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SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm


KiRnBaueR, t. (2008): Nassau Marble (Nassauer Marmor) or Lahn Marble (Lahnmarmor) a famous Devonian dimension stone from Germany. In: SiegeSmund, S. & Snethlage, R. (hrsg.): Denkmalgesteine Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft fr Geowissenschaften, Heft 59: S. 187-218; Hannover.

Nassauer Marmor oder Lahnmarmor ein weltweit bekannter Naturwerkstein aus Deutschland
Nassau Marble or Lahn Marble a famous Devonian dimension stone from Germany
thomaS KiRnBaueR
TFH Georg Agricola, Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Geologie der Steine und Erden Mineralische Baustoffe, Herner Strae 45, D-44787 Bochum, Germany,

Etwa 400 Jahre lang, bis in die Siebzigerjahre des 0. Jahrhunderts, wurden mittel- bis oberdevonische Riffkalksteine aus der Lahnmulde (Rhenohercynikum, Variscisches Gebirge) als Naturwerksteine gewonnen. Sie wurden als Nassauer Marmor, spter als Lahnmarmor vertrieben. Die zahlreichen Varietten wurden weltweit vor allem im Innenausbau von Gebuden verwendet. Die vorliegende Arbeit nimmt die erste Bestandsaufnahme aller Steinbrche und Handelsnamen vor und ordnet diese dem historischen Kontext zu. In der Zeit zwischen 1600 und 1970 lassen sich ber 100 Steinbrche nachweisen. Handelsnamen sind ab 1883 eingefhrt worden. Im Rahmen eines laufenden Projekts konnten bislang ca. 70 Steinbrche identifiziert und beprobt werden. Etwa 125 Handelsnamen knnen nachgewiesen werden, von denen die meisten einer Gewinnungsstelle zugeordnet werden knnen. Fr jede Lagersttte werden, sofern mglich, Verwendungsbeispiele aufgefhrt. Die gesamte Produktion an Nassauer Marmor bzw. Lahnmarmor kann auf ca. 75.000 m3 abgeschtzt werden. Die auf faziellen Merkmalen basierende visuelle Herkunftsbestimmung ist derzeit nur in Kombination mit historischen Daten mglich. Mehrere Datenbanken wurden angelegt, so fr Objekte aus Nassauer Marmor und Literatur (derzeit mit > 750 bzw. > 500 Datenstzen), die diese multidimensionale Herangehensweise untersttzen. Die vorliegende Studie kombiniert das erste Mal Gelndedaten mit den Ergebnissen historischer Forschung.

names is reported and related to the historical context. From 1600 to 1970 more than 100 quarries were operated. Trade names have been introduced around 1883. In the course of this study, about 70 quarries could be identified and sampled, and about 125 trade names were verified; nearly all of them can be related to a quarry. Examples are cited, if possible. The total production of Lahn Marble can be estimated as about 75,000 m3. It is shown that the facies-based visual determination of provenance is possible only in combination with historical information. Several databases were set up (e.g. Nassau Marble objects and literature, at the moment > 750 and > 500 records respectively) and support this multidimensional approach. For the first time data of new field work is combined with historical research. Schlsselwrter: Nassauer Marmor, Lahnmarmor, Deutschland, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Lahnmulde, Devon, Naturwerkstein, Provenienzanalyse Key words: Nassau Marble, Lahn Marble, Nassauer Marmor, Lahnmarmor, Germany, Rhenish Massif, Lahn syncline, Devonian, dimension stone, provenance analysis

No German dimension stone shows a greater variety of colour, texture and pattern than the Nassau Marble or Lahn Marble (German: Nassauer Marmor or Lahnmarmor), of which numerous varieties and trade names are known. Nassau Marble was extracted in several dozen quarries on both sides of the Lahn River for approximately 400 years. Activities ceased in the seventies of the 0th century. Although named marble, from a geologists point of view it is limestone made up of reef carbonates of Middle to Late Devonian age. It is exposed in the Lahn syncline, which is one of the most important structures in the Rhenohercynian Zone of the Variscan belt in Northwestern Europe. Spatially, the quarry region is a 60 km long but narrow area at

Middle to Late Devonian reef limestones were used as dimension stone for approximately 400 years until the seventies of the 0th century. Found in the Lahn syncline within the Rhenohercynian Zone of the Variscan belt (Germany), the trade name was Nassau Marble, later Lahn Marble. Showing numerous varieties it was used mainly for interior decoration of buildings worldwide. Here a first inventory of all quarries and trade


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm Stratigraphy and facies of all varieties. This includes a collection of slabs, Colour photographs of sample slabs. Such photographs, including the trade mark, can be found in advertising brochures and material, which were distributed to architects, Objects and ensembles of objects containing Nassau Marble (e.g. one object is the Mannheim Jesuit church). Up to now the database comprises > 750 objects, Literature dealing with the geology, history of quarrying and processing and using Nassau Marble in architecture. Up to now this database includes > 500 titles. One of the main aims of the project is to establish solid assignments of the > 100 trade marks to known quarries on the one hand and the certain identification of varieties in pieces of architecture on the other hand. The systematic description of all Nassau Marble quarries known to date, is the main focus of the article in hand. For all quarries details are given to time/duration of operation and to the trade names which were used. If possible, characteristic slabs and identified pieces of architecture or buildings are quoted. In general, this article deals with the provenance determination of Lahn Marble and is directed to all specialists, who are engaged in restoration of Lahn Marble monuments.

both sides of the Lahn River. It reaches from Wetzlar in the northeast across Weilburg and Limburg into the district of Diez and Katzenelnbogen in the southwest. The trade name Nassau Marble later, i. e. in the 0th century, Lahn Marble has been adopted, because limestone, which is capable of taking a high polish in general is called marble by stonemasons since Roman times. Nassau Marble was used as a decorative element in the interior decoration of countless buildings all over the world. The Empire State Building in New York, the Moscow Kremlin and the Tagore Castle in Kolkata are prominent examples. In Germany, thousands of churches, castles, palaces, public and office buildings, hotels and residential buildings were furnished with Lahn Marble. Above all, during restoration of historic buildings the question has to be answered, which of the many Lahn Marble varieties has been used. Both standard works (mlleR 1976 ff; gRimm 1990) which provide meaningful coloured photos of polished slabs present only four and seven Lahn Marble varieties, respectively. Thus, to date the high diversity of varieties actually used in architecture is not reflected in the scientific literature. In the last years geoscientists in their attempts to determine the source of the various stones used the knowledge of the last stonemason masters, who worked with Lahn Marble (e.g. SchRoedeR 1999). Within the scope of this study it turned out that provenance studies, which are based exclusively on the macroscopic features (structure, texture, colour, fossil content) and therefore on the sedimentological, diagenetic and palaeontological inventory, are the more unreliable the more the age of the building under consideration exceeds the life span of the contemporary witness. For the most part, incorrect provenance assignments are founded on the usage of reference material from the time after World War II for buildings older than that. Lack of knowledge exists about the material used in former centuries. Based on a first overview (BecKeR & KiRnBaueR 1998), a project was started to remedy this gap in knowledge. The project, started several years ago, has been established at the University of Applied Sciences Georg Agricola in Bochum. Main aim of the project is the systematic registration of all Lahn Marble quarries and varieties. The project is carried out in collaboration with the Lahn-Marmor-Museum Society in Villmar. The following data are registered in databases: Location of quarries, Operation time, owners, operators and output of each quarry,

Geological and tectonic setting

The Lahn syncline is one of the most important Variscan structures in the Rhenohercynian Zone of the Variscan belt in northwest Europe (Fig. 1). Right of the Rhine River, it is situated on both sides of the Lahn River. Geographically, it is part of the Taunus Mountains in the south and of the Westerwald in the north. Striking SW-NE, the structure is separated from the Dill syncline in the NW by the small Hrre zone. Both synclines form a double structure named Lahn-Dill syncline. The Taunus anticlinorium forms the boundary in the SE. To the NW it is bordered by the Tertiary Westerwald volcanic field which is constituted by dominantly basaltic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks and to a lesser extent, Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. The Lahn syncline is filled with shallow marine sediments and volcano-sedimentary successions of Devonian to Lower Carboniferous age. The sediments were deposited on the southern (Rhenohercynian) shelf of the Old Red continent, which was consolidated during the Caledonian orogeny. During the Devonian, molasse sediments of the young Caledonian mountains were deposited on the northern, distal part of the shelf

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm


was not understand, due to diagenetic and weak metamorphic overprinting they were caused by different fragmentation processes (flicK & neSBoR 1988). The pyroclastic rocks are arranged in submarine ridges, which indicate dyke eruptions (neSBoR & flicK 1988). Smaller portions of the melts intruded into sediments building sills. In the course of time, mighty submarine volcanic complexes developed, even rising above sea level at some places (neSBoR et al. 1993). More widespread than basaltic melts, trachytic differentiates built-up volcanic islands, which are sitting on submarine ridges and basaltic volcanic islands. Reef building organisms inhabited the volcanic island as well as the submarine ridges. The organisms were putting up partly mighty reefs (bioherms) with a Fig. 1: Geological sketch map of the Lahn syncline showing the distribution of maximum thickness of about 300 m in Middle to Late Devonian reef limestones within the three units 1) Hadamar Middle the Limburg area (R equadt 1990). At Devonian Outcrops, 2) Schalstein Main Anticline and 3) Hahnsttten Syncline. this time, the sedimentation area was Small panel shows Rhenish Massif positioned approximately 10-15 south of the equator (tait et al. 000) and the (fRanKe et al. 1978). Assuming orogenic shortening average palaeotemperature for the seawater was a calranged at 30-40 % (dittmaR et al. 1994), the Lahn culated 5-30 C (JoachimSKi et al. 004). Therefore, trough was located at a distance of about 150 km from the name Devonian South Seas (flicK et al. 1998) the Old Red continent. In the Lower Devonian, rifting applies. started on the Rhenohercynian shelf (heinen 1996). With ongoing stretching and thinning of the crust, Conodonts are common in most reef complexes (BuggiSch & flgel 1992; OetKen 1996; BuggiSch & michl several basins developed, some of them with consi00). Conodont faunas show that reef growth started derable accumulation of sediments (KReBS 1968c). As in the middle varcus zone (Givetian, Middle Devoniresult of the extensional regime, extended felsic volcaan) and ceased essentially in the late Frasnian (Late nism started in the Lower Devonian. Centered in the Devonian). Outside of the Lahn syncline, reef grownortheastern Rhenish Massif, the stratigraphic peak th occasionally started little earlier, shown by platy was during the Emsian (KiRnBaueR 1991). As oceanic limestone (Plattenkalke), which can be dated as crust has not been produced, the situation can be deuppermost Eifelian to lowermost Givetian (weRding scribed as failed rift (heinen 1996). During Middle to 1967b), and locally near Schaumburg castle contiLate Devonian and Lower Carboniferous, the continunued to the Famennian (Requadt 1990). The collapse ally deepening sedimentation area was accompanied of the reef systems is connected with the increasing by an intensive volcanism. The main phase of the first sea level, which had its high stand in connection to volcanic cycle took place from the upper Middle Dethe Kellwasser event (BuggiSch 1991, may 1995). In vonian to the lower members of Late Devonian and is the individual reefs, however, both onset and ceasing characterized by bimodal volcanism (neSBoR 004). of reef growth was dependent on the bathymetric poThe volcanism started in the lower to middle varcus sition, causing an asynchronous development of the zone (Givetian, upper Middle Devonian), established reefs. Therefore, the stratigraphic range of the inveby conodont biostratigraphy (flicK et al. in Requadt stigated profiles varies tremendously: Some reefs are 1990). Investigations of moe (000) suggest that the restricted to the varcus zone, while others comprise rise of the melts was bound to normal faults, which several conodont zones and cover almost the whole are separating NE-SW striking half grabens. AlkaFrasnian. li basaltic submarine lava flows and pillows, as well as pyroclastic rocks were the main products of the Main reef building organisms were stromatopores, first volcanic cycle. The pyroclastic rocks were called and, of minor importance, tabulate and rugose coSchalstein in earlier times, while their real nature rallae. Additional reef organisms were cyanobacte-


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm fied Nassau Marble quarries, than sawed, ground and polished in order to compare them with sample slabs and slabs in public dimension stone collections. Some companies in the Lahn region are still in operation, therefore the position of Lahn Marble quarries, which produced in the 20th century, is known in several cases. Discussions with retired stonemasons, who worked with Lahn Marble in their professional career, and with local historians yielded useful information as well as the inspection of abandoned quarries in the field. A number was assigned to all quarries, which is composed of LM followed by the sheet number of the topographic map 1:25.000, and a serial number (e.g. LM 5615/1, LM 5615/2 ...). For the study area, topographical maps are available in the scale 1:5.000 and 1:0.000 since the beginning of the 19th century. Systematic analysis of all available issues and editions of these maps revealed the position of numerous former quarries as well as their temporal change in size. Quarries in even older maps are recorded only in exceptional cases (Fig. 2). The reliability of provenance assignments is classified into three categories. First-order provenance assignments are written contemporary documents (published or unpublished) and statements of stonemasons, who produced the piece of architecture in question. Second-order provenance assignments this means lower reliability are statements which can be found e.g. in the local history literature, but are not verified by references. Frequently they are known by hearsay only. Third-order provenance assignments are visual assignments of Lahn Marble in buildings dating before 1950. These assignments have the least credibility. Thus, temporary data and reports are the main source of information for this project. Contemporary data from the 19th and 20th century quarrying period are abundant. They are widespread in journals and dissertations of different subject areas (architecture, economic geology, stonemason industry, economics), in popular scientific publications, but also in informal sources such as reports of natural stone associations and companies, in advertisements, articles as well as announcements in newspapers and in photographs (Fig. 3). Documents from the earlier history are available in several archives and museums, which comprise public archives, archives of companies, churches, nobility and other private archives (Fig. 4). Furthermore, there is access to collected material in some village chronicles and the journal LahnMarmor-Nachrichten (ISSN 1619-0289) which is published since 1998. The examination and documentation of Lahn Marble sample slabs is an additional important source

ria, dinoflagellata, halimeda, foraminifera, porifera, lamellibranchiata, gastropoda, goniatites, trilobites, ostracodes, bryoza, brachiopoda, echinoderma, echinoidea, crinoidea and conodont animals. The palaeontological inventory of the reef carbonates is investigated for more than 170 years. Between 1830 and 1860 famous geologists and geognosts as A. daRchiac, E. BeyRich, A. goldfuSS, R. I. muRchiSon, C. F. RoemeR, F. SandBeRgeR, G. SandBeRgeR, A. SedgwicK and E. de veRneuil, dealt with the fauna of the reef limestone and elaborated the fundamental palaeontological principles of the Middle and Late Devonian stratigraphy. Research continues to date with the gastropods being one of the most recent groups to be investigated (heidelBeRgeR 001). In the northern part of todays Rhenish Massif, an extensive carbonate ramp could develop on the proximal shelf near the Old Red continent (KReBS 1971). On the distal shelf, in the Lahn trough, different reef types developed on shallows, depending on relief and palaeogeographical position: highly differentiated carbonate platforms, fringing reefs and atolls (K ReBS 1966; KegleR 1967; flicK & Schmidt 1987; OetKen 1996), yet allochthonous or detritic (allodapic) reef carbonates are widespread (weRding 1966, 1967a, 1967b; neSBoR et al. 1993). Since the first study with actuogeological approach (heinRich 1914), numerous studies about the facies of these reef carbonates were published (Jux 1960; KReBS 1968a, 1968b, 1971, 1974, BuRchette 1981; flicK et al. 1988a). Frequently the typical division into three parts (fore reef, reef core, back reef) can be recognised. Since the classical publication about growth, ceasing and diagenesis of a palaeozoic reef (SchwaRZ 197), the diagenesis of the Devonian reef carbonates was investigated by several authors (e.g. teitZ 1955; KReBS 1969, 1979; SchneideR 1977; miRSal 1978). Both the different conditions of growth and sedimentation within the reefs, and the diverse early- to late-diagenetic carbonate cementation cause the outstandingly high variability in structure and colour of the Nassau Marble. Tectonically, the Middle to Late Devonian reef limestone belongs to three units of the Lahn Syncline (ahlBuRg in Kegel 19). From NW to SE they are: 1) Hadamar Middle Devonian Outcrops, 2) Schalstein Main Anticline, 3) Hahnsttten Syncline (Fig. 1).

Identification of abandoned quarries and sample investigation were carried out by traditional field work, polarisation microscopy and carbonate sedimentology. Fresh limestone samples were taken from all identi-

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm


In 1792, a quarry was operated in the Herrenroth district (5613/13). In 1826 four quarries existed, two of them in the possession of the municipality (one of them named Auf der Eck, LM 5613/5), and two of them in private hands (Henneroths Berg, LM 5613/7, and Henneroths Bach, LM 5613/6). Partly, the quarries were exploited by local stonemasons, partly by the prison in Diez of the state of Nassau where a marble workshop was run. Nevertheless, the exact location of all four Fig. 2: City map of Limburg (Limbourg) with Cariere de Marbre (= marble quarry), about quarries is unknown. 1759 (detail) In the middle of the 19th of knowledge. Polished samples were produced and century, a lease was concluded between the municicollected for 0 years at least (Fig. 5) and can be pality and the prison for the quarries in the local wood found in several museums and scientific institutions. districts Bangertsdell und Welschenberg. There, two Occasionally, important data such as the name of the quarries developed, a bigger one with dark grey to quarry, the name of the stonemasonry and the date is black limestone (LM 5613/2, variety Hllenstein) and made as note in addition to the trade name on the back a smaller one (LM 5613/1) with grey limestone called Balduinstein(er) Grau. The quarries triggered the side of the slab or on a separate label. foundation of the Marmorwerke Balduinstein of the company Guido Krebs in 1888 (Fig. 3), which passed Nassau Marble quarries documented into the hands of the company of W. Thust in 1927. historically Production can be proved until 1927, and shortly after This chapter comprises a systematic description of this year the Thust Co. stopped the local production, all Nassau Marble quarries known to date. If availa- because all Balduinstein quarries were abandoned ble, the period of production activities is mentioned. in 1933. About 1940, material from one of these two Furthermore, trade names and selected pieces of ar- quarries was extracted again for a large-scale order. chitecture are listed for each quarry. Documenting Material from the quarries in the Bangertsdell and all quotations in this chapter would be far beyond the Welschenberg district was used for slabs and feeding scope of this paper; therefore quotations can be found troughs in Schaumburg castle about 1855. Balduinsteiin a forthcoming publication (KiRnBaueR 009). The ner Grau was used for panels in the cashiers office descriptions are organized following the three tectonic in the extension of the Reichshauptbank building in main structures from SW to NE. The distribution of Berlin about 1940. Nassau Marble quarries is shown in Fig. 6. The small Br quarry (LM 5613/3) was exploiting a Hadamar Middle Devonian Outcrops Balduinstein is proved to be the place of the workshop of the marble master Stefan Strahl in 1738, who supplied amongst other pieces the pillars for the St. Quintin high altar in Mainz and the Worms cathedral. Nevertheless, quarrying in Balduinstein could not be verified as the origin of the material is not known. 13 (of initially 15) small slabs of Nassau Marble are included in a private marble collection from the period of about 1800. Six of them originate from Balduinstein (Fig. 5).

reddish reef limestone with clasts of keratophyre (Plate 1a). It was in operation at the end of the 19th century. Several polished Nassau Marble slabs from the Balduinstein castle (LM 5613/8) and from Schaumburg castle (LM 5613/11) came into the collection of Archduke Stephan von sterreich, however, at both sites extensive quarrying is not plausible. Before 1940 a red-grey limestone was produced in the east of Steinsberg, probably from LM 5613/4. Diez had been one of the two centres of the Nassau Marble industry for over 100 years, because a prison


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm year 1880 the Diez prison manufactory was privatized by the Prussian government; purchaser was the company of the Hergenhahn Brothers. The new owners expanded the sales area of the Nassau Marble in all parts of the German Empire and foreign countries such as England and the USA. Numerous examples for use of Diez Lahn Marble are documented, but none of the examples can be assigned to a certain quarry. The most important Nassau Marble deposit in the vicinity of Diez was situated on the right hand side of the Lahn River between Aull and Diez, already situated in the district of Heistenbach. Here, at the locality Fuchslaye, Nassau Marble was quarried as early as 1671. In 1826, four Nassau Marble deposits are reported from the Fuchsleye, some of them stocking only big blocks or boulders. Three of the deposits belonged to the territory of Heistenbach. At the end of the 19th century, out of these attempts the Edelfels quarry developed (LM 5614/2). Under different operating companies, it was active from about 1870 to 1944, and shortly after the Second Word War. The companies were first the Marmorwerke Balduinstein (owner: Guido Krebs), about 1910 Kalk- und Marmorwerke Mller & Schneider GmbH, Diez, and after 1921(?) Marmorwerke Zander, Freiendiez. Products of the Edelfels quarry were the varieties Edelfels Grau, Edelfels Rosa (Plate 1b), Edelfels Rot, Edelfels Grau-Rosa and Edelfels Graurot. Edelfels material was taken for the Adana station of the Mersin-Adana railway (Turkey) about 1912 and, above all, for representation and propaganda construction of the Third Reich in the 1930s. Examples are buildings of the Nazi party rally ground (Reichsparteitagsgelnde) in Nrnberg (Germany), the Ministry of Aviation building in Berlin (today Federal Finance Ministry), the enlargement building of the Reichskanzlei in Berlin in 1939, and the Reichsbank building in Berlin (today Foreign Ministry). Some small quarries in the Diez area were operated exclusively in the 19th century; nothing is known about operation in the 20th century. One of them was situated at a limestone cliff called Kreuzlay NW of Diez (LM 5614/8). The quarry was in the possession of several private owners; the material was processed by the prison manufacture at the beginning of the 19th century. Another cliff called Kalkreusch was in the possession of the municipality of Altendiez. Its occurrence, of which the exact location is unknown, was investigated in 1826 by the prisons stonemasons. A quarry near the Oranienstein mill (LM 5614/5) supplied a minor quantity in the 19th century. Further limestone cliffs in the zoological garden of the Oranienstein castle (LM 5614/3) were surveyed in the beginning of the 19th century.

Fig. 3: Two advertisements of Lahn Marble quarrying and processing companies: G. Joerissen GmbH from Weilburg and Marmorwerke Balduinstein Guido Krebs from Balduinstein (oPPen 1922).

was set up in the Diez castle in 1785. In the prison, the state of Nassau ran a manufactory for several branches, of which the main branch was a marble processing factory. By merging the prisons of Weilburg, which had its own stonemason manufactory, and Diez in 1811, the foundation was laid for dominating the market by the Diez marble manufactory. In the beginning of the 19th century, the administration developed an extensive exploration of Lahn marble occurrences and deposits in the region and took several quarries, as far as to Villmar, on lease. Thus, in many cases Diez as designation of origin refers to the Diez marble manufactory (and later to the Diez marble factory), but not to a Lahn Marble deposit in the vicinity of Diez. Due to the cheap labonr (Fig. 7), the prison manufactory could produce at cut-prices, which turned out to be a hindrance for all private marble producers. The annual death rate of the prisoners, however, was about 1520 %. Nevertheless, the products of the manufactory were well-known; the prison was one of the exhibitors of the first Worlds Fair in London in 1851. Not until the

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm Early in history, probably even in the medieval period, a white hard marble was exploited near Freiendiez (today: Diez-Freiendiez). The location is unknown, but it is reported that the material was used for window jambs of the cathedral chapter St. George and Nicholas in Limburg, which was pulled down in 1830. Several workshops in Fachingen at the Lahn River (todays Birlenbach-Fachingen) were well-known for the nice sculptors works made from Nassau Marble, but it is not known, whether they processed material from a local quarry.


Below Altendiez, several limestone cliffs existed in earlier times but disappeared a long time ago as the result of quarrying. The cliffs were called Altendiezer Berge Fig. 4: Letter head of the direction of the ducal prison manufactory from Diez, origiin 1789. The most prominent cliff nating from 1832 (Wiesbaden, State Archives Wiesbaden, sect. 211, No. 11574). was named Wildweiberlei. Black limestone was extracted in a dimension stone quarry in one of the cliffs in 176 and made of this material. Unfortunately, the epitaph was processed to the magnificent sarcophagus for princess destroyed in 1791. Petitions for leases and contracts Amalia in the collegiate church in Diez. Even the 1714 are preserved from the following years. Moreover, manufactured font in the church of Burgschwalbach carters from the village of Oberbrechen transported made of black limestone is claimed to stem from this marble blocks from Hundsangen in 1670. quarry. In the 19th century, quarrying of coloured li- In the past, a mill named Blechmhle was situated mestone is reported. For the last time a dimension on the left side of the Elb Brook between Hadamar stone quarry in Altendiez is mentioned in 1914. It was and Niederhadamar (today Hadamar-Niederhadamar). operated by the Lahntaler Marmorindustrie, owned At least one quarry was in operation near the mill by Karl Joh. Gtte, Diez. in the 18th and 19th century (LM 5514/4), supplying Deposits of black varieties were the rarest among the black Nassau Marble (Plate 1e). Extensive limestone th Nassau Marble. One of these deposits was situated quarrying in the 0 century (for a nearby limekiln) in Limburg (LM 5614/1) right of the Lahn River. A destroyed the remains of the dimension stone quarry. French city map dating about 1759 records a Cariere Black limestone from the Blechmhle was used in the de Marbre (Fig. 2). Historical records show that it Liebfrauen church in Hadamar and the Oranienstein was developed only shortly before 1761. The quar- castle in Diez. ry was privately owned and it can be shown that his material (Plate 1c) was processed by the Diez prison manufactory. The pedestal of the monument of Count Adolph of Nassau (1255-1298), which was placed in the entrance hall of the Speyer Cathedral in 1824, is built of material from this quarry. Further reports were given in the 19th century. In the east of the village of Hundsangen, a small Nassau Marble quarry was in operation in the 17th century (LM 5514/1). It supplied a grey-red limestone (Plate 1d). It was sold to the Elector of Trier in 1654. Presumably, an epitaph for Count Anton Gnther von Oldenburg (1583-1667) in the Lamberti church in Oldenburg was

A flesh- to rose-coloured Nassau Marble was extracted at the Herz(en)berg near Hadamar about 1740, in 1751, and again 1768-1770. From a quarry in the north of the Herzenberg (Hirzenberg) 1500 redish marble slabs were produced for the new Wrzburg Residenz. Material for frames of firesides in the Oranienstein castle was delivered in 1768-1770. Owner of the quarry was the municipality. In the beginning of the 19th century the limestone was used as wall material. After World War I an unsuccessful attempt was made to process the material in Villmar.

In the 19th and 0th century Nassau Marble was extracted about  km WSW of Elz, of the foresters lodge


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

Table 1: Nassau Marble or Lahn Marble quarries

LM No. 5317/1 5416/1 5416/2 5416/3 5417/1 5417/2 5417/3 5417/4 5514/1 5514/2 5514/3 5514/4 5514/5 5514/6 5514/7 5514/8 5514/9 5515/1 5515/2 5515/3 5515/4 5515/5 5515/6 5515/7 5515/8 5515/9 5515/10 5515/11 5515/12 5515/13 5515/14 5515/15 5515/16 5515/17 5515/18 5515/19 5515/20 5515/21 5515/22a 5515/22b 5515/24 5515/25 5515/26 5515/27 5515/28 5515/29 5515/30 5515/31 5515/32 5515/33 5515/34 5515/35 5515/36 5515/37 Quarry Name unknown unknown unknown unknown at the Hausertor / at the Ziegelpforte Taubenstein unknown, at the Lahnberg (Lhnberg) unknown, at the Lahnberg (Lhnberg) unknown unknown Herzberg at the Blechmhle unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown municipal quarry Schupbach unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown Goldader quarry unknown Hanomser quarry Korallenfels quarry unknown Red quarry (Rud Kaut). Today: Terrazzo quarry Auberg White quarry (Weie Steinkaut) unknown (in der Klke) Joerissen quarry, called Klken or Klke by the local people Klken unknown unknown Kalkreusch Spitzwinkel Ulmenberg unknown Hanomser quarry unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown Moselpitsch unknown unknown unknown Municipality Rodheim Wetzlar-Dalheim Oberbiel Niederbiel Wetzlar Wetzlar Wetzlar Wetzlar Hundsangen Hadamar Hadamar Niederhadamar Steeden Elz Dietkirchen Dehrn Niedertiefenbach Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Gaudernbach Gaudernbach Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Gaudernbach Schupbach Schupbach Wirbelau Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Villmar Aumenau Aumenau Aumenau Schupbach Schupbach Hasselbach Odersbach Gaudernbach Weinbach Edelsberg Kirschhofen Arfurt Schupbach Seelbach or Villmar Seelbach Schupbach Schupbach Gau-Krger Coordinates unknown 34 6 550 56 0 770 unknown unknown 34 64 910 56 0 790 34 65 630 56 03 70 34 65 130 56 0 600 34 65 450 56 0 550 34 9 40 55 91 750 34 3 860 55 91 380 34 3 450 55 91 00 34 3 50 55 90 110 34 38 080 55 87 900 unknown unknown unknown unknown 34 41 570 55 91 600 34 41 60 55 91 500 34 41 70 55 91 480 34 41 800 55 91 450 34 4 60 55 91 50 34 4 140 55 91 650 34 4 0 55 91 630 34 41 960 55 9 10 34 41 880 55 9 330 34 41 780 55 9 040 34 41 750 55 9 085 34 41 660 34 43 740 34 41 110 34 43 850 34 44 160 34 44 15 34 41 890 34 41 860 34 43 30 34 45 550 34 46 650 34 46 630 34 4 00 34 41 950 34 43 830 34 4 60 55 9 90 55 93 080 55 91 680 55 91 180 55 90 810 55 90 910 55 91 480 55 91 50 55 85 570 55 86 80 55 87 0 55 87 180 55 9 370 55 9 540 55 93 850 unknown 55 9 440 unknown unknown unknown 55 85 80 unknown unknown unknown 55 91 370 55 91 560

34 43 50

34 41 890 34 4 000

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

5515/38 5515/39 5515/40 5515/41 5515/42 5515/43 5515/44 5515/45 5516/1 5613/1 5613/2 5613/3 5613/4 5613/5 5613/6 5613/7 5613/8 5613/9 5613/10 5613/11 5613/12 5613/13 5614/1 5614/2 5614/3 5614/4 5614/5 5614/6 5614/7 5614/8 5614/9 5615/1 5615/2 5615/3 5615/4 5615/5 5615/6 5615/7 5615/8 5615/9 5615/10 5615/11 5615/12 5615/13 5615/14 5615/15 5615/16 5615/17 5615/18 5615/19 5615/20 5615/21 5615/22 5615/24 5615/25 5615/27 5615/28 5714/1 unknown unknown unknown am Auerberg Herrenwald and Herrenberg at the Finstermhle at the Httenweg unknown unknown unknown unknown Br quarry unknown auf der Eck Henneroths Bach Henneroths Berg unknown Altendiezer Berge Wildweiberley unknown unknown Herrenroth unknown Edelfels Tiergarten unknown Mhlchen unknown unknown Kreuzlay Fuchsleye Mhlberg Kissel Borngrund? Bongard unknown unknown Gemeindesteinbruch Villmar Gemeindesteinbruch Villmar Wieshohl Gret(h)enstein unknown unknown unknown Weibshohl Bodensteinsleye Casteller Bruch, Kastellenbruch Felschen Hexengarten Ignatiusfels Judentmpel Kalkofen Mariekthen Leye, Mariekth unknown Hinterbodenstein An der Lahn An der Mhlen unknown Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Seelbach Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Hasselbach Philippstein Balduinstein Balduinstein Balduinstein Steinsberg Balduinstein Balduinstein Balduinstein Fachingen Altendiez Altendiez Schaumburg castle Balduinstein Balduinstein Limburg Heistenbach Diez Freiendiez Oranienstein Holzheim Hahnsttten Diez Diez or Heistenbach Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Runkel Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Allendorf 34 41 640 34 41 940 34 41 970 55 91 680 55 91 650 55 91 50 unknown unknown 55 91 540 unknown 55 93 850 unknown 55 79 500 55 79 590 55 78 850 unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown 55 8 070 unknown 55 79 160 unknown 55 84 310 55 83 160 unknown unknown 55 83 580 unknown unknown 55 8 90 unknown 55 84 0 55 84 080 55 84 70 55 84 390 55 84 460 55 84 730 55 84 60 55 84 590 55 84 30 55 84 490 55 84 560 55 84 550 55 84 540 55 84 600 55 84 30 unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown 55 84 160 unknown unknown unknown 55 70 830


34 4 000 34 43 950 36 7 400 34 7 530 34 6 80

34 8 540 34 7 010 34 34 00 34 8 900

34 9 470

34 9 160 34 4 50 34 4 090 34 41 510 34 41 400 34 41 335 34 4 090 34 4 080 34 4 060 34 4 900 34 4 050 34 41 930 34 41 890 34 41 840 34 41 490 34 41 580

34 4 170

34 8 950


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm Carl of Eltz ( 1743), which was sculpted in 1739-1741, during his life time. Stonemasons from Schupbach supplied black limestone not only for the Mainz cathedral but also to numerous churches and monasteries, for which reason an origin from Schupbach can be assumed in the most cases. This applies to an epitaph in the Limburg cathedral, which was donated in 1640 and was made by the master Matthias Pfister from Schupbach, the equipment of the Union church in Idstein (1676), the Holy Rock chapel in the Trier Cathedral (since 1687), the high altars in the Wrzburg and Fulda cathedrals (1703 and 1706, respectively), the altar in the St. Boniface Crypt in the Fulda Cathedral (1708-1712), the baroque bathtub in the Weilburg castle of 1712/13, the Schnborn chapel in the Wrzburg Cathedral from 1721, the Dalberg epitaph in the Fulda Cathedral from 1729, the altars in the Wrzburg Court Chapel, the holy water fonts in the Jesuitic church in Mannheim from 1753, the epitaphs of the prince bishops Damian Hugo of Schnborn and Franz Christoph of Hutten in the parish church St. Peter in Bruchsal from 1757 and 1772-1773, respectively. Moreover, numerous churches in the Lahn region were provided with the black Schupbach limestone, e.g. Haintchen and Dauborn. In 173, the famous architect Balthasar Neumann visited the Schupbach quarries. The majority of the altars, monuments and memorial slabs were ordered within the ecclesiastical territories (archbishoprics Trier, Mainz, Cologne including the dioceses Worms, Speyer, Wrzburg, Fulda and Bamberg), and black Nassau marble, presumably from Schupbach, was used for building the high altar of the St. Charless Church in Vienna in 179. Records allow reconstruction of the history of the Schupbach quarries between 1666 and 1870. Until 1681, the marble was delivered to Mainz, Koblenz and Idstein, but most frequently to the immediate vicinity, where tombstones and wayside crosses were ordered. Since the year 1678, the stonemason dynasty Weidemann settled in Schupbach and Gaudernbach. About 1830, the Diez prison manufacture acquired one of the quarries. Later, this quarry was operated by the Hergenhahn Co., and the Nassauische Marmorwerke. Since 1920, the Joerissen Co. (Fig. 3) operated in Schupbach. The black Nassau Marble of Schupbach was popular for sacral and profane architecture even in the German imperial age and between Word War I and II. Numerous examples for its use are given by dycKeRhoff & neumann (ca. 195). Schupbach Schwarz was used in the Holy of Holies in the Munich synagogue, probably in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna (1909), and for the Jugendstil facade of the publishers Manz in

(LM 5514/6). The material was taken as floor plates in the Elz parish church in 1852-1854. Further activity is reported from 1919 and the 1930s. Already before 1768, a Nassau Marble quarry existed in Steeden (today Runkel-Steeden), but nothing is known about the location. Actual quarrying started after World War I by the companies Gerhuser Marmorwerke KG from Altengronau and Gebr. Kirchner, later both merged into Lahnmarmorbrche Gerhuser & Kirchner GmbH. After a short break at the end of World War II, the quarry LM 5514/5 was operated until the mid of the 1950s. The material was sold under different trade names: Edelgrau or Steeden(er) Grau or Lahn grau, Edelrot or Steeden(er) Rot, Lahngold, Steeden(er) Grau-Rosa, Steeden(er) Rosa (Plate 1f), Steedener Schwarz, Urania-Rot and Urania-Schwarz. The nature of Steeden Grn is uncertain; probably, the material was no limestone but a pyroclastic rock. Numerous examples for use of the Steeden Lahn Marble extracted the last operating period are known. Quarrying in Niedertiefenbach (today BeselichNiedertiefenbach) probably started after World War I as well (LM 5514/9). Operator was the MarmorGewerkschaft Caesari in Limburg. They produced black limestone, which was sold under the name of Niedertiefenbach Schwarz, but the material was characterized by a lot of fissures. About 0 quarries were situated between the municipalities of Schupbach (today Beselich-Schupbach) and Gaudernbach (today part of Weilburg). The majority of them was situated in the district of Schupbach, making Schupbach to one of the Nassau Marble industry centres. The beginning of the activities is unknown, however in 1610-1612 a written chronicle reports that black marble from Schupbach was known. Over all, the black limestone, which was extracted in several quarries, established the reputation of the Schupbach Nassau Marble in the baroque style. Nearly all memorial slabs and monuments for electors, archdukes and other high dignitaries, which were built in the Mainz cathedral between 1606 and the end of the 18th century, are made from a highly polished, black limestone with white sigmoidal calcite veinlets and gilded inscriptions. Even through only in individual cases proof is positive, the majority of them, if not all, are made from black Nassau Marble from Schupbach. Starting with the monument for the Elector and Archduke Wolfgang of Dalberg (finished 1606), Schupbach material was used for the memorial slab of the Elector and Archduke Georg Friedrich of Greiffenklau ( 169), which was made by stonemason Martin Harnisch from Schupbach in 1630, the Michael altar in the Michael chapel (1639) and the memorial monument of Elector Philipp

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm Vienna in 1912. In 1935-1936, the black Schupbach material was laid as floor in the Ministry of Aviation in Berlin (today: Federal Finance Ministry). A map from 1795 shows that the princely quarry (LM 5515/43) was situated beneath the quarry heap LM 5515/18. The princely quarry goes back to 1658. In the 18th century, this quarry was the main supplier for the black limestone from Schupbach. In the south of this quarry, a quarry of the prison manufacture was opened in 1840. In a small distance to the north the quarries LM 5515/37 (at least since 1868) und LM 5515/39 (at least since 1905) were situated. In the last period of quarrying, black limestone from Schupbach was sold under the trade name Schupbach Schwarz (Plate 1g) and was extracted in two quarries (LM 5515/18, LM 5515/4). Both quarries existed at least since 1868, and were later operated by the Dyckerhoff & Neumann Co., the smaller one by members of the family Eller, the larger one (LM 5515/18) was worked together with the quarry LM 5515/19 by Dyckerhoff & Neumann until the 1970s century. Further quarries are situated in the east of the Finster mill. The quarries LM 5515/5 (light grey limestone, Plate 1h) and LM 5515/6 (black limestone, Plate 2a) are not recorded in maps from 1866 but are recorded in maps of 1905. Yet a quarry must have been existed in this area at about 1761. Traces of sawing show the quarry LM 5515/5 was in work even after 1910. Both quarries were abandoned before Word War II. The quarry LM 5515/7 was initiated after the year 1911, probably in the thirties: The Joerissen Co. extracted a black variety with yellowish calcite veinlets, which has been sold first as Schupbach Schwarzgold or Schupbach Schwarz-Gelb, and after World War II as Schupbach Goldader (Plate b). In the end, the quarry was in the possession of Dyckerhoff & Neumann; it was abandoned about 1970. West of the quarries which produced dark grey to black varieties, quarries which supplied lighter coloured limestone were situated. The quarry of the municipality (LM 5515/1) produced a light grey stone. It was initiated after 1866, but earlier than 1905, and was operated by several companies. Today it is filled in. The Joerissen Co. operated the quarries LM 5515/2 and LM 5515/3. LM 5515/2 existed already in 1866, whereas the other quarry is first documented in a map from 1905. At least one of the quarries produced the variety Schupbach Grau or Mimosa (first mentioned 1930), which was available until the mid-1950s (Plate c). Schupbach Grau (first mentioned in 1895) was exploited in quarries of the Hergenhahn Co. and the Dyckerhoff & Neumann Co. about 1914 and 190. Examples for use of Schupbach Grau are the administration building of the Gustahl- und Eisenwerke


in Gelsenkirchen and the Moscow Kremlin. Another quarry at the Hahnscheid hill (LM 5515/38) is first mentioned in 1905. Between 1888 and 1940, the trade name Schupbach schwarzgrau was established. It was sold by the Nassauische Marmorwerke, and later by Dyckerhoff & Neumann. Its source quarry is unknown. Also unknown is the location of the quarry auf der breyten Heck (LM 5515/33), which is mentioned in 1717. The village property Breitheck is situated in the south of LM 5515/9. The quarry LM 5515/19 was opened after 1868 but earlier than 1905. It produced the variety Famosa S, in which S stands for Schupbach. Depending on the lightness of the colour, further sub-varieties have been distinguished (Plate d + 9e). Until the end of quarrying in about 1970 the Famosa quarry was operated by Dyckerhoff & Neumann simultaneously with the Schupbach Schwarz quarry LM 5515/18, but even the Joerissen Co. exploited Famosa S from this quarry. Famosa or Famosa violettgrau of the Joerissen Co. was used for the imperial staircase in the Berlin cathedral. This quarry supplied the block which was processed to the 8.5 m high national emblem of the Frankfurt airport in 1935-1936. Famosa S was used for the chancel of the Wrzburg cathedral in 1960-1967 and 1987/88. The floor and the bases of figures and pillars, which were reconstructed in the Jesuitic church in Mannheim 1996-1997, were the last important pieces for which Famosa S was used. Even the material of the small quarry LM 5515/36, which was open before World War II, was sold as Famosa. Schupbach Violett is mentioned in 1930, but the quarry is not known. Eventually, this variety is identical with Famosa Violett from Schupbach. A white to rose-coloured limestone (Plate f) was quarried in the weie Steinkauth (LM 5515/14), today situated at the northern margin of Schupbach. White marble from Schupbach is mentioned first in 1646. The only plausible example for use of this material are sculptures in the Trier cathedral which were made by the sculptors Theobald Weid(e)mann from Schupbach and Johann Wolfgang Frhlich(er) from Frankfurt in 1687. In 1717, the quarry was mentioned, too. Further quarries, all supplying coloured, mostly reddish limestone, are situated along the Kerkerbach valley towards the Httenmhle. In this area, a quarry am Httenweg (LM 5515/44) existed in 1766/68 with a red-speckled marble. The quarries LM 5515/8, LM 5515/10 and LM 5515/11 supplied a characteristic coloured variety which was sold as Korallenfels (Plate 2g). The topographic map from 1868 does not show any of the three quarries, the map from 1905 shows


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

The quarries LM 5515/9 (with its continuation LM 5515/24) and LM 5515/25 are situated in the district of Gaudernbach. The southern quarry is named Hanomser Bruch by local people. The quarry was opened in the first half of the 20th century, produced rosecoloured material (Plate 3b) and was in production until the 1950s. The quarry was in possession of the company Dr. Albert Reinsch from Gaudernbach in 1951, and produced crushed material for the production of terrazzo. The northern Fig. 5: Private marble collection with some Nassau Marble samples from Allendorf, Balduinstein quarry produced dark to (Ballenstein), Mudershausen (Idstein) and Villmar (Vilmar). The Siegen sample does not black limestone. In a tobelong to the Nassau Marble. The collection originates from about 1800 (Natural History Museum pographical map from Vienna). 1905, it is shown with the same size as today. the quarry east of the stream (LM 5515/8) and the northern quarry west of the stream (LM 5515/11). Korallenfels was offered for sale by the Marmorwerke Balduinstein Guido Krebs in 1899. In the following decades, the material was quarried by Dyckerhoff & Neumann (Villmar) and sold as Rosario or Rosario Corallo. Examples for use of Korallenfels are the Tagore Castle in Kolkata and the hotel Schwarzer Bock in Wiesbaden (reopened 1957). Another quarry which produced reddish limestone, was situated in the area of the today active terrazzo quarry (LM 5515/12). It is called Rud Kaut (red pit) by local people. The quarry is shown in a topographic map of 1905, showing a similar dimension as today, but is missing in a map from 1868. It was operated by the Lahn-Marmorbrche Gerhuser & Kirchner, GmbH from Steeden in 1938. Trade names were Wiedisch Rot and Wiedisch Rosa until the 1950s (Plate h, 10a). Red limestone from Schupbach was used for the altar slab from 1731 in the Union church in Idstein and the tomb monument for Elector Philipp Carl von Eltz ( 1743) in the Mainz cathedral, but it is not sure, whether the material originates from this quarry. A quarry with red speckled marble in the Herrenwald was rented about 1761 and abandoned in 1766, but its exact position is not known. A further quarry was in production in 189 under the consul Emilio Adamczyk from Wiesbaden. The following varieties from the districts of Schupbach/Gaudernbach cannot be assigned to a quarry. Orania schwarz, Orania grau and Orania rot were sold by the company Marmorwerk Nassau A.-G. from Gaudernbach in the twenties of the last century and by Lahn-Marmorbrche Gerhuser & Kirchner, GmbH from Steeden in 1938. In 1938, a further variety, Lahn Schwarz, is mentioned. In the west of Gaudernbach, the Wachhecke quarry (LM 5515/28) was in operation. The first indication is a map from 1905, which shows two small quarries. Joerissen Co. started its operation in 1920, and the quarry was productive until 1922 at the latest. The material was highly regarded as decoration material for furniture. In the NNE of Gaudernbach, a quarry, occasionally called Auberg quarry, is situated which belongs to the municipality (LM 5515/13). The limestone was discovered during exploration work for iron ore. At the latest in 1896, material from the quarry was marketed. First two varieties were sold as Brunhildenstein (1896) and Grafenstein (1897) (Plate 3c, 10d). Since the world exhibition in St. Louis (1904), the Wilhelminian names were replaced by Mediterranean sounding names: Rojizonazo (= Brunhildenstein), Porvenir (= Grafenstein), Estrellante (since 1914 sold as Auberg Grau as well) and Reconquista. Probably, the quarry first was leased to the Marmorwerke Balduinstein

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm of Guido Krebs in Balduinstein. At latest in 190, the quarry was leased to the Joerissen Co. in Weilburg, which held a second quarry in Wirbelau. Joerissen received a golden medal for his marble door exhibited at the 1904 World exhibition. Under the enterprising Joerissen the Gaudernbach quarry developed to one of the most important Lahn Marble quarries in the 0th century. Examples for its use are the Deutsches Museum in Munich (Brunhildenstein or Rojizonazo), the city hall of Rotterdam, the Fisher Building in Detroit (Grafenstein or Porvenir), the Brooklyn Telephone Building in Brooklyn (Estrellante or Auberg Grau), the Empire State Building in New York (Estrellante or Auberg Grau) and the Capitol of Havanna (Reconquista). During the Nazi time, major orders followed, e.g. for the new Reichskanzlei in Berlin (Auberg Grau, Brunhildenstein) and the extension of the Reichshauptbank building in Berlin (Auberg Grau, Brunhildenstein, Grafenstein), for which reason 60 workers worked every day including Sundays in 1939. Brunhildenstein was the most expensive Lahn Marble variety (525 Reichsmark/m3), while average varieties were sold for 150 Reichsmark/m3. Shortly after World War II, the quarrying was resumed. In 1948, St. Pauls church in Frankfurt received a font made from Grafenstein; several examples from the 1950s and 1960s are documented. The quarry was closed in the 1970s. South of Hasselbach (today part of Weilburg), a small municipal quarry (LM 5515/26) was active in the 19th century and produced greyish Nassau Marble (Plate 3g). The first message dates to 1826 but it is likely that quarrying goes back to the 17th century, because J. W. Goethe received a marble slab for his collection in 1785. Topographical maps from 1905 show that about 100 m to the east a second, small-scaled quarry existed (LM 5515/45). Quarrying of Lahn Marble near Wirbelau (today Runkel-Wirbelau) started after 1900. Two quarries (LM 5515/16, LM 5515/17) were operated by the Joerissen Co. from Oberlahnstein (later the company moved their headquarters to Weilburg). Until the year of closure, 1967, the first mentioned quarry developed to the deepest Lahn Marble quarry known. The variety Wirbelau is first mentioned in 1909 (Plate 3e). Wirbelau was mainly used for technical purposes (isolation slabs, control panels) and for shop counters. Because it was possible to obtain huge blocks, which were free of joints, Wirbelau was the most favourite variety for sculpture in the 20th century. For instance, the lion sculpture the entrance of the Wilhelm-Marx at building in Dsseldorf was carved out of a 6 t block by the sculptor Schreiner. Both the Europe sculpture in the Reisinger park in Wiesbaden (1932) and the St. Nepomuk of the Lahn bridge in Limburg (1966) exhi-


bit the Wirbelau variety. In the 190s, it was used for facing claddings in Zrich, Wrzburg, St. Gallen and Weilburg. In 1934-1936, national emblems (large eagles) for the Nazi castle Crssinsee near Falkenburg in Pomerenia (today Zocieniec, Poland) were produced. Further examples for use of Wirbelau are the office block of the Alte Leipziger fire insurance in Leipzig (1911-1913, today Runde Ecke) and the Bavarian National Museum in Munich (1937-1939). The quarry LM 5515/17 also operated by Joerissen, is much smaller than the Wirbelau quarry and supplied the variety Klken since approximately 1920, the variety was later sold as Wirbelau-Silber or Wirbelau Silbergrau (Plate 3f). Quarrying continued untel the 1950s. Lahn Marble quarry LM 5515/15 is situated in an area called Kelken or Klken by local people. Traces of sawing (this technique came to the Lahn district at about 1910) and missing marks in topographical maps show the quarry to be active after the year 1911. Already in 1955 the quarry was abandoned. A Nassau Marble quarry near Grveneck (today Weinbach-Grveneck) is mentioned in 189, but it cannot be located. In the 18th century the prisoners of the Weilburg prison were sent to a Nassau Marble quarry near Odersbach SW of Weilburg (today Weilburg-Odersbach) whose location is unknown today. From Odersbach, J. W. Goethe received a marble slab in 1785, too. Between 1780 and 1893/94 rough limestone was quarried near Odersbach. Eventually the quarry was active the beginning of the 0th century and again at about 1950. Near Kirschhofen (today part of Weilburg), an old Nassau Marble quarry existed, whose material was frequently processed before 1826. Its location is unknown. About 1890, a quarry of consul Emilio Adamczyk from Wiesbaden was active, which was operated by Marmorwerk Balduinstein Guido Krebs about 1910. In Weilburg itself, the prison was operating a marble sawing and grinding manufacture since 1777 with economic success large enough for the marble processing to develop to the main source of income. The marble fabrication started with black and grey limestone from a quarry near Weilburg named Im Sprung and near Edelsberg (LM 5515/30, see below). The location of the former quarry is unknown. Eventually, it was situated near Edelsberg, because there was a phosphorite mine named Sprung. The Nassau Marble sold by the Weilburg prison was bluish black, yellowish-grey, light-red and brownish-red in 1789. Brown to red and blood-red limestone from Weilburg is mentioned in 1831. A limestone quarry existed near the Schellhof in 1910, but it is unknown, if it was also operated as dimension stone quarry.


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

Fig. 6: Places of Nassau Marble quarries and important processing factories.

Schalstein Main Anticline SW of the geological structure, a small municipal quarry was situated near Holzheim south of Limburg (LM 5614/6). From the beginning of the 19th century, minor quarrying by the Diez prison manufacture is reported. Because of its high FeS content, the black limestone was only partly suitable as dimension stone. SE of Runkel, the municipal Weibshohl quarry (LM 5615/14) is situated on the right side of the Lahn River. In the beginning of the 19th century, the outcropping light and dark red limestone was frequently used by the Diez prison manufacture, but a document testifies its existence as early as 1766, however with no quarrying activity in this year. In 1829, the prison is leaseholder of the quarry. Prisoners produce the fountain of the market place in Idstein in 1835 or 1837 and the pedestal for the Mainz Gutenberg monument in 1836 with Weibshohl material. About 1888, the Weibshohl quarry was in production again for a short time and was then abandoned. This quarry shows the clearest

quarrying traces of the 19th century of all Nassau Marble quarries (Fig. 8). Villmar was at least between the middle of the 19th century and the end of the 0th century the centre of the Lahn Marble industry. Quarrying Nassau Marble in Villmar started around the turn of the 16th century. In the churchyard in Villmar, more than 70 memorial slabs made out of Nassau Marble are preserved from the time span between 1636 and the 19th century. Even when the exact origin of the slabs is not known, a local proreanance seems evident. Beyond the city limits, marble from Villmar was used after in 177 the parish priest Modestus Manheim became abbot of St. Matthias monastery in Trier. Therefore, in the following years Nassau Marble from Villmar was used for several works in this abbey. A further large-scale order dates from 1731 and concerned the famous mineral water spring of Niederselters. About 1750, leaseholders from Villmar supplied material for the

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm Jesuitic church in Mannheim. Many reports are filed, such as that in 1751 the marble master Stephan Strahl from Balduinstein leased a quarry in Villmar which provided red marble. In 1753, all Nassau Marble quarries in Villmar were leased, and the prisoners from the Weilburg prison had to extract dimension stones in the quarries in 1777. Nassau Marble from Villmar was used to produce the marvellous pillars of the Ignatius church in Mainz in 1779-178 and the Wiesbaden Kurhaus in 1808. The majority of the about two dozens quarries were property of the municipality. Local stonemasons were predominating amongst leasers of the quarries. Some of them gained outstanding reputation in the 18th and 19th century, e.g. several generations of the Leonhard dynasty, but also marble masters from Balduinstein and Schupbach appeared. Pieces of work of the Leonhard family can be seen in the castles of Wiesbaden-Biebrich, Dehrn, Neuwied, Koblenz, Ilbenstadt, Karlsruhe and Hohenzollern-Hechingen as well as in the Russian-Orthodox church (Greak chapel) in Wiesbaden. At the end of the 18th century, several families earned a living by quarrying and processing Nassau Marble. In the 190s the situation changed dramatically, because the Diez prison took over several leasehold rights and became the most important operator of the quarries undercuting the local industry. In 1865, the marble factory Nassauische Marmorwerke was founded in Villmar which for the first time allowed the use of machines driven by water power. The factory was sold to the company Dyckerhoff & Neumann KG from Wetzlar in 1892, which was dominating the quarrying and processing Lahn Marble in Villmar in the following period. At the height Dyckerhoff & Neumann Co. more than 50 workers were employed. In the following decades, products of Dyckerhoff & Neumann were used in numerous buildings locally and abroad. Limestone worth to be processed cropped but both sides of the Lahn River. Nevertheless, until the second half of the 19th century nearly all quarries in Villmar were situated on the left side of the Lahn River, because a bridge over the river was built as late as 1894-1896. Overall it can be stated, that besides few exceptions all Lahn Marble quarries in Villmar were situated in three areas: 1) in the vicinity of the marble factory, ) in the vicinity of the Bodensteinerlai 3) right of the Lahn River in the vicinity of todays train station. The Famosa quarry (LM 5615/24) was the most important quarry during the last decades of operation. It was situated near the marble factory. Already in


1868, a 10 m long quarry existed. The trade name Famosa was mentioned the first time in 1888. Famosa can be admired in the Jugendstil bath houses of the Sprudelhof in Bad Nauheim, in the Kerckhoff institute in Bad Nauheim, in the palace of the grand duke of Luxembourg, in the office building of the Wiesbadener Tagblatt in Wiesbaden and in the Technical University of Darmstadt. Old postcards show the quarry to be in operation until World War II. Adjacent to the Famosa quarry, the Mhlberg quarry (LM 5615/1) was situated behind the factory. It was operated at least since 1870 by the marble factory (in 1868 it is not shown in topographical maps) and at least until the year 190. Postcards suggest the quarry to be in production until the 1920s or 1930s. The material is light brownish to greyish (Plate 3h). In the first half of the 19th century, several small and very small quarries were active in this area. Their names were Felschen (LM 5615/17), Hexengarten (LM 5615/18), Judentempel or Judendmpel (LM 5615/20), am Kalkofen (LM 5615/21), Kissel (LM 5615/2) und Mariekthen Leye (LM 5615/22). Their material was processed by the prison manufacture in Diez. Material from the last-mentioned quarry was sold by the Villmar marble factory between 1870 and 189 under the trade name Mariekth. In 1875 and again in 1880, material was produced from a quarry named An der Mhl(en) (LM 5615/28). The Kissel quarry was productive in 1837/38, in 1846 and 1870189. Material from the Kissel quarry was used for the pillars in the assembly rooms of the Bad Ems spa in 1837/38. The area in the vicinity of the marble factory provided about 50 % of the total Lahn Marble production of Villmar during the 1870-1902 period. The second important Lahn Marble area was situated in the vicinity of the limestone cliff Bodensteinerlai. One of the quarries supplied material for the monastery and the abbey St. Matthews in Trier in 1718 and the altar of the Holy Rock chapel in the Trier cathedral about 1730. Its exact location is unknown. Also unknown is the exact location of the Bodensteinsleye or Bodensteinlei quarry (LM 5615/15), which was active in 186, 1847 and 1871-1873, and the Hinterbodenstein quarry (LM 5615/25) which provided huge amounts (> 1.000 m3 raw production) of limestone between 1870 and 1893. The Bongard quarry (LM 5615/4) was the largest in Villmar and moreover one of the largest in the Lahn district. There existed a limestone cliff as early as in 1868. In 1871, the name Bongartsbruch was noted, and in 1888 the trade name Bongard is known. Stonemason masters distinguished different Bongard sub-types in the following decades. Bongard (Plate


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

Fig. 7: Marble manufactory in the Diez prison. Watercolour (detail) by antonio fay from 1837 (Coll. Nass. Altertmer, Wiesbaden).

4a) was used in the famous Jugendstil bathhouses in Bad Nauheim spa, in the palace of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and as floor slabs in Brhl palace near Cologne. After World War II, Bongard was taken for the interior of the hotel Schwarzer Bock in Wiesbaden and for restoration purposes in Bruchsal palace. In 1976 the quarry was abandoned. In 1989, the quarry was reopened for a short time to extract one huge Bongard block which was needed for the restoration of the high altar in the Jesuitic church in Mannheim. Nothing is known about the history of a small quarry north of the Bongard quarry (LM 5615/5). Situated in the so called Borngrund, a quarry is reported in 1826 and 1832 which provided a light-reddish limestone (Plate 4b). Erratic quarrying can be proven since 1871. In the 1950s quarrying ended. Within the village property Borngrund, an old quarry exists (LM 5615/3), suggesting to be taken as the old Borngrund quarry. The trade name Borngrund is known since 1895. Borngrund material was used for the main station in Erfurt, the Namedy castle near Andernach/ Rhein and after World War II for the municipal Saalbau in Essen (today it is called Philharmonie). At a distance of 120 steps [one step equals 0.30 m] from the Borngrund quarry the Castellen or Kasteller quarry was situated. It provided nice red marble. The exact location is unknown. It is probably the same quarry, which was leased by the stonemason mas-

ter Hax from Villmar and the sculptor Castelli from Limburg in 1730. From 1871 to 1890, small quantities were extracted from the Castell quarry. The material is described as similar to the Grethenstein Lahn Marble. The quarry area in vicinity of the Bodensteinerlai delivered about 25 % of the total Nassau Marble production of Villmar between 1870 and 190. The earliest proof of Nassau Marble occurrences on the right side of the Lahn River within the district of Villmar dates from 189. In an inventory of the mayor it is said that a nice quarry with red and red-grey marble exists at the place of the former Grethenstein castle. The mayor added that there was no leaseholder. This statement should be seen in the historical context: The inventory is not an inventory of active quarries but lists all places where Nassau Marble could be quarried. The first proof of Nassau Marble quarrying in this area dates from 1868. In a topographical map, a marble quarry with a length of about 60 m is indicated WNW of the train station. Later a large limestone quarry was established, of the Krupp Co. continuing even in the 0th century when in a small part Famosa Violett (LM 5615/6) was quarried. End of the Famosa Violett quarry was shortly before World War II. Examples for its use are the Darmstadt Technical University and the Senate hall of the Capitol in Baton Rouge, capital of the US state Louisiana.

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm After 1868, the quarry seems to be shifting to the S, because since 1870 huge quantities were extracted from a location on the right side of the Lahn River, named An der Lahn. In 1884, the quarrying activities in this area were described as exceedingly extensive. Probably since 1885, but at least since 1887 the trade name Gret(h)enstein was established. The typically red coloured material was extracted in several quarries in 1888 in the vicinity of what is nowadays the natural monument Unica. The extracted material was sold as Gret(h)chenstein, rouge violette and Roth violette. Early examples of Grethenstein in architecture are pillars in the Burgtheater in Vienna and in the central station of Frankfurt/Main, the interior of the Grand Duke palace in Karlsruhe (today Federal Supreme Court) and the tower of the Munich Technical University. As the extensive area of the limestone and Lahn Marble quarries on the Grethenstein in the years before 1908 are even shown on a postcard, it is not astonishing that the Grethenstein was described as most important and magnificent deposit in the whole Lahn district in 1914. Today, the area is levelled and filled up at least since the time of World War II. After the war Grethenstein was not extracted any more. Within the former Grethenstein quarry area, a reddish coloured variety was extracted (LM 5615/10, Plate 4c), which depending on origin, property or lease situations as well as fashion was traded not only as Grethenstein, but also labelled with other names. A map from 1922 shows that in the vicinity three districts abut; in every district a quarry was situated: Quarry berlahnberg in the north, quarry Grethenstein in the east or southeast, and quarry Lossen in the west or northwest, on the spot of todays natural monument Unica. Material from the Lossen quarry was sold by the Joerissen Co. under the trade name Unika and the material from the Grethenstein quarry as Grethenstein. Since the 1890s and until World War I, Nassauische Marmorwerke of Dyckerhoff & Neumann Co. was selling both Grethenstein and Unica. For the first time the Joerissen Co. which was in competition with the Dyckerhoff & Neumann Co. offered Unika in 1915; since 1920 it could offer Grethenstein in addition to Unika. Finally, Joerissen sold the Unica material in 1931 as Nassau rot; even in 1938 Nassau rot is listed besides Unika and Gretenstein. Even the company of the May Brothers in Villmar offered Grethenstein: The company had taken a lease on the berlahnberg quarry from 19 to 1940. Grethenstein is mentioned until the 1950s. The natural monument Unica (LM 5615/7) is situated in the Lossen district. On the initiative of the LahnMarmor-Museum Society the quarry was roofed in 001. This small quarry was started as late as the


1930s century (Fig. 9). Its material was named Unica A (A = Alt) and first mentioned in 1933 (Plate 4d). With the end of the production about 1970, quarrying ended in the Grethenstein area in general. The variety Unica N (N = Neu) was first mentioned in 1938. Unica N was extracted in the quarry LM 5615/8 (Plate 4e). After World War I, the quarry was not productive. The Nassauische Marmorwerke sold the variety Unica blarot before World War II. Unica was first mentioned in 1895; in 1896 Unica appeared in the technical literatur. Unica was used for the Landeshaus in Wiesbaden (today Hessian Ministry of trade and economy), the tower of the Munich Technical University (1903-1907) and the Kerckhoff institute in Bad Nauheim (199-1931). At the end of the quarrying period, Unica was used for restoring purposes in the palaces of Mannheim and Bruchsal. Even mlleR (1994) states, that the different Unica types could not be distinguished in all cases, because they changed from one type to the other within one block occasionally. On closer examination, this statement has to be extended to the Grethenstein variety. Greyish and partially reddish limestone is exposed in three small and old quarries in the west of the so-called Ibachseiche (LM 5615/11, LM 5615/12, LM 5615/13). Traces of quarrying suggest the quarry LM 5615/13 to date from the 19th century or earlier and the quarry LM 5615/12 to date from the 20th century or earlier (Plate 4f). In the 0th century, the company of Karl May was the last leaseholder. Two holy water fonts in the parish church St. Peter and Paul in Villmar are regarded as made by material from there. From the quarries on the right side of the Lahn River about 4 % of all Nassau Marble from Villmar was produced between 1870 and 1902. On the right side of the road to Aumenau, the Wieshohl quarry was situated (LM 5615/9). At the beginning of the 19th century, the prison manufactory of Diez was the main owner of the deposit holding its own quarry. Between 1823 and 1827, they produced 10 border pillars for the Grand Duchy of Nassau from this material (Plate 4g). Smaller parts of the deposit were in the property of the municipality of Villmar and were quarried by private operators. A further period of quarrying was 1882-1887; the last activity was about 195. A limestone quarry for the production of quicklime existed in the Kalkreusch N of Villmar (LM 5515/20) as early as 1504. The dark grey to black limestone was extracted as dimension stone about 183 and was abandoned about 1940. The trade name was Lahnberg-Dunkel. The location of the Ignatiusfels quarry close to Villmar (LM 5615/19) is unknown. Its grey limestone was


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm 5515/41). It provided red-white speckled marble, but in 1766/68 and 1837 it was not in operation. Documents prove the extraction of Nassau Marble from the riverbed of the Lahn River between 186 and 183. The quarry was situated near the Treisfurter Hof in the east of Villmar and was named Moselpitsch (LM 5515/34). The material was processed by the Diez prison manufacture. Extraction work was only possible in very dry summers. In the east of Seelbach, but already in the district of Aumenau, the village property lm or Ilm is situated, in which two quarries were operated close to the Lahn River (LM 5515/22a + 5515/22b). One quarry was active in the 18th century and abandoned in 1766/68. Both quarries must have been in operation in the 0th century; the material was sold as Ulmenberg graurot and Ulmenberg dunkelrot. In 1888, one quarry owned by the Nassauische Marmorwerke is reported to be situated downstream from Frfurt (today Weinbach-Frfurt). It is uncertain, if this was the above-mentioned quarry delivering Ulmenberg material or another quarry. In 1785, the famous poet J. W. Goethe received two marble slices from Weinbach, which suggest quarrying at that time (LM 5515/29). Several limestone quarries are known in the NE and SW of Weinbach but until now none of them could be identified as dimension stone quarry. In the vicinity of Edelsberg (today Weinbach-Edelsberg) a dark grey limestone with numerous calcite veinlets was extracted (LM 5515/30). The material was used for the bases of the iron vases in the castle gardens of Weilburg. The locality of this extracting place is unknown as is the locality of the following quarry: Since 1777, the Weilburg prison operated a quarry near Edelsberg, which supplied dark, black and grey marble. Both messages might refer to the same quarry. In 1785, five marble slabs from Edelsberg came into Goethes possession. The extraction of Nassau Marble close to Philippstein (today: Braunfels-Philippstein) is comparatively old: In 1785 Goethe received two slabs from the Philippstein deposit. In 1906/1907, the company Granitwerke Steinerne Renne Actien-Gesellschaft from Hasserode/Harz was extracting small portions of limestone (< 50 m3) as dimension stone. Marble quarries existed in 1789 in the vicinity of Oberbiel and Niederbiel (both part of Solms today), making both municipalities well-known, but as yet the extracting places could not be identified. A marble factory was founded in Niedergirmes (today Wetzlar-Niedergirmes) in 1879 which soon assumed

used for the pillars in Ignatius church in Mainz in 1781/82. The quarry was re-opened in 1846. During digging a water basin near Arfurt (today Runkel-Arfurt) in 1605, farmers discovered a huge block of dark grey limestone. From this block the memorial slab was made for Elector and Archbishop Johann Adam von Bicken in the cathedral of Mainz. Beneath Arfurt, a municipal Nassau Marble quarry (LM 5515/32) is proved since 1826. In the following years it was leased to members of the Leonhard family from Villmar. The quarry provided dark grey to black limestone. Production continued for the following decades, since 1880 by the Hergenhahn Co. from Diez, the Nassauische Marmorwerke from Villmar and the Dyckerhoff & Neumann Co. from Villmar, the latter sold the material under the trade name Arfurt. In the 1930s the messages terminate. Near Aumenau (today Villmar-Aumenau) are the finest marble quarries, according to reports in 1829. Material from Aumenau was used in the mid-19th century for the furnishing of two synagogues in Frankfurt. In 1862, the prison factory and in the eighties the Hergenhahn Co. was exploiting the deposit. After 1899, the variety Aumenau was sold by Dyckerhoff & Neumann. Extracting was continued until the 1930s, the last operator being the Marmor-Gewerkschaft Caesari from Limburg. Two adjacent quarries lie in the Aumenau forest district Winkel (LM 5515/21), and provided a typical red white material (Plate 4h). In the 19th century, parts of this forest district belonged to the territory of the municipality of Seelbach. As early as 1709/1712 extraction is reported. In 1714 Winkel limestone was processed for four pillars for the Biebrich castle in WiesbadenBiebrich. In 186, two quarries are mentioned, in 183 the quarry named Winkel was abandoned. After 1880, the quarries were operated by the Nassauische Marmorwerke, the Dyckerhoff & Neumann Co. and the Marmorwerke Balduinstein; the district now being quoted as Speckswinkel. The quarries were operated until World War II. In 1930, the trade name Seelbach is reported. In the thirties of the last century, one of the quarries was operated by the company Lahn-Marmorbrche Gerhuser & Kirchner from Steeden. It sold the limestone under the new trade name Kirsch(en)rot with two sub-varieties. The retaining wall of the Catholic church in Aumenau was built from this material. Black limestone was quarried near Seelbach (today Villmar-Seelbach) in the 18th century, but the position of the quarry is unknown (LM 5515/35). Also unknown is the location of a quarry which operated in the 18th century at the Auerberg SSW of Seelbach (LM

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm the name Dyckerhoff & Neumann. This company developed to one of the most important Lahn Marble extracting and processing companies, but did not operate quarries in Wetzlar itself. Dimension stone quarries in Wetzlar are mentioned in 1893 and 1894. One quarry can be localised beneath the meanwhile blasted Dalheimer Chapel (LM 5416/1). A huge marble quarry was started few years before 1884.


A marble quarry was Fig. 8: Weibshohl quarry (LM 5615/14) near Runkel with distinct quarrying traces from the 19th exploited about 1770-1780 century, demonstrating the predominant extracting technique by separating the blocks by maat the Deutschherrenberg, nual drilling. in the vicinity of the Ziegelpforte (later named Hauser Tor) near Wetzlar (LM the Pommersfeld castle of Elector Lothar Franz von 5417/1). The Hausertor was situated ca. 200 m north of Schnborn the material was obtained from Katzenelnthe cathedral. The limestone was characterised by blue, bogen. The Elector praised the Nassau Marble with yellow and red veinlets. In the second half of the 19th the words welche gewilich nicht schner in gantz century the quarry was active again and supplied nice Italien weder gefunden noch gesehen werden knnen varieties, marked by corals. In 1884 it was abandoned. (more beautiful marble could not be found nor seen in whole Italy). In 1730, the marble quarries in the Further, Nassau Marble quarries were situated at the vicinity of Katzenelnbogen were famous. Material Lahnberg close to Wetzlar. In the vicinity of the Wllfrom Katzenelnbogen was used for the pillars of the bacher gate, three varieties of the nicest and most castle church in Wrzburg. Red marble from Katzeprecious marble were extracted in the beginning of nelnbogen was processed to four pillars in the garden the 18th century. Even in 1830, a quarry was active. hall of this castle in 1741 and 1743. Katzenelnbogen Two quarries can be identified: one smaller one immaterial was used for pillars in Worms, presumably mediately in front of the gate (LM 5417/3) and a bigger in the Worms cathedral. Further documents report the one nearby (LM 5417/4). pillars erected in the Wiesbaden theatre in 1827 stem Attempts were made to use the limestone near Rod- from Katzenelnbogen. heim and Bieber near Gieen as dimension stone in The municipal quarry of Allendorf (LM 5714/1) is the 19th century. filled-in and built over today. The golden age of this Hahnsttten Syncline In the Hahnsttten Syncline, Nassau Marble was quarried in the vicinity of Allendorf, Mudershausen and probably near Hahnsttten. Old archive records mention also Katzenelnbogen as quarrying place. With that presumably the municipality of Allendorf is meant, which belonged to the district of Katzenelnbogen in the 18th century. Thus, in 1715 eight pillars for a chapel in the Wrzburg cathedral were transported from the Katzen Elenbogener quarry to Wrzburg. In the same year, for the chimneys and doors of the marble hall in quarry was in the 18th century, when the brownish-red limestone from this quarry was used for the pillars of the Jesuitic church in Mannheim, an exquisite bath in Koblenz and the chimneys in the Darmstadt castles. The quarry was not in operation in 1784. Three slabs from Allendorf are part of a marble collection from about 1800 (Fig. 5). Before 1826 the material was processed frequently. It was operated about 1890. Several quarries were situated in the vicinity of Mudershausen, but the locations of the quarries are not identified so far. Corresponding to the territorial affiliation, the Mudershausen Nassau Marble was labelled as Idstein marble (1780). In the 17th century, Mudershausen supplied grey limestone for the construction


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm Lahn Marble varieties with unknown origin The company Marmorwerke Balduinstein sold two varieties, whose origin is not identified so far. It offered the black variety Adlerstein and the red variety Zephyr or Zephir. The only known examples for use of Zephir are the pillars in the Johanniskirche in Leipzig, built in 1894-1897, but destroyed in World War II. In 1933, the company of the May Brothers sold Silvea, which could not be assigned to a quarry. A Lahn Marble variety named Nassau Rotgrn was used in the extension building of the Reichskanzlei in Berlin in 1938/39. Never before and never afterwards this trade name was mentioned. The red green colour could indicate that Nassau Rotgrn was not a limestone but a calcite-rich metavolcanite. Two specimens of yellowish limestone and marble from Weyer are doubtful as well. The specimens are in the collection of Archduke Stephan von Oesterreich. They probably refer to platy limestone of the Late Devonian.

Chances and limits of provenance studies

Duration of quarrying, quarrying production Fig. 9: Unica A quarry, Villmar (LM 5615/7), 1941. Use of wire saws is characteristic When did quarrying of Nassau Marble of the last quarrying period in the 20th century. start? In fact BecKeR (1884) lists several examples for use of Nassau Marble in Roof the collegiate church St. Martin in Idstein (today manesque and Gothic times, but some of his examples protestant church, even named Union church). Even- proved to be wrong, some of them are not yet re-exatually, already the first altar (1603), with certainty mined in the framework of this project, and some of the new altar (1671-1675), the pillars and the pulpit the examples concern the use as cut, but not polished (1763) were made by this material. In 167, a big-sized limestone as building material, e.g. for bridges. Accorfont was produced and shipped to Koblenz. However, ding to an old document cited by SchnleBeR (1865) about 1677 Earl Johannes von Idstein-Wiesbaden com- marble industry should have been in existence in Villplained that his Mudershausen quarry was not much mar in the 16th century, but the document appears to be of a profit for him. The reason was that he employed lost (KuhnigK 1976). Furthermore, the statement has the material only for his own use and did not market to be questioned, because a chronicle, which has been it. Further, early references date from the early 18th written 1610/12 (Lympurger Chronica), emphasizes century. About 1737, sixteen coloured pilasters were that coloured marble from Villmar had only been made from the Mudershausen material. About 1800, discovered some years ago (K netSch 1909). Moa marble collection was arranged which contains one reover, the chronicle states that black marble from black slab of Nassau Marble from Idstein (Fig. 5). Schupbach was known and a white tough marble A polished pyramid of bluish-grey limestone from has been used for window jambs of a building in LimJohann Schaefer Kalkwerke G. m. b. H. Diez/Lahn burg. The chronicle reports in greater detail about the in the BGR collection in Berlin (Bundesanstalt fr accidental discovery of a huge dark limestone block Geowissenschaften) indicates that attempts were made near Arfurt in 1605. The authorities prohibited the to use the deposit of Hahnsttten at least as dimen- finders from selling the block, which can be seen as indication for the existence of a market for dimensision stone.

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm on stones. The authorities determined the block as a memorial slab in the cathedral of Mainz. Even older examples for the use of Nassau Marble as dimension stone are the pillars of the Nassau altar in this cathedral, which was built shortly after the year 1601 (Jung 1975) and the altar with the perspective depictions of pillars (perspective altar) in the Union church in Idstein (Schmidt 003). Based on todays historical knowledge, quarrying and processing of the Devonian limestone in the Lahn region as dimension stone have been started not long before the turn of the 16th to the 17th century. Therefore, one should be careful to declare dimension stone as Nassau Marble or Lahn Marble, if the piece of architecture in question dates from the 16th century or even before. While the earliest use of a variety is marked by the opening of a quarry, the use of a variety for the last time is not necessarily identical with the end of the extraction of the material: Thus several Lahn Marble varieties were promoted violently in the fifties of the 20th century, but the related quarries had been abandoned several years before (KiRnBaueR 005). The reason for the temporal discrepancy is because of availability of extracted but unprocessed blocks in the factories. Today, only few blocks of Lahn Marble remain on the grounds of the stone processing companies. In the Lahn region, the last quarries were abandoned in the seventies of the 0th century. Assuming the start of quarrying to be at the end of the 16th century, production of Nassau Marble was active for about 400 years. Considering the whole period of time, more than 100 quarries had existed. About seventy of them can be identified (Table 1). Many of the small, frequently only temporarily operated quarries cannot be identified for a whole chain of reasons: Later (and larger) quarries have destroyed the traces of earlier ones. The extraction techniques used in earlier centuries (blasting, separating by drilling) frequently did not leave any identifiable traces in the steep slopes of the Lahn valley. The above-cited document, which describes the recovering of a huge block in 1605, elucidates a technique which was presumably used in the first period of extracting Nassau Marble, namely to recover boulders, a method which is in use in the modern dimension stone industry worldwide. Furthermore, some of the quarries mentioned in earlier centuries are nothing else than outcropping limestone, which was extracted from case to case. One of these marble quarries was situated in the riverbed of the Lahn River and extraction was possible exclusively in very dry summers (Panthel 186). Others were so small that they were buried by soil and weathering material within short time; the remark quarry is buried can frequently be read in the old records. A map of 1846 which shows seven quarries in Villmar (aumlleR


003), demonstrates the dimensions of the quarries. While the smallest one shows a length of merely 7 m, the biggest one had a length of about 58 m. Mainly the instructive reports of the Diez prison administration prove that quarries were operated temporarily depending on the order situation and that the debris had to be cleared before the extraction work could start, which required a lot of time and money. Even the detailed analyses of the Lahn Marble production from Villmar in the years 1870 to 190 shows that none of the 14 quarries produced continuously (Table 2). Our todays view of the Lahn Marble production is influenced by pictures of the quarries arising in the last decades, contemporary photos and relics of the quarrying, and therefore by the technique of sawing with endless wires: Quarries present oneself as clear carvings in the topography with regular (sawed) walls (Fig. 9). But this view on historic extraction sites represents only a short period and prevents from getting a realistic view of the earlier history of quarrying which is reflecting a much longer time span. The annual Nassau Marble production in the period 1850-1955 is shown in Fig. 10. Despite no data are available for many years, it nevertheless can clearly be seen that the annual production rate in the 19th century was small (a few hundred of m3), and even in the 0th century the annual production exceeds 1,000 m3 only in a few years. A careful estimation results in a total production of about 50,000 m3 in this time, which represents an average annual production of about 323 m3, and a maximal total production of about 75,000 m3 for the overall quarrying period between 1600 and 1970. Investigating the provenance of Nassau Marble it is worthwhile knowing that until World War I the main market of the largest Lahn Marble extracting and processing company (Dyckerhoff & Neumann, Villmar) was the US market. The dominance of the US market can be traced back twofold, on the one hand to the company of the Hergenhahn Brothers which leased the state-owned marble factory of the Diez prison in 1880 and expanded the sales area to the US, and on the other hand to two companies, the Marmorwerke Balduinstein Guido Krebs and G. Joerissen, which both participated in the 1904 Worlds fair in St. Louis (lewald 1904). However, a central element for provenance analysis of Nassau Marble is the information, whether a particular quarry stood in production in a certain time. These data are compiled in chapter 4. Trade names In scientific literature and trading, the term Lahn Marble can be tracked back to the year 1899 (heRRmann


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

Plate 1: Lahn Marble slabs (width is 103 mm for all images). a) Balduinstein, Br quarry (LM 5613/3), b) Edelfels Rosa, Heistenbach (LM 5614/2), c) Limburg (LM 5614/1), d) Hundsangen (LM 5514/1), e) Blechmhle near Hadamar (LM 5514/4), f) Steeden (LM 5514/5), g) Schupbach Schwarz, Schupbach (LM 5515/18), h) Finster mill near Schupbach (LM 5515/5).

Plate 2: Lahn Marble slabs (width is 103 mm for all images). a) Finster mill near Schupbach (LM 5515/6), b) Schupbach Goldader, Schupbach (LM 5515/7), c) Schupbach Grau or Mimosa, Schupbach (LM 5515/3), d) Mimosa S hell, Schupbach (LM 5515/19), e) Mimosa S dunkel, Schupbach (LM 5515/19), f) Weie Steinkauth, Schupbach (LM 5515/14), g) Korallenfels, Schupbach (LM 5515/8), h) Rud Kaut, Schupbach (LM 5515/12).

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

Plate 3: Lahn Marble slabs (width is 103 mm for all images). a) Rud Kaut, Schupbach (LM 5515/12), b) Hanomser Bruch, Gaudernbach (LM 5515/9), c) Brunhildenstein, Gaudernbach (LM 5515/13), d) Grafenstein, Gaudernbach (LM 5515/13), e) Wirbelau, Wirbelau (LM 5515/16), f) Klken, Wirbelau (LM 5515/17), g) Hasselbach (LM 5515/26), h) Mhlberg, Villmar (LM 5615/1).


Plate 4: Lahn Marble slabs (width is 103 mm for all images). a) Bongard, Villmar (LM 5615/4), b) Borngrund, Villmar (LM 5615/3), c) Grethenstein, Villmar (LM 5615/10, d) Unica A, Villmar (LM 5615/7), e) Unica N, Villmar (LM 5615/8), f) Villmar near Ibachseiche (LM 5615/12), g) Wieshohl quarry, Villmar (LM 5615/9), h) Winkel district, Aumenau (LM 5515/21).


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

Table 2: Raw production of Lahn Marble quarries from Villmar 18701902 (data from KiRnBaueR 2008).

Quarry Bodensteinlei Bongart Borngrund Castell Cretenstein at the factory Famosa Hinterbodenstein in der Hohl auf dem Kissel

LM-No. 5615/15 5615/4 5615/3 5615/16 5615/10 5615/24 5615/24 5615/25 5615/9 5615/1 5615/27 5615/22 5615/23 5615/28

Production years 1871, 1873 1871, 1893, 1896 1871-1873, 1881, 1890, 1891, 1893, 1898, 190 1871, 1873, 1874, 188, 1890 1885 1875, 1881, 18861894 1893-1895, 1898 1870, 1873-1875, 1877, 1883, 18851893 188, 1883, 1885, 1887 1870, 1871, 1874, 1875, 1883, 1884, 1888, 189 1870-1874, 18771880, 188-1887, 1895 1870, 1871, 1873, 1883, 1884, 189 1870-187, 18891896, 190 1875, 1880 1870-1875, 18771900, 190

Sum 18701902 [m3] 109.9 44.0 451.1 86. 1.7 ,170. 10.8 1,99.7 7.8 661.

Sum 18701902 [%] 0.9 1.9 3.5 0.7 0.1 16.9 0.8 10.1 0.6 5.

Average annual production [m3] 55.0 81.3 50.1 17. 1.7 197.3 5.7 86.6 18. 8.7

an der Lahn Mariekth Mhlberg an der Mhlen no quarry given Total sum

,099.4 165. 1,316. 37. 3,978.8 12,816.8

16.4 1.3 10.3 0.3 31.0 100.0

131. 7.5 109.7 18.6

1899), although the term was already used in a record in 187 (Wiesbaden, State Archives Wiesbaden, sect. 11, No. 8057). Earlier in the 19th century, the material was described as Nassau Marble (e.g. BecKeR 1884), because the majority of the quarries was situated on the territory of the Archdukedom Nassau. Until the thirties of the 0th century, both terms were used simultaneously (e.g. Stiny 1929). One of the most important producers, G. Joerissen, was promoting his material Nassau Marmor! Eigene Sorten! (Nassau Marble! Own varieties!) in 1931 and even in the year 1934 an producer association Nassauer Marmor (Nassau Marble) was founded (K RatZ 1940). Not until the fifties of the last century the term Lahn Marble gained general acceptance. As long as several centuries, the Nassau Marble varieties were named after their colour, occasionally after

their find location. Even the description of the most important varieties by SandBeRgeR (1853) followed exclusively seven colours or shades, independent from the find location. Distinguishing different colours only proved to be reliable in a time, in which only small amounts were processed, and in which a monopolist, the state prison factory in Diez, dominated the market. This changed fundamentally by establishing the first private marble factory in Villmar in 1865 (KuhnigK 1976) and privatization of the state-owned marble factory of the Diez prison in 1880 (BecKeR 1884): To improve marketing, trade names for the different varieties have been introduced since the eighties of the 19th century (Fig. 11). To date, the earliest known trade mark is the establishment of the Grethenstein variety and dates to the year 1883 (collection Natural History Museum Vienna). Further trade names are known since 1888. These trade names are predominantly

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm names deduced from a nearby village (e.g. Seelbach) or estate names (e.g. Borngrund), even in combination with colours (e.g. Schupbach Schwarz). At the same time the first fantasy name (Famosa) appeared, which certainly was awarded with the intention to emphasize the splendid (German: famos) appearance of the material. About 15 trade names and sub-names can be found until the end of quarrying. Table 3 compiles all Lahn Marble trade names which have become known until today. A few trade names cannot be assigned to a quarry so far. Because the stonemason factories offered blocks for sale from quarries which had been abandoned long ago, the time of usage of a trade name is not necessarily identical to the operating time of a quarry (KiRnBaueR 005). Trade names are depending on fashions and the spirit of the time. For instance, material from one municipal quarry of Villmar on the right of the Lahn River was sold by the Dyckerhoff & Neumann Co. under the names Grethenstein and Unica, by the Joerissen Co., a competitor of the above mentioned company, as Unika and Nassau Rot, while it was sold in Austria as Rouge violette. Some quarries supplied various varieties. The Auberg quarry in Gaudernbach supplied the varieties Brunhildenstein and Grafenstein. About 1905 these trade names being characteristic of the Wilhelminian epoch were replaced by the Romanesque sounding fantasy names Rojizonazo and Porvenir. This accommodated the taste of the public for the exotic. During the time of the German fascism the use of these foreign names came under severe criticism: R auchBach (1938) hoped that these names would disappear completely and would be replaced by good local marble names announcing the origin of this German material but his hope was fulfilled only during the Nazi era. Several trade names are preserved also from the Bongard quarry in Villmar: Even the spatial relationship between cutting and bedding positions resulted in different variety names. Limits of provenance studies The discontinuous reef growth excludes palaeontological methods to distinguish the different varieties of Nassau Marble, especially as many reefs existed simultaneously and mixed conodont faunas are common. The short time span of reef growth from Middle to Late Devonian which covers about 10 million years (chapter 2) and the lack of suitable minerals prevent the application of isotopic dating techniques. Thin section studies on limestone samples from numerous locations and quarries have been investigated by several workers (e.g. OetKen 1996). However, the carbonate sedimentological approach is suitable for microfacies analysis but to date fails at determining the provenance of a piece of architecture. Thus, what remains is the


visual determination of provenance. This method is challenged by several limiting factors especially without sufficient knowledge of the quarries in operation and varieties used within a special historic time period (chapter 1). In addition to this, rapid vertical and horizontal changes of facies, small-scaled diagenetic alteration and (later) penetrative hydrothermal alteration hinder the visual determination. Nevertheless, this method can be used carefully on the base of sufficient comparative material in combination with historical information. This study is a first approach in combining data of field work and historical records. After all also, the names of trade marks or localities mentioned in ancient records or publications have to be handled with care, since the origin of a Nassau Marble is frequently given as place of processing and not as place of quarrying. Many of the dimension stones labelled with the name of origin Diez or Villmar have not been extracted in one of the quarries within these municipalities, but have been processed there, namely in the Diez (manu)factory and the Nassauische Marmorwerke in Villmar (later the Dyckerhoff & Neumann Co.). Historical records show that in spite of the high logistic and financial efforts for transport of the extracted blocks in earlier centuries, stonemasons and sculptors obtained their material from distant quarries, even when quarries existed in their own village. Thus, a contract with the sculptor Christoph Babel from Allendorf was negotiated for supplying pieces of architecture for the Schnborn burial chapel in the Wrzburg cathedral (since 1721), but Babel received his marble from Schupbach (ReutheR 1956).

Extraction of Nassau Marble probably started at the end of the 16th century and ended about 1970. The data presented in this article show that more than 100 quarries were operated in this period. In the course of this study, about 70 of them could be identified and sampled. The quarries vary considerably in size. At least at the end of the 19th century the quarries did not produce continuously but according to demand. Breaks lasting several years occurred between two quarrying periods. Operators were stonemasons, private local people and small companies and since the end of the 18th century prison manufactories. These circumstances changed in the second half of the 19th century, when two important private companies, started operation to quarry and process Lahn Marble. Due to rising demand and increased advertising the quarries commenced continuous production. The introduction of trade names since about 1883 emphasizes the change. About 15 trade names and sub-names have

Table 3: Lahn Marble trade names.
Trade Name Adlerstein Arfurt Auberg Auberg Grau Auberg Rot Aull Grau Aull Rot Aumenau Balduinstein(er) Grau Bongard Bongard dunkel Bongard gebndert Bongard Grau Bongard Grau Lager Bongard Hirn Bongard Lager Bongard NA Bongard P Bongard P Lager Bongard Rot Bongard tigre Bongard Wolkenrot Borngrund Brunhildenstein Castell Diezer Grau Edelfels Edelfels Grau Edelfels Graurot Edelfels Rosa Edelfels Rot Edelfels rtlich Edelgrau Edelrot Edelrot N Estrellante Famosa Famosa Dunkelviolett FamosaGrau Famosa Grau mit gelb Famosa Hellgrau mit gelb Famosa S Famosa S hell Famosa S mittel Famosa S dunkel Famosa Famosa V Famosa Violett Famosa Violett Famosa Violett O Grafenstein Gret(h)enstein, Gretchenstein Gretenstein dunkel Gretenstein graurot Gudrunstein Hllenwand Kirsch(en)rot Kirschenrot H Kirschenrot L Municipality unknown Arfurt Gaudernbach Gaudernbach Gaudernbach Aull Aull Aumenau Balduinstein Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Gaudernbach Villmar Heistenbach Heistenbach Heistenbach Heistenbach Heistenbach Heistenbach Heistenbach Steeden Steeden Steeden Gaudernbach Schupbach Schupbach Villmar Villmar Villmar Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Villmar Villmar Schupbach Villmar unknown Gaudernbach Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar Balduinstein Aumenau Aumenau Aumenau

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

Quarry No. unknown LM 5515/32 LM 5515/13 LM 5515/13 LM 5515/13 unknown unknown unknown LM 5613/1 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/4 LM 5615/3 LM 5515/13 LM 5615/16 LM 5614/2 LM 5614/2 LM 5614/2 LM 5614/2 LM 5614/2 LM 5614/2 LM 5614/2 LM 5514/5 LM 5514/5 LM 5514/5 LM 5515/13 LM 5515/19 LM 5515/19 LM 5615/24 LM 5615/24 LM 5615/24 LM 5515/19 LM 5515/19 LM 5515/19 LM 5515/19 LM 5615/24 LM 5615/6 LM 5515/19 LM 5615/6 unknown LM 5515/13 LM 5615/10 LM 5615/10 LM 5615/10 unknown LM 5613/2 LM 5515/21 LM 5515/21 LM 5515/21

Time Span 18961910 18881938 1901938 19141961 unknown unknown unknown 18881953 19501956 18881961 1910 1950 ff 19391950 1933 1933, 1950 ff 1933 1950 ff 19361950 1933 1933, 1950 ff 1950 ff 1950 ff 18881956 18961954 18881903 unknown 18971956 19141961 19141956 19361961 1901953 19 19381953 19381961 1961 19041953 18961953 1910 1940 19381950 1910 19361960 19331961 19331953 19331961 18881938 unknown 19531956 19381950 1933 18971961 18881953 1936 1910 unknown 18961940 19301953 1930 1930


doubtful, only mentioned by mlleR (1984) doubtful, only mentioned by mlleR (1984) doubtful, only mentioned by mlleR (1984)

perpendicular to the bedding plane parallel to the bedding plane perpendicular to the bedding plane parallel to the bedding plane NA = Neue Ausgabe parallel to the bedding plane

doubtful, only BGR collection (Berlin)

S = Schupbach

V = Villmar or Violett. Doubtful, only mentioned by mlleR (1976 ff)

doubtful, only mentioned by mlleR (1984)

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

Kissel Klken Korallenfels Lahnberg Dunkel Lahngold Lahn Grau Lahn Schwarz Mariekth Mimosa Mhlberg Nassau Rot, Nassaurot Nassau Rotgrn Nassauer Violett Niedertiefenbach Schwarz Orania Orania Grau Orania Rot Orania Schwarz Porvenir Reconquista Rojizonazo Rosario Rosario corallo, Rosario corallo Rouge violette Schupbach Goldader Schupbach Grau Schupbach Schwarz Schupbach SchwarzGelb Schupbach SchwarzGold Schupbach Schwarzgrau Schupbach Violett Seelbach Silvea Speck(s)winkel Steeden(er) Grau Steeden GrauRosa Steeden GrauRosa N Steeden Grn Steeden(er) Rosa Steeden(er) Rot Steedener Schwarz Ulmenberg Ulmenberg Dunkel Ulmenberg Dunkelrot Ulmenberg Graurot Ulmenberg Hell Unica, Unika Unika A Unika Blarot Unika N Villmar Schupbach Schupbach Villmar Steeden Steeden Gaudernbach or Schupbach Villmar Schupbach Villmar Villmar unknown Aumenau Niedertiefenbach Gaudernbach or Schupbach Gaudernbach or Schupbach Gaudernbach or Schupbach Gaudernbach or Schupbach Gaudernbach Gaudernbach Gaudernbach Schupbach Schupbach Villmar Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Schupbach Seelbach unknown Aumenau Steeden Steeden Steeden Steeden Steeden Steeden Steeden Aumenau Aumenau Aumenau Aumenau Aumenau Villmar Villmar Villmar Villmar LM 5615/24 LM 5515/17 LM 5515/8 LM 5515/10 LM 5515/20 LM 5514/5 LM 5514/5 unknown LM 5615/22 LM 5515/2 LM 5615/1 LM 5615/7 unknown unknown LM 5514/9 unknown unknown unknown unknown LM 5515/13 LM 5515/13 LM 5515/13 LM 5515/8 LM 5515/10 LM 5515/8 LM 5515/10 LM 5615/10 LM 5515/7 LM 5515/2 LM 5515/3 LM 5515/4 LM 5515/18 LM 5515/7 LM 5515/7 unknown unknown unknown unknown LM 5515/21 LM 5514/5 LM 5514/5 LM 5514/5 unknown LM 5514/5 LM 5514/5 LM 5514/5 LM 5515/22 LM 5515/22 LM 5515/22 LM 5515/22 LM 5515/22 LM 5615/7 LM 5615/8 LM 5615/7 LM 5615/7 LM 5615/8 LM 5615/8 18971940 1901954 18991958 1940 19301941 1938 1938 18971903 19301953 18881914 19311938 1941 unknown 1930 19381951 191953 191953 191953 19041953 19311956 19041953 1940 19331940 18971905 19541956 19141953 18881961 1950 19381953 18881941 1930 18881938 1933 18881914 19301954 19561961 1961 unknown 19501956 19501953 1954 19381953 unknown 19301953 19301953 unknown 18961953 19331961 19381953 19381956 N = Neu A = Alt only collection DNA (Wunsiedel) only collection DNA (Wunsiedel) doubtful, only mentioned by mlleR (1984) only collection DNA (Wunsiedel)


UraniaRot UraniaSchwarz Wachhecke Weibshohl Wiedisch Rosa Wiedisch Rot Wirbelau WirbelauSilber WirbelauSilbergrau Zephir, Zephyr Steeden Steeden Gaudernbach Runkel Schupbach Schupbach Wirbelau Wirbelau Wirbelau unknown

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

LM 5514/5 LM 5514/5 LM 5515/28 LM 5615/14 LM 5515/12 LM 5515/12 LM 5515/16 LM 5515/17 LM 5515/17 unknown 1940 1940 1901930 1888 19381953 1950 19091961 1938 1930 18961930

been found until now. With the exception of few, all of them can be related to a quarry. In the course of time two centres of processing developed in Diez and Villmar. The significance of Diez goes back to the establishment of the prison manufacture in 1784, which not only quarried and processed, but also marketed Nassau Marble and gained a dominant position on the market in the 19th century. By privatization of the former prison factory in 1880, the sales area was expanded and the importance of the factory increased considerably, but it came to a standstill in 1922 by fire. In Villmar, quarrying and processing of Lahn Marble provided a living for a few families before the introduction of waterpower by the new established Nassauische Marmorwerke in 1865. Since this time, Villmar established as new centre of the Lahn Marble industry. After taking over the factories of Diez and Villmar in 1887 and 189, the Dyckerhoff & Neumann Co. dominated the market respectively. Since 1904, a serious competitor arose with the Joerissen Co., which operated quarries in Schupbach, Gaudernbach und Wirbelau. The total production of Lahn Marble between 1850 and 1955 can be estimated as about 50,000 m3. Referring

to the whole 400 years period, the most important Nassau Marble quarries were situated in the vicinity of Schupbach and Villmar. Beside this, centres of extracting existed in the vicinity of Allendorf and Mudershausen in the 17th to 18th century, and near Diez, Gaudernbach and Wirbelau in the 0th century. Frequently, the provenance of Lahn Marble has to be determined for restoration purposes. It can be shown that the visual determination of provenance should only be done in combination with historical information, because provenance studies based exclusively on the macroscopic feature proved to be the more unreliable the older the investigated building is. Most of the numerous incorrect assignments of pieces of architecture which have been done in the last decades are going back to the use of reference material collected after World War II exclusively, while Nassau Marble varieties which were used in former centuries are not taken into account. Only combining geological, extracting-historical, processing-historical, art-historical and economical data provide useful provenance determination of Lahn Marble. Thus, 1989 an abandoned quarry near Villmar was reactivated for extracting the variety Bongard (LM 5615/4), using this material

Fig. 10: Annual Nassau Marble production 18501955. Compilation of data given by Boehm (1906), BRning et al. (1893), KRatZ (1940), Rode (1956), SandBeRgeR (1853) and wencKenBach (1879).

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm for the restoration of the famous high altar of the Mannheim Jesuit church (meuSeR 006). From the contemporary literature can be lernt that originally material from Allendorf was used (KliPStein 1779). This present study is making a first move in combining all important data.


This work was supported by several members of the Lahn-Marmor-Museum Society. Sawing, grinding and polishing of all slabs have been done by Axel BecKeR (Schupbach). Lydia aumlleR (Villmar), Axel BecKeR (Schupbach), Gerhard hhleR, Wolfgang hhleR , Karlheinz K RmeR (all: Villmar), Karsten PoReZag (Wetzlar), Wolfgang thuSt (Balduinstein) and Willi waBel (Heidelberg) have lent me documents of their private archives, provided access to unpublished data or supported the field work. Dr. Franz BRandSttteR (Vienna), Dr. Angela ehling (Berlin), Dipl.-Biol. Fritz gelleR-gRimm (Wiesbaden), Dr. Vera h ammeR (Vienna), Dr. Susanne heRting-agthe (Berlin), Dipl.-Geol. Reinhard Fig. 11: Table with coloured samples of the Joerissen Co. showing the trade names Schupbach KgleR (Wunsiedel) and Grau, Wirbelau, Brunhildenstein, Grafenstein, Schupbach Schwarz, Klken, Wachhecke and Dr. Ralf Thomas Schmitt Auberg Grau (oPPen 1922). (Berlin) made it possible to investigate Lahn Marble slabs. Dipl.-Bibl. Monika landfRied (Bochum) ac- BecKeR, A. & KiRnBaueR, T. (1998): Zur Gewinnung und Verwendung des Lahnmarmors. In: KiRnBaueR, T. (ed.), quired nearly inaccessible literature. My sincere thanks Geologie und hydrothermale Mineralisationen im rechtsgo to all of them.

aumlleR, L. (003): Ein Naturschatz brachte Villmar lange Zeit Arbeit und Brot. In: Marktflecken Villmar (ed.), Bilder zur Geschichte Villmars 1053-2003, p. 48-91, num. fig.; Villmar (Gemeinde Villmar).

rheinischen Schiefergebirge, 237-244, 3 fig., 1 tab.; Wiesbaden.

BecKeR, H. (1884): Die Marmor- und Granit-Werke am Mittel-Rhein. Eine Schilderung der Marmor-Bnke und -Brche im Nieder-Lahn-Gau und der daraus erschaffenen Burgen, Dome und Denkmale im Lahn-, Mainund Rhein-Land, sowie der Granit-Brche im Odenwald


SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

heinRich, M. (1914): Studien in den Riffkalken des rheinischen oberen Mitteldevons. 1. Teil: Biologie, Morphologie und Genesis der Riffe des rheinischen oberen Mitteldevons. 2. Teil: Revision der Stromatoporen unter besonderer Bercksichtigung der Formen des rheinischen Mitteldevons. PhD, Univ. Bonn, 58 p. + 2 sheets, 3 fig.; Freiburg i. Brsg. (Hch. Wuhrmann). heRRmann, O. (1899). Steinbruchindustrie und Steinbruchgeologie. Technische Geologie nebst praktischen Winken fr die Verwertung von Gesteinen unter eingehender Bercksichtigung der Steinindustrie des Knigreiches Sachsen zum Gebrauche von Geologen, Ingenieuren, Architekten, Steinbruchbetriebsleitern, Technikern, Baubehrden, Gewerbeinspektoren, Studierenden etc.. XVI + 428 p., 17 fig., 6 pl.; Berlin (Gebr. Borntraeger). JoachimSKi, M. M., van geldeRn, R., BReiSig, S., BuggiSch, W. & day, J. (2004): Oxygen isotope evolution of biogenic calcite and apatite during the Middle and Upper Devonian. Int. J. Earth Sci. (Geol. Rdsch.), 93: 54-553, 5 fig.; Berlin Heidelberg. Jung, w. (ed.) (1975): 1000 Jahre Mainzer Dom (975-1975). Werden und Wandel. Ausstellungskatalog und Handbuch. 330 p., 158 fig.; Mainz (Mainzer Verlagsanstalt). Jux, U. (1960): Die devonischen Riffe im Rheinischen Schiefergebirge. N. Jb. Geol. Palont., Abh. 110: 186-39, 5 fig., 22 pl.; Stuttgart. Kegel, W. (19): Abri der Geologie der Lahnmulde. Erluterung zu einer von Johannes Ahlburg hinterlassenen bersichtskarte und Profildarstellung der Lahnmulde. Abh. Preu. Geol. L.-Anst., N. F. 86: 81 p., 2 fig., 5 pl., 1 map; Berlin. KegleR, J. (1967): Stratigraphie, Fazies und Tektonik in der westlichen Lahnmulde, Bl. Limburg und Hadamar, unter besonderer Bercksichtigung des Oberdevons und der Gaudernbacher Schichten. PhD Univ. Gieen,  sheets + 68 p. + 9 p. + encl., 28 fig.; Giessen. KiRnBaueR, T. (1991): Geologie, Petrographie und Geochemie der Pyroklastika des Unteren Ems/Unterdevon (Porphyroide) im sdlichen Rheinischen Schiefergebirge. Geol. Abh. Hessen, 92: 228 p., 52 fig., 4 tab., 5 pl., 2 maps; Wiesbaden. KiRnBaueR, T. (005): Marmor im neuzeitlichen Bauschaffen zur Verwendung von Lahnmarmor in der Architektur der 50er Jahre des 0. Jahrhunderts. Lahn-MarmorNachrichten, 11: 7-11, 3 fig., 1 tab.; Villmar. KiRnBaueR, T. (009): Lahnmarmor ein Schaufenster in die Welt devonischer Riffe: Lagersttten, Gewinnung, Verwendung (in prep.) KliPStein, P. e. (1779): Mineralogische Briefe. Erstes Stck. 64 p.; Gies[s]en (Krieger). KnetSch, C. (1909): Die Limburger Chronik des Johannes Mechtel. XXVI + 254 p., several fig., 1 pl.; Wiesbaden (Verfftl. d. Histor. Commission f. Nassau, VI). KRatZ, H. C. (1940): Die Lahnmarmorindustrie. PhD Univ. Frankfurt a.M., 57 p., 6 encl.; Frankfurt a.M. (F. & Ph. Nauth, Mainz). KReBS, W. (1966): Der Bau des oberdevonischen Langenaubach-Breitscheider Riffes und seine weitere Entwicklung im Unterkarbon (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges., 511: 1-105, 18 fig., 3 tab., 13 pl.; Frankfurt a.M.

und der daraus erschaffenen Werke. VIII + 112 p.; Frankfurt a.M. (H. Keller). Boehm (1906): Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Kalk- und Marmorindustrie an der Lahn, ihre ungnstige Lage und die Manahmen zu ihrer Hebung. Ztschrft. f. d. Berg-, Htten- u. Salinen-Wesen im Preuss. Staate, 54: B473B534, 7 fig., 2 maps; Berlin. [BRning, R., gieBeleR, W., holZaPfel, E., KRfeR & ulRich, F.] (1893): Beschreibung der Bergreviere Wiesbaden und Diez. 254 p., 18 pl., 1 map; Bonn (A. Marcus). BuggiSch, w. (1991): The global Frasnian-Famennian Kellwasser Event. Geol. Rdsch., 80: 49-72, 12 fig.; Stuttgart. BuggiSch, w. & flgel, E. (199): Mittel- bis oberdevonische Karbonate auf Blatt Weilburg (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge) und in Randgebieten: Initialstadien der Riffentwicklung auf Vulkanschwellen. Geol. Jb. Hessen, 10: 77-97, 6 fig., 3 tab., 1 pl.; Wiesbaden. BuggiSch, w. & michl, S. (00): Early Carboniferous (Mississippian) Neptunian Dykes in Middle Devonian Reef Limestones of the Hahnsttten Quarry, Lahn Syncline, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge. Senckenbergiana lethaea, 82 (2): 495-513, 5 fig., 3 tab., 5 pl.; Frankfurt a. M. BuRchette, T. P. (1981): European Devonian Reefs: A Review of Current Concepts and Models. SEPM Special Publications, 30: 84-142, 24 fig.; Tulsa, Oklohoma. dittmaR, d., meyeR, w., oncKen, o., SchievenBuSch, t., walteR, R. & v. winteRfeld, C. (1994): Strain partitioning across a fold and thrust belt: the Rhenish Massif, Mid-European Variscides. Journ. Struct. Geol., 116: 1335-1352, 12 fig.; Oxford. flicK, h, liPPeRt, h.-J., neSBoR, h.-d. & R equadt, h. (1998): Lahn- und Dillmulde. In: KiRnBaueR, T. (ed.): Geologie und hydrothermale Mineralisationen im rechtsrheinischen Schiefergebirge, 33-62, 11 fig., 2 tab.; Wiesbaden. flicK, H. & neSBoR, H. D. (1988): Der Vulkanismus in der Lahnmulde. Jber. Mitt. oberrhein. geol. Ver., N. F., 70: 411-475, 26 fig., 2 tab.; Stuttgart. flicK, H., neSBoR, H. D., niemann, J., R equadt, h. & StaPf, K. R. G. (1988): Das Devon der sdwestlichen Lahnmulde auf Blatt 5613 Schaumburg (Exkursion H am 9. April 1988). Jber. Mitt. oberrhein. geol. Ver., N. F., 70: 161190, 16 fig., 1 tab.; Stuttgart. flicK, H. & Schmidt, J. (1987): Eine Vulkaninsel mit Saumriff im Devon des sdlichen Rheinischen Schiefergebirges. Facies, 17: 67-71, 4 fig.; Erlangen. fRanKe, W., edeR, f. w., engel, w. & langenStRaSSen, f. (1978): Main aspects of geosynclinal sedimentation in the Rhenohercynian Zone. Z. dt. geol. Ges., 19 (1): 210-216, 7 fig.; Hannover. gRimm, W.-D. (1990): Bildatlas wichtiger Denkmalgesteine der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bayer. L.-Amt f. Denkmalpflege, Arbeitsheft 50: 250 p., num. fig. and tab., 200 pl.; Mnchen. heidelBeRgeR, D. (001): Mitteldevonische (Givetische) Gastropoden (Mollusca) aus der Lahnmulde (sdliches Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Geol. Abh. Hessen, 106, 91 p., 33 fig., 2 tab., 22 pl.; Wiesbaden. heinen, V. (1996): Simulation der prorogenen devonisch-unterkarbonischen Beckenentwicklung und Krustenstruktur im Linksrheinischen Schiefergebirge. Aachener Geowiss. Beitr., 15: V + 161 p., num. fig. and tab.; Aachen.

SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

KReBS, W. (1968a): Facies Types in Devonian Back-Reef Limestones in the Eastern Rhenish Schiefergebirge. In: mlleR, G. & fRiedmann, G. M. (ed.) (1968), Recent Developments in Carbonate Sedimentoloy in Central Europe, p. 186-195, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Springer-Verlag). KReBS, w. (1968b): Reef development in the Devonian of the eastern Rhenish Slate Mountains, Germany. In: Internat. Symposium on the Devonian System, Alberta Soc. Petroleum Geologists, 2: 295-306, 4 fig., 2 tab.; Calgary, Alberta. KReBS, W. (1968c): Zur Frage der bretonischen Faltung im stlichen Rhenoherzynikum. Geotekt. Forsch., 8: 1-71, 8 fig., 1 tab.; Stuttgart. KReBS, W. (1969): Early void-filling cementation in Devonian fore-reef limestones (Germany). Sedimentology, 1: 279-299, 8 fig., 1 tab.; Amsterdam London New York. KReBS, W. (1971): Devonian Reef Limestone in the Eastern Rhenish Schiefergebirge. In: mlleR, G. (ed.) (1971), Sedimentology of parts of Central Europe. Guidebook to Excursions held during the VIII International Sedimentological Congress 1971 in Heidelberg, Germany, p. 45-81, 32 fig.; Frankfurt a.M. (Waldemar Kramer). KReBS, W. (1974): Devonian carbonate complexes of central Europe. In: laPoRte, L. F. (ed.) (1974), Reefs in time and space. Selected examples from the recent and ancient, SEPM Spec. Publ., 18: 155-208, 25 fig., 4 tab.; Tulsa, Oklahoma. KReBS, w. (1979): Devonian basinal facies. In: m. R. houSe, c. t. ScRutton & M. G. BaSSett (ed.), The Devonian System, Spec. Pap. Palaeont., 23: 125-139, 6 fig., 4 tab.; London (Palaeont. Assoc.). KuhnigK, a. m. (1976): Villmar. Geschichte und Gestalt einer hessen-nassauischen Grogemeinde. 275 p., num. fig.; Villmar (Pallottinerdruck Limburg). [lewald, Th.] (ed.) (1904): Weltausstellung in St. Louis 1904. Amtlicher Katalog der Ausstellung des Deutschen Reiches. 3 sheets + 548 p. + 32 p., several fig., 1 map; Berlin (Georg Sticke). may, A. (1995): Relationship among sea-level fluctuation, biogeography and bioevents of the Devonian: an attempt to approach a powerful, but simple model for complex long-range control of biotic crises. Geolines, 3: 38-49, 2 fig.; Praha. meuSeR, T. (006): Die Jesuitenkirche Mannheim. Lahn-Marmor-Nachrichten, 14: 9-16, 11 fig.; Villmar. miRSal, I. A. (1978): Zementmineralisation in fossilen Korallenriffen. Eine petrographische und geochemische Faktorenanalyse. PhD Univ. Marburg, 4 sheets + 120 p. + 1 sheet, 29 fig., 16 tab.; Marburg/Lahn. moe, A. (2000): Structural development of a volcanic sequence of the Lahn area during the Variscan orogeny in the Rhenohercynian Belt (Germany). PhD Univ. Heidelberg (CD); Heidelberg. mlleR, F. (1976 ff): Internationale Naturstein-Kartei (INSK). 10 vol.; Ulm (Ebner-Verlag). mlleR, F. (1994): Buntmarmor aus deutschen Landen. Folge III: Bunter Kalkstein aus dem Oberlahngebiet. Naturstein, 49 (3): 96-99, 13 fig.; Ulm. neSBoR, H.-D. (2004): Palozoischer Intraplattenvulkanismus im stlichen Rheinischen Schiefergebirge Magmenentwicklung und zeitlicher Ablauf. Geol. Jb. Hessen, 131: 145-182, 21 fig., 4 tab.; Wiesbaden.


neSBoR, h. d., BuggiSch, w., flicK, h., hoRn, m. & liPPeRt, H.J. (1993): Vulkanismus im Devon des Rhenohercynikums. Fazielle und palogeographische Entwicklung vulkanisch geprgter mariner Becken am Beispiel des Lahn-Dill-Gebietes. Geol. Abh. Hessen, 98: 3-87, 37 fig., 8 tab., 1 pl.; Wiesbaden. neSBoR, h. d. & flicK, h. (1988b): Das Schalsteinprofil vom Gnsberg bei Weilburg. Aufbau und fazielle Entwicklung einer submarinen pyroklastischen Abfolge im Devon der Lahnmulde (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Geol. Jb. Hessen, 116: 189-205, 9 fig.; Wiesbaden. OetKen, S. (1996): Faziesausbildung und Conodonten-Biofazies mittel-/oberdevonischer Riffgesteine in der mittleren Lahnmulde (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). PhD Univ. Marburg, 161 p., 32 fig., 13 tab., 11 pl.; Marburg (Grich & Weiershuser).

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SDGG, Heft 59 Denkmalgesteine: Festschrift Wolf-Dieter Grimm

wencKenBach, F. (1879): Beschreibung des Bergreviers Weilburg. 176 p., 1 fig., 1 map; Bonn (Adolph Marcus). weRding, L. (1966): Gesteinsbildung in devonischen Riffen des Taunus. Natur u. Museum, 96 (9): 354-363, 8 fig.; Frankfurt a. M. weRding, L. (1967a): Kalkig entwickeltes Mittel- und Oberdevon im stlichen Taunus. Senck. leth., 48 (): 147-161, 4 fig., 4 tab.; Frankfurt a. M. weRding, L. (1967b): Allodapische Kalke und Vorriff-Sedimente im Mittel-Devon des stlichen Taunus (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). N. Jb. Geol. Palont. Mh., 1967: 242-255, 7 fig.; Stuttgart.

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