELEASE COMPLETE RRC:SIGNALLING CONNECTION RELEASE

MS-CN 1 signalling connection

Figure 32. Signalling connection release requested by the CN. When the MS requests the release of a signalling connection, either the signalling connection release or the RRC connection release procedure is run as a response. If the signalling connection is released (as in the figure), the MS continues to have a signalling connection to one core network, but not two. If the RRC connection is released, the MS no longer has connections to a core network.

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BTS

RNC MS-CN 2 signalling connection

CN 1

CN 2

MS-CN 1 signalling connection RRC:SIGNALLING CONNECTION RELEASE REQUEST Release of one signalling flow RANAP:IU RELEASE REQUEST RANAP:IU RELEASE COMMAND RANAP:IU RELEASE COMPLETE MS-CN 1 signalling connection

Figure 33. Signalling connection release requested by the MS (all flows are not released).

4.11

Direct transfer
After having established an RRC connection, the MS starts setting up a signalling connection to the core network (CN). MS sends a message to the RNC which generates a different message to the CN, depending on whether or not there is an active signalling connection to the CN domain. If low priority DCCH usage is configured in the RNC, SRB#4 (low priority) is used in the downlink direction for the NAS-PDUs using SAPI value 3. If low priority DCCH usage is not configured, or the SAPI value of a NAS-PDU is 0, then SRB#3 (high priority) is used. If the RNC fails in transferring the message to the MS, the CN does not get an indication of the failure. Higher layers are used to repeat the message.

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RNC

CN

RRC: INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER RANAP: INITIAL UE MESSAGE RANAP: DIRECT TRANSFER RRC: DOWNLINK DIRECT TRANSFER RRC: UPLINK DIRECT TRANSFER RANAP: DIRECT TRANSFER

Figure 34. Signalling connection setup.

4.12

Ciphering and integrity protection setup


In RNC, two security mechanisms are available: ciphering and integrity protection. When RRC connection has been set up, the MS sends the RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE message to the RNC. The message includes the HFN (hyperframe number) to be used as part of the input parameters for the ciphering and integrity algorithms, respectively. The MS sends an initial L3 message with the MS Classmark information which the network needs to start security mode setup. The message is unprotected, but the MS can verify that the correct information reached the network when the system returns a protected message including the MS Classmark received. This part is transparent to the radio access network. Once the initial L3 message is received, user authentication can be done and new security keys (integrity key and ciphering key) as well as a new key set identifier (KSI) are generated. The core network also determines which UMTS encryption and integrity algorithms (UEAs and UIAs) are used. Core network starts integrity protection (and possibly ciphering) by sending the SECURITY MODE COMMAND message to the serving RNC. This message contains the UIAs and the integrity key (IK) to be used and possibly the UEAs and the ciphering key (CK).

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The serving RNC selects the first UIA and UEA it supports from the CN's list. SRNC generates a random value FRESH and starts the downlink integrity protection by generating the SECURITY MODE COMMAND message. Based on input parameters, the RNC generates the message authentication code for integrity protection (MAC-I) which is included in the message. All downlink signalling messages after that are integrity protected and possibly ciphered. If SRNC supports no UIAs on the list, it sends a rejection message to the core network. The MS computes the expected MAC-I value (XMAC-I) and verifies the integrity of the message by comparing the received MAC-I with the generated XMAC-I. The MS acknowledges the RNC's message with SECURITY MODE COMPLETE message which starts the uplink integrity protection. All uplink signalling messages after that are integrity protected and possibly ciphered.

MS

BTS

RNC

CN

RANAP:SECURITY MODE COMMAND RRC:SECURITY MODE COMMAND RRC:SECURITY MODE COMPLETE RANAP:SECURITY MODE COMPLETE

Figure 35. Setting up ciphering and integrity protection.

4.13

Cell update
Cell update procedure is mainly used to update the RNC information on the MS location after a cell reselection. When the MS selects a new cell, it informs the RNC in a cell update. In other words, cell update is used instead of handover. The MS also performs periodic cell updates according to system information. After the MS has switched to a new cell, it sends a cell update message to the RNC's RRC (radio resource control). The MS message contains the cell update cause, which can be: cell reselection periodic cell update

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uplink data transmission paging response re-entering service area radio link failure RLC unrecoverable error.

If the cell update was caused by cell reselection, the RNC updates the MS location information and resets the CELL_FACH or CELL_PCH state supervision timer. RNC's confirmation message to the MS includes a radio network temporary identifier for the cell (C-RNTI). If the cell update was performed to a cell not residing under the serving RNC (SRNC), the message also contains the radio network temporary identifier for the RAN (U-RNTI). If the MS is moving very fast and performs frequent cell updates due to cell reselection, the RNC may order the MS to move to URA_PCH state. If the cause was a periodic cell update, the RNC updates the MS location information and resets the CELL_FACH or CELL_PCH state supervision timer. RNC may also instruct the MS to update its location on URA level. If the MS performs a certain number of cell updates due to periodic cell update and is inactive (in other words, is not transmitting or receiving user data), the RNC may order the MS to move to URA_PCH state. If the cause was uplink data transmission, the RNC sends a confirmation and possibly a radio network temporary identifier (RNTI). The RNTI for a cell (CRNTI) is sent if the MS transferred from URA_PCH state. The RNTI for RAN (U-RNTI) is sent if the cell update was performed to a cell not residing under the serving RNC (SRNC). The MS remains in CELL_FACH state. If the cell update cause was paging response, the RNC updates the MS location information. The RNC sends a confirmation and possibly a new radio network temporary identifier for cell (C-RNTI). The MS remains in CELL_FACH state.

MS

BTS

RNC

MS is in CELL_FACH or CELL_PCH state RRC:CELL UPDATE RRC:CELL UPDATE CONFIRM

Figure 36. Cell update due to periodic update.

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4.14

URA update
MS mainly uses the UTRAN registration area (URA) update procedure to inform the RNC that it has switched to a new radio access network registration area. The procedure is triggered after a change of cell when the MS has decoded the URA identifiers of the cell. URA updates are also performed periodically after a timer expires. RAN (UTRAN) registration areas may be hierarchical to avoid excessive signalling. This means that several URA identifiers may be broadcast in one cell and that different MSs in one cell may reside in different URAs. When the MS is in URA_PCH state and has switched to a new URA, it sends an update message with the U-RNTI (radio network temporary identifier) and URA update cause to the RNC. The cause is either URA reselection or periodic URA update. If the update was due to URA reselection, the RNC registers the change of URA and sends a confirmation message to the MS. The message includes a radio network temporary identifier for cell (C-RNTI), if the MS remains in CELL_FACH state after the URA update. The message includes a radio network temporary identifier for RAN (UTRAN, U-RNTI), if the URA update was performed to a cell not residing under the serving RNC (SRNC). If multiple URAs are valid in the cell, RNC assigns the URA to the MS. If the update was a periodical one, the RNC resets the periodic URA update timer and sends a confirmation message to the MS.

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MS

BTS

RNC

MS is in URA_PCH state

MS moves to CELL_FACH state RRC:URA UPDATE RRC:URA UPDATE CONFIRM

MS moves to URA_PCH state

Figure 37. Periodic URA update.

4.15

Parameters
For operator-definable parameters, see Radio Network Parameter Dictionary.

4.16

Statistics
The following measurement types are relevant to call setup and release:
Service level measurements

Measurement includes statistics collected from: RRC connection setup and access (including RRC connection active releases and failures) Incoming HOs and relocations RAB setup, access and reconfiguration.

For more information, see the Service level measurements in RNC Performance Counters.

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L3 signalling measurements on Iub

Measurement includes statistics collected from: NBAP procedures for radio link setup, addition, deletion and reconfiguration.

For more information, see the L3 signalling measurements on Iub in RNC Performance Counters.
L3 signalling measurements on Iur

Measurement includes statistics collected from: RNSAP procedures for radio link setup, addition, deletion and reconfiguration over Iur RNSAP and RANAP procedures for serving RNC relocation RNSAP and RANAP procedures for inter-RNC hard handover.

For more information, see the L3 signalling measurements on Iur in RNC Performance Counters.
L3 signalling measurements on Iu

Measurement includes statistics collected from: RANAP procedures for radio access bearer establishment/release and Iu connection setup/release.

For more information, see the L3 signalling measurements on Iu in RNC Performance Counters.
RRC signalling measurements

Measurement includes statistics collected from: RRC connection management (that is, RRC connection setup/release, paging) procedures RRC mobility management (that is, cell and URA updates) procedures packet data transition states (that is, transitions between CELL_DCH, CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH and URA_PCH states)

For more information, see the RRC signalling measurements in RNC Performance Counters.

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4.17

Alarms
There are no alarms relevant to call setup and release.

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Related features

Related features
The features related to call setup and release are: Handover control algorithm Power control algorithm Load control algorithm Admission control algorithm Resource manager algorithm Packet scheduler algorithm

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Restrictions

Restrictions
There are no restrictions relevant to call setup and release.

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Glossary Abbreviations
BCCH (broadcast control channel) BCH (broadcast channel) CK (ciphering key) DCCH (dedicated control channel) DCH (dedicated traffic channel) FACH (forward access channel) HFN (hyperframe number) HLR (home location register) IK (integrity key) KSI (key set identifier) MAC-I (message authentication code for integrity protection) MS (mobile station) MSC (mobile services switching centre) MT (mobile termination) PCCH (paging control channel) PCH (paging channel)

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RACH (random access channel) RAN (radio access network) RNC (radio network controller) RRC (radio resource control) TE (terminal equipment) UE (user equipment) UEA (UMTS encryption algorithm) UIA (UMTS integrity algorithm) UTRAN (universal terrestrial radio access network) VLR (visitor location register) XMAC-I (expected MAC-I value) In 3GPP vocabulary used instead of radio access network (RAN). In 3GPP vocabulary used instead of mobile station (MS). RAN corresponds to UTRAN, UMTS RAN in 3GPP vocabulary.

Terms
cell RNTI (CRNTI) communication context C-RNTI is allocated for an MS by each controlling RNC through which the MS is able to communicate on DCCH. Communication context contains information about all activity in one traffic termination point concerning one MS. It can be used to associate a set of radio links together at the BTS. Radio links belonging to the same communication context are in softer or soft handover. The MS is in connected mode after it has set up an RRC connection to the RAN. Controlling is a role an RNC can take with respect to a specific set of BTSs. The controlling RNC has the overall control of the logical resources of its BTSs. There is only one controlling RNC for any BTS.

connected mode controlling RNC (CRNC)

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drifting RNC (DRNC)

Drifting is a role an RNC can take with respect to a specific connection between an MS and RAN. The drifting RNC supports the serving RNC with radio resources when the connection between the RAN and the MS needs to use the cells controlled by this RNC. D-RNTI is used by the serving RNC to identify the MS to the drifting RNC. The MS is in idle mode when it is switched on but has no RRC connection to the RAN. Iu is interface between the radio network controller (RNC) and the core network (CN). Iub is the interface between the radio network controller (RNC) and the WCDMA BTS. Iur is the interface between two radio network controllers (RNC). Non-access stratum refers to the protocols between the MS and the core network that are not terminated in the radio access network. RNTI is an identifier for the MS when an RRC connection exists. For instance, it is used by the MAC protocol on common transport channels (RACH, FACH, PCH). See also cell RNTI, serving RNTI, drifting RNTI and UTRAN RNTI. Radio resource control connection is a logical connection between the MS and radio access network (RAN) which supports the exchange of upper layer information. Serving is a role an RNC can take with respect to a specific connection between an MS and RAN. There is one serving RNC for each MS that has a connection to RAN. The serving RNC is in charge of the radio connection between an MS and RAN. The serving RNC terminates the Iu for this MS. S-RNTI is allocated to an MS for communicating with the serving RNC. It is also used by the drifting RNC to identify the MS to the serving RNC. Signalling connection is an acknowledged mode link between the MS and the core network (CN) to transfer higher layer information between the entities in the non-access stratum. Signalling link provides an acknowledged mode link layer to transfer the signalling messages between the MS and RAN as well as between the MS and CN (as part of the signalling connection). UTRAN radio network temporary identifier is allocated to an MS that has an RRC connection. The U-RNTI identifies the MS within RAN and in signalling messages between the MS and RAN. U-RNTI consists of the serving RNC identifier and the S-RNTI.

drifting RNTI (DRNTI) idle mode Iu interface Iub interface Iur interface non-access stratum (NAS) radio network temporary identifier (RNTI) RRC connection

serving RNC (SRNC)

serving RNTI (SRNTI) signalling connection signalling link

UTRAN RNTI (URNTI)

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UTRAN registration URA is a predefined group of cells, which the RNC radio resource control uses area (URA) to administer the location of the MS in URA connected state. URA id is broadcast on the BCCH. The MS must make a URA update when it enters a cell with a new URA id.

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