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SEIN (ser / estar)

SEIN Present Tense - Prsens SEIN Simple Past Tense - Imperfekt SEIN Compound Past Tense (Pres. Perfect) Perfekt SEIN Past Perfect Tense Plusquamperfekt

DEUTSCH SINGULAR ich bin du bist er ist sie ist es ist PLURAL wir sind ihr seid sie sind Sie sind Examples: Sind Sie Herr Meier? Are you Mr. Meier? Er ist nicht da. He's not here. SEIN Future Tense - Futur DEUTSCH SINGULAR ich werde sein du wirst sein er wird sein sie wird sein es wird sein PLURAL wir werden sein ihr werdet sein sie werden sein Sie werden sein

ENGLISH

DEUTSCH SINGULAR

ENGLISH

DEUTSCH SINGULAR

ENGLISH

DEUTSCH SINGULAR ich war gewesen du warst gewesen er war gewesen sie war gewesen es war gewesen PLURAL wir waren gewesen ihr wart gewesen sie waren gewesen Sie waren gewesen

ENGLISH

I am you (fam.) are he is she is it is

ich war du warst er war sie war es war PLURAL

I was you (fam.) were he was she was it was

ich bin gewesen du bist gewesen er ist gewesen sie ist gewesen es ist gewesen PLURAL wir sind gewesen ihr seid gewesen sie sind gewesen Sie sind gewesen

I was/have been you (fam.) were have been he was/has been she was/has been it was/has been

I had been you (fam.) had been he had been she had been it had been

we are you (guys) are they are you are

wir waren ihr wart sie waren Sie waren

we were you (guys) were they were you were

we were/have been you (guys) were have been they were/have been you were/have been

we had been you (guys) had been they had been you had been

ENGLISH

I will be you (fam.) will be he will be she will be it will be

we will be you (guys) will be they will be you will be

HABEN (ter / to have)


HABEN Present Tense - Prsens DEUTSCH SINGULAR ich habe du hast er hat sie hat es hat PLURAL wir haben ihr habt sie haben Sie haben we have you (guys) have they have you have wir hatten ihr hattet sie hatten Sie hatten I have you have he has she has it has ich hatte du hattest er hatte sie hatte es hatte PLURAL we had wir haben gehabt you (guys) had they had you had ihr habt gehabt sie haben gehabt Sie haben gehabt you (guys) had have had they had/have had you had/have had ENGLISH HABEN Simple Past Tense - Imperfekt DEUTSCH SINGULAR I had you had he had she had it had ENGLISH HABEN Compound Past Tense (Pres. Perfect) - Perfekt DEUTSCH SINGULAR ich habe gehabt du hast gehabt er hat gehabt sie hat gehabt es hat gehabt PLURAL we had/have had I had/have had you (fam.) had have had he had/has had she had/has had it had/has had ich hatte gehabt du hattest gehabt er hatte gehabt sie hatte gehabt es hatte gehabt PLURAL wir hatten gehabt ihr hattet gehabt sie hatten gehabt Sie hatten gehabt HABEN Future Tense Futur DEUTSCH SINGULAR ich werde haben du wirst haben er wird haben sie wird haben es wird haben PLURAL wir werden haben ihr werdet haben sie werden haben Sie werden haben we will have you (guys) will have they will have you will have I will have you (fam.) will have he will have she will have it will have ENGLISH we had had you (guys) had had they had had you had had I had had you (fam.) had had he had had she had had it had had ENGLISH HABEN Past Perfect - Plusquamperfekt DEUTSCH SINGULAR ENGLISH

GEHEN (ir)
GEHEN (to go) Present Tense Note: German has no present progressive tense (he's going, I am going). The German present ich gehe can mean either "I go" or "I'm going" in English. DEUTSCH ich gehe du gehst Er / sie / es geht ENGLISH I go, am going you (fam.) go, are going He / she / it goes, is going PLURAL wir gehen ihr geht sie / Sie gehen we go, are going you (guys) go, are going they / you go, are going wir gingen ihr gingt sie gingen Sie gingen GEHEN (to go) Simple Past Tense Imperfekt Note: The German Imperfekt (simple past) tense is used more in written form (newspapers, books) than in speaking. In conversation the Perfekt (pres. perfect) is preferred for talking about past events or conditions. DEUTSCH ich ging du gingst er ging sie ging es ging PLURAL we went you (guys) went they went you went ENGLISH I went you (fam.) went he went she went it went GEHEN (to go) Present Perfect Tense (Past) Perfekt Note: The verb gehen uses sein (not haben) as its helping verb in the Perfekt (pres. perfect). The German Perfekt of gehen can be translated either as "went" (English simple past) or "has gone" (English pres. perfect), depending on the context. DEUTSCH ich bin gegangen du bist gegangen er ist gegangen sie ist gegangen es ist gegangen ENGLISH I went, have gone you (fam.) went, have gone he went, has gone she went, has gone it went, has gone PLURAL wir sind gegangen ihr seid gegangen sie / Sie sind gegangen we went, have gone you (guys) went, have gone they / you went,have gone gehen (to go) Past Perfect Tense Plusquamperfekt Note: To form the past perfect, all you do is change the helping verb (sein) to the past tense. Everything else is the same as in the Perfekt (pres. perfect) above. DEUTSCH SINGULAR ich war gegangen du warst gegangen ...und so weiter PLURAL wir waren gegangen sie waren gegangen ...und so weiter. we had gone they had gone ...and so on. I had gone you had gone ...and so on ENGLISH

Sie, formal "you," is both singular and plural: Gehen Sie heute Herr Meier? Are you going today, Mr. Meier? Gehen Sie heute Herr und Frau Meier? Are you going today, Mr. and Mrs. Meier?

Future Tense, Futur Note: The future tense is used much less in German than in English. Very often the present tense is used with an adverb instead, as with the present progressive in English: Er geht am Dienstag. = He's going on Tuesday. DEUTSCH SINGULAR ich werde gehen du wirst gehen er wird gehen sie wird gehen es wird gehen wir werden gehen ihr werdet gehen sie / Sie werden gehen I will go you (fam.) will go he will go she will go it will go we will go you (guys) will go they / you will go ENGLISH

KOMMEN (vir)
KOMMEN Present Tense - Prsens DEUTSCH SINGULAR ich komme du kommst er kommt sie kommt es kommt I come/am coming you come/are coming he comes/is coming she comes/is coming it comes/is coming PLURAL wir kommen ihr kommt sie kommen Sie kommen we come/are coming you (guys) come/are coming they come/are coming you come/are coming Sie kamen Examples: Wann kommen Sie nach Berlin? When are you coming to Berlin? Er kommt morgen Abend. He's coming tomorrow evening. KOMMEN Futuro Indicativo you came/were coming sie sind gekommen Sie sind gekommen they came/have come Sie waren gekommen you came/have come you had come wir kamen ihr kamt sie kamen ich kam du kamst er kam sie kam es kam ENGLISH KOMMEN Simple Past Tense - Imperfekt KOMMEN Compound Past Tense (Pres. Perfect) - Perfekt KOMMEN Past Perfect Tense - Plusquamperfekt

DEUTSCH SINGULAR

ENGLISH

DEUTSCH SINGULAR ich bin gekommen du bist gekommen

ENGLISH

DEUTSCH SINGULAR ich war gekommen du warst gekommen er war gekommen sie war gekommen es war gekommen PLURAL wir waren gekommen ihr wart gekommen sie waren gekommen

ENGLISH

I came/was coming you came/were coming

I came/have come you came/have come he came/has come she came/has come it came/has come

I had come you (fam.) had come he had come she had come it had come

he came/was coming she came/was coming it came/was coming PLURAL we came/were coming you (guys) came/were coming they came/were coming

er ist gekommen sie ist gekommen es ist gekommen

PLURAL wir sind gekommen ihr seid gekommen we came/have come you (guys) came/have come

we had come you (guys) had come they had come

DEUTSCH SINGULAR ich werde kommen du wirst kommen er wird kommen

ENGLISH

I will come you (fam.) will come He / she / it will come

PLURAL wir werden kommen ihr werdet kommen sie werden kommen we will come you (guys) will come they will come

MODEL VERBS - DRFEN (be allowed/permitted, may) / KNNEN (be able, can) / MGEN (like, want, may)
DRFEN - be allowed/permitted, may PRSENS (Present) ich darf I may (am permitted) du darfst you may er/sie darf he/she may wir/Sie/sie drfen we/you/they may ihr drft you (pl.) may PRTERITUM (Preterite/Past) ich durfte I was allowed du durftest you were allowed er/sie durfte he/she was allowed wir/Sie/sie durften we/you/they were allowed ihr durftet you (pl.) were allowed PERFEKT (Pres. Perfect) ich habe gedurft * I was allowed du hast gedurft * you were allowed er/sie hat gedurft * he/she was allowed wir/Sie/sie haben gedurft * we/you/they were allowed ihr habt gedurft * you (pl.) were allowed KNNEN - be able, can PRSENS (Present) ich kann I can, am able du kannst you can er/sie kann he/she can wir/Sie/sie knnen we/you/they can ihr knnt you (pl.) can PRTERITUM (Preterite/Past) ich konnte I could du konntest you could er/sie konnte he/she could wir/Sie/sie konnten we/you/they could ihr konntet you (pl.) could PERFEKT (Pres. Perfect) ich habe gekonnt * I could du hast gekonnt * you could er/sie hat gekonnt * he/she could wir/Sie/sie haben gekonnt * we/you/they could ihr habt gekonnt * you (pl.) could

* In the present perfect or past perfect tense with another verb, the double infinitive construction is used, as in the following examples: ihr habt sprechen drfen = you (pl.) were allowed to speak ich hatte sprechen drfen = I had been allowed to speak MGEN - like, want, may PRSENS (Present) ich mag I like du magst you like er/sie mag he/she likes wir/Sie/sie mgen we/you/they like ihr mgt you (pl.) like PRTERITUM (Preterite/Past) ich mochte I liked du mochtest you liked er/sie mochte he/she liked wir/Sie/sie mochten we/you/they liked ihr mochtet you (pl.) could PERFEKT (Pres. Perfect) ich habe gemocht * I liked du hast gemocht * you liked er/sie hat gemocht * he/she liked wir/Sie/sie haben gemocht * we/you/they liked ihr habt gemocht * you (pl.) could

* In the present perfect or past perfect tense with another verb, the double infinitive construction is used, as in the following examples: wir haben schwimmen knnen = we were able to swim ich hatte schwimmen knnen = I had been able to swim

* In the present perfect or past perfect tense with another verb, the double infinitive construction is used, as in the following examples: wir haben schwimmen mgen = we liked to swim ich hatte schwimmen mgen = I had liked to swim mgen is often used in its subjunctive (mchte) "would like" form: Ich mchte lieber Kaffee (haben). = I would rather have coffee. Wir mchten ins Kino. = We'd like to go to the movies.

MODEL VERBS - MSSEN (have to, must) / SOLLEN (should, ought to, supposed to) / WOLLEN (want to)
MSSEN - have to, must PRSENS (Present) ich muss I must, have to du musst you must, have to er/sie muss he/she must wir/Sie/sie mssen we/you/they have to ihr msst you (pl.) must PRTERITUM (Preterite/Past) ich musste I had to du musstest you had to er/sie musste he/she had to wir/Sie/sie mussten we/you/they had to ihr musstet you (pl.) had to PERFEKT (Pres. Perfect) ich habe gemusst * I had to du hast gemusst * you had to er/sie hat gemusst * he/she had to wir/Sie/sie haben gemusst * we/you/they had to ihr habt gemusst * you (pl.) had to SOLLEN - should, ought to, supposed to PRSENS (Present) ich soll I should du sollst you should er/sie soll he/she should wir/Sie/sie sollen we/you/they should ihr sollt you (pl.) should PRTERITUM (Preterite/Past) ich sollte I should have du solltest you should have er/sie sollte he/she should have wir/Sie/sie sollten we/you/they should have ihr solltet you (pl.) should have ich habe gesollt * I should have du hast gesollt * you should have er/sie hat gesollt * he/she should have wir/Sie/sie haben gesollt * we/you/they should have ihr habt gesollt * you (pl.) should have PERFEKT (Pres. Perfect)

* In the present perfect or past perfect tense with another verb, the double infinitive construction is used, as in the following examples: ihr habt sprechen mssen = you (pl.) had to speak ich hatte sprechen mssen = I had had to speak Note: The old spelling with , as in ich mu or gemut, is no longer used for forms of mssen. WOLLEN - want to PRSENS (Present) ich will I want to du willst you want to er/sie will he/she wants to wir/Sie/sie wollen we/you/they want to ihr wollt you (pl.) want to PRTERITUM (Preterite/Past) ich wollte I wanted to du wolltest you wanted to er/sie wollte he/she wanted to wir/Sie/sie wollten we/you/they wanted to ihr wolltet you (pl.) wanted to PERFEKT (Pres. Perfect) ich habe gewollt * I wanted to du hast gewollt * you wanted to er/sie hat gewollt * he/she wanted to wir/Sie/sie haben gewollt * we/you/they wanted to ihr habt gewollt * you (pl.) wanted to

* In the present perfect or past perfect tense with another verb, the double infinitive construction is used, as in the following examples: wir haben gehen sollen = we should have gone ich hatte fahren sollen = I had been supposed to drive

* In the present perfect or past perfect tense with another verb, the double infinitive construction is used, as in the following examples: wir haben sprechen wollen = we wanted to speak ich hatte gehen wollen = I had wanted to go

MODEL VERBS Exemplos 1. drfen (to be permitted, may) Present: Darf ich rauchen? May I smoke? Past/Preterite: Er durfte das nicht. He wasn't permitted to do that. Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Er hat dort nicht parken drfen. He was not permitted to park there. Past Perfect/Plusquamperfekt: Wir hatten das damals machen drfen. We had been allowed to do that back then. Future/Futur: Wir werden das machen drfen. We will be allowed to do that. Subjunctive/Konjunktiv: Wenn ich drfte... If I were permitted... NOTE: For all modals with umlauts, the simple past (preterite/Imperfekt) has no umlaut, but the subjunctive form always has an umlaut! Sample Idiomatic Expressions: Was darf es sein? May I help you? (store clerk) Wenn ich bitten darf. If you please. 4. mgen (to like) Present: Er mag die Suppe. He likes the soup. Past/Preterite: Er mochte die Stadt nicht. He didn't like the city. Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Er hat das Essen nicht gemocht. He didn't like the food. Future/Futur: Er wird das schon mgen. He'll like that. Subjunctive/Konjunktiv: Ja, er mchte Wein. Yes, he'd like (some) wine. Subjunctive/Konjunktiv: Ich mchte... I would like... NOTE: For all modals with umlauts, the simple past (preterite/Imperfekt) has no umlaut, but the subjunctive form always has an umlaut! Sample Idiomatic Expressions: Das mag wohl sein. That well may be. / That may be so. Das mag der Himmel verhtten! Heaven forbid! Er mag/mochte etwa 1,3 Meter gro sein. He must be/must have been about 1.3 meters tall.

2. knnen (to be able, can, know) 5. sollen (to be supposed to, should/ought to) Present: Er kann gut fahren. He can drive well. Past/Preterite: Er konnte sie nicht leiden. He couldn't stand her. Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Er hat sie nicht leiden knnen. He couldn't stand her. Past Perfect/Plusquamperfekt: Er hatte sie nicht leiden knnen. He had not been able to stand her. Future/Futur: Er wird sie nicht leiden knnen. He won't be able to stand her. Subjunctive/Konjunktiv: Wenn ich ihn nur leiden knnte... If I could only stand him... NOTE: For all modals with umlauts, the simple past (preterite/Imperfekt) has no umlaut, but the subjunctive form always has an umlaut! Sample Idiomatic Expressions: Sie knnten sich irren. You could be mistaken. /// Das kann man wohl sagen. You can say that again. Er kann Deutsch. He knows German. ("can German") / Er kann Sie jetzt sprechen. He can see you now. (doctor) Present: Er soll reich sein. He's supposed to be rich. / It's said that he's rich. Past/Preterite: Er sollte gestern ankommen. He was supposed to arrive yesterday. Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Du hast ihn anrufen sollen. You should have called him. Future (in sense of): Er soll das morgen haben. He'll have that tomorrow. Subjunctive/Konjunktiv: Das httest du nicht tun sollen. You shouldn't have done that. Subjunctive/Konjunktiv: Wenn ich sollte... If I should... Subjunctive/Konjunktiv: Sollte sie anrufen... If she should (happen to) call... Sample Idiomatic Expressions: Das Buch soll sehr gut sein. The book is said to be very good. Du sollst damit sofort aufhren! You're to stop that right now! Was soll das (heien)? What's that supposed to mean? What's the idea? Es soll nicht wieder vorkommen. It won't happen again.

3. mssen (to have to, must) 6. wollen (to want to, said to be) Present: Ich muss dort Deutsch sprechen. I have to speak German there. Past/Preterite: Er musste es nicht tun. He didn't have to do it. Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Wir haben mit der Bahn fahren mssen. We had to go by train. Future/Futur: Sie wird morgen abfahren mssen. She will have to depart tomorrow. Subjunctive/Konjunktiv: Wenn ich msste... If I had to... NOTE: For all modals with umlauts, the simple past (preterite/Imperfekt) has no umlaut, but the subjunctive form always has an umlaut! Sample Idiomatic Expressions: Ich muss nach Hause. I have to go home. //// Muss das sein? Is that really necessary? So msste es immer sein. That's how it should be all the time. Present: Sie will nicht gehen. She doesn't want to go. Past/Preterite: Ich wollte das Buch lesen. I wanted to read the book. Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Sie haben den Film immer sehen wollen. They have always wanted to see the movie. Past Perfect/Plusquamperfekt: Wir hatten den Film immer sehen wollen. We had always wanted to see the movie. Future/Futur: Er wird gehen wollen. He will want to go. Subjunctive/Konjunktiv: Wenn ich wollte... If I wanted to... Sample Idiomatic Expressions: Das will nicht viel sagen. That's of little consequence. That doesn't mean much. Er will es nicht gesehen haben. He claims not to have seen it. Das hat er nicht gewollt. That's not what he intended.