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Amber Schoessow (order #1648522)

Speech Therapy Made Simple!

By Deborah Lott
M.Ed. in Speech Language Pathology

Illustrations by Katie Lott


Cover by Allison Lott

Super Star DML Publishing Huntsville, Alabama

Amber Schoessow (order #1648522)

Super Star Speech ISBN 13 978-0-9798041-0-6 Copyright 2007 by Deborah Lott Published by: Super Star DML Publishing 2702 Gawain Rd. Huntsville, AL 35803 www.superstarspeech.com
Permission is granted to the purchaser to photocopy record-keeping forms and reproducible pages in the appendix for personal use. No other part of this publication may be reproduced in whole or in part, or stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

Amber Schoessow (order #1648522)

Table of Contents
Introduction......1 Articulation Test Directions.....2 Articulation Test...5 Speech Therapy..18 Specific Sound Instructions..............23 P and B......23 T and D.....24 N....25 K and G.........26 NG..27 F and V......28 L....29 SH....;....30 CH and J........31 TH..32 S and Z......33 R35 Therapy Games and Activities...37 Bibliography.......39 Games, Practice pages, and Picture Cards.......Appendix

Additional Super Star Speech Materials are available at: www.superstarspeech.com.

Amber Schoessow (order #1648522)

Amber Schoessow (order #1648522)

Introduction
The purpose of this book is to assist parents in helping their children achieve developmentally appropriate speech and to provide some of the necessary resources. The focus of this book is the correction of articulation (speech sound) errors. If your child has many articulation errors or another type of speech problem such as a language delay or stuttering, please seek the assistance of a speech-language pathologist, who is trained in the diagnosis and remediation of a broad range of speech and language disorders in adults and children. Likewise, if your child has a physical problem that affects his speech, such as a hearing impairment, cerebral palsy, or cleft palate, this book does not attempt to address these more complex issues. If your child has only a few speech sound errors, I hope that you will find this book a useful resource in helping your child to improve his or her speaking skills at home. Many articulation problems are not difficult to correct. The process requires basic knowledge of how to teach the sounds and a lot of directed practice. In my private therapy practice, I often have parents sit in on therapy sessions and I send practice pages home with the children, asking the parents to help their child practice for a few minutes every day. The children who practice frequently at home typically make much faster progress than those who practice their speech for only a weekly 30 minute session. Because of their ability to provide consistent daily practice, parents are in an excellent position to correct their childrens speech sound errors at home. As toddlers begin to learn speech, they make many errors. These errors include omitting sounds in words (da for dog) and substituting one sound for another (wun for run). Sometimes speech sounds are distortedthe sounds are incorrect, but the error is not a different speech sound. An example of a distortion would be a slushy-sounding S. Errors are a normal part of speech development and many children do not have perfect articulation until around 7 years of age. However, there are milestones that children should be making in their progress toward adult speech. Children who do not meet these milestones are at high risk for not developing correct speech on their own and may also experience frustration with or embarrassment about their speech. In my experience, children who are five or six years old have more success in speech therapy than do eleven year olds who have been practicing wrong habits for many years. I much prefer to catch the problem and deal with it early. Generally, a three year old should be able to speak clearly enough to be understood by his parents. If not, this is one sign of an articulation delay. Certain sounds should be mastered by different ages. The following test will help you assess whether your childs errors are normal for his age or not.

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Super star speech

Articulation Test
Your first task will be to do a thorough test of your childs articulation abilities. The test may be omitted if you are certain that your child only has one or two error sounds and you therefore already know which sounds to begin teaching. The articulation test will cover most of the speech sounds. (Vowels and a few of the easiest sounds will not be tested.) The test consists of 4 sections: 1. 2. 3. 4. Articulation Test Pictures Response Sheet Sound Error Analysis Sheet Therapy Plan

Test Directions
1. Take the Response sheet out of the binder and place in front of you. (Feel free to make additional copies of the Response Sheet, Analysis Sheet, and Therapy Plan if needed.) Place the binder in front of your child and open to page one of the Articulation Test pictures. 2. Point to the first picture (pie) and ask What is this? It is ideal for the child to name the picture without prompting, but if the child does not know the word, you may prompt him. (Say, pie.) 3. Listen ONLY for the correct production of the target sound for each word. Dont worry about any other sound errors in the word. Score as follows by recording the response in the corresponding box on the response sheet. correct omitted sound -substituted sound (record error) distorted sound (common with s, z, and sh) dist. Example: abbit for rabbit wabbit for rabbit u-abbit for rabbit write write w write dist

4. Continue asking your child to name pictures, proceeding in rows across the page. You will notice that the target sound will be tested in the initial, medial (middle), and final

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Articulation Test positions of words. Remember, you are only listening for the target sounds. If other sounds are produced incorrectly, they do not have to be noted at this time. 5. You may want to use a blank sheet of paper to cover the non-target pictures if your child finds looking at the entire page distracting. 6. Next, go back to each sound that was produced incorrectly. Model the sound for the child in isolation (Say, ssssss.) Circle the sound on the response sheet if the child can imitate it correctly. Do the same for every word. (Say, sun, Say, pencil, Say, house.) Circle each error that the child can imitate correctly. Sounds that the child can already imitate will be easier for him to learn and assimilate into his speech. These sounds will be easier to begin therapy on.

Sound Error Analysis


If you find that your child has several error sounds, circle each sound on the analysis sheet, following the directions on the sheet.

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Therapy Plan
The sounds on the response sheet are categorized by the ages at which most children have mastered the sound. Sounds that are usually taught together because they are very similar (p and b, t and d, s and z, etc.) are listed together. Record all of the error sounds that are listed at your childs current age or younger on the Therapy Plan under target sound, beginning with the sounds that should be mastered at the youngest age. Any errors that may not be mastered by an older age child are within normal limits and need not be listed on the therapy plan at this time. For example, it is normal for many 5 year olds to have errors with the th, s, or z sounds, so these sounds would not be a priority for speech therapy. If all of the childs error sounds are within normal limits for his/ her age, then therapy is not needed. Retest again in a year to make sure that the childs articulation skills are continuing to progress normally. (There is no harm in working with a child on later-developing sounds, and this may even be advantageous if the child is experiencing any frustration, but often these errors will self-correct as the child matures.) Consider the results from the Sound Error Analysis sheet when making the Therapy Plan. For example, if your child has difficulty with all of the tongue tip sounds, you may want to work on these at the same time. Likewise, note any other patterns. If your child can produce many of the sounds at the beginning and middle positions of words, but omits final consonants (a common error pattern), consider teaching final consonant production for all consonants instead of just focusing on one or two sounds at a time. Alternatively, you may want to begin with a sound that is important in the childs life, such as a sound in his name. As the child progresses in therapy, you should record on the therapy plan the date that each sound is mastered.

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Articulation Test

Articulation Test p. 1

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Super star speech

Articulation Test p.2 Articulation Test p.2

Articulation Test p.2

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Articulation Test

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Super star speech

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Articulation Test

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Super star speech

ARTICULATION TEST RESPONSE SHEET


Target sound

Beginning

Middle

End

p 3 yrs. b n t d 3 1/2 yrs. k g ng 4 yrs. 5 yrs. f v l ch sh 6 yrs. j th th s 7 yrs. z r blends


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Articulation Test

Sound Error Analysis


Using the results from the response sheet, circle all errors on the chart below. Note any error patterns. If there is a pattern of error (difficulty with back-of-the-tongue sounds or fricatives, for example), consider choosing that group of sounds to work on first. Difficulty of production proceeds generally from left to right and from top to bottom on the chart, with P and B being the easiest sounds to produce and R being one of the more difficult sounds. The term, distinctive features, refers to the method of producing a sound as opposed to where in the mouth it is produced. Stops are produced by stopping the airflow, then releasing it suddenly. Nasals are produced by sending the sound through the nose. Fricatives are produced by slowly releasing the breath and glides are produced with the airflow unimpeded.

Distinctive Features Stop Lips Tongue tip Placement Teeth/tongue Teeth p b t d n s z ch j sh f v th (voiced) th (voiceless) k g ng r l Nasal Fricative Glide

Tongue back

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Super star speech

THERAPY PLAN

Target sound

Date begun

Date Date Date Date mastered mastered mastered in mastered in Single in words sentences conversation sound

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Speech Therapy

Speech Therapy
Specific lesson plans are not provided because each child will need to begin at a different point and each child will progress at his own pace. Lesson planning pages are provided for you to record your goals and progress for each day. Begin therapy with one or two sounds or sound pairs (t/d, p/b, s/z, k/g, f/v, ch/j) that you have identified as therapy goals. As your child masters each step, proceed to the next step. For each sound or set of sounds, the same basic procedure will be followed. Therapy Steps: 1. Teach the sound in isolation. Practice this step until the child can consistently produce the sound correctly. 2. Teach the sound at the beginning of words. For most children, this is the easiest position in words to produce a sound. Continue with this step until the child can produce the sound with 90% accuracy. 3. Teach the sound in the middle and final positions of words. Continue this step until the sound is produced in all positions with 90% accuracy. 4. Drill the sound in sentences. Begin with easy, structured sentences, such as I see a ______. Then progress to more complex sentences, perhaps ones that the child makes up himself. 5. At this point, many children will be producing the sound in conversation with fairly high accuracy. If not, then practice at the conversational level. Monitor the childs speech for short, structured times, keeping records of errors as he speaks, so that he will be conscious of his speech patterns. Pick a specific time of the day, such as dinner time, to monitor his speech. Stop and correct him when he makes an error. If he is still making many errors in conversation, continue practicing the sound in sentences. The next section of this book provides tips to teach your child to produce each sound or set of sounds. Following these tips is a list of words containing the target sound for use in drill. You will then find picture cards to use in drill and games. On the bottom right of each card is listed the sounds in that word. Cut apart all of the cards and separate out all of the cards containing the sound your child is working on. Set aside the unneeded cards. Two sets of cards are included to provide more game playing options. The final section of the book contains games and ideas for activities that can be used to make the practice sessions more enjoyable. These may be photocopied as needed. The length of each therapy session will depend on your child. A 15 minute session every day would be ideal for many children. Begin with practice/ drill on the step your child is on (isolation, word, sentence, conversation), then pick out a game or activity as a reward and to end the session on a fun note.

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Super star speech


At least every third session, records should be kept to assess the childs accuracy. An easy way to do this is to make tick marks for correct responses and Xs for incorrect responses. Then divide the number of correct responses by the number of total responses to arrive at an accuracy level. Some children are very motivated by seeing their improvement in accuracy and most will pay closer attention to their speech when the responses are being recorded. When accuracy reaches 90-95%, it is usually time to proceed to the next level of therapy (single sound to word, etc). A lesson plan sheet is provided in the appendix for planning each days activities and for recording responses. Copy this page as needed.

Sample Lesson Plan


Date Task(s) Activity
July 19 S and Z in words (initial position) 1. Repeat words from wordlist using mirror. 2. Have B listen to me say his target words and identify right/wrong production. 3. Matching game; say each word 3 times. XXXXX XXX 86% B is paying more attention to his s/z sounds and self-correcting his errors sometimes. Continue working on words (initial).

Response s

Notes

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Speech Therapy Tips for teaching all sounds: 1. Work in front of a mirror while teaching the sound. Sit side by side with your child so that he can easily see what you and he are doing. 2. Practice the target sound yourself before you teach your child. Practice saying the sound correctly and incorrectly while you analyze your mouth and tongue positions. Try to imitate the way in which your child makes his error. 3. Provide a lot of encouragement! Praise your child for trying and for small improvements. If your child cannot yet produce the sound correctly, praise something he can do well, such as place his tongue in the correct place. 4. Keep practice sessions short to minimize frustration. If your child begins to be frustrated, take a break, or practice a skill that is easier for him. 5. Make the sessions fun! End each session with a game or fun activity. Some children will enjoy stickers or another reward for practice well done, or for keeping a good attitude. 6. Keep the speech correction to practice sessions. Dont frustrate your child by correcting him at other times of the day. You may or may not find that his conversational speech is improving rapidly as he progresses in therapy. Some children begin listening to themselves and self-correcting very early in the therapy process, but many do not. Both are normal. 7. Just as learning speech as a toddler is a slow process, learning to correct speech errors will take time. It must be taught in an organized manner. Many factors, such as the age and maturity of the child and the severity of the speech problem will affect the speed of progress. Be patient! 8. If your child catches an error in his conversational speech and corrects himself, praise him! Realizing that he made an error means that he is listening to himself and is a great sign of progress. 9. Remember that you are teaching sounds. Do not be misled by the spelling of a word. For example c will be considered to be an s, a k, or an sh (ocean), depending on the word. The word box ends with the k and s sounds. The t in the word better is often pronounced as a d.

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Super star speech

Lesson Plans
Date Task(s)

Activity

Accuracy

Notes

Date Task(s)

Activity

Accuracy

Notes

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Speech Therapy

Lesson Plans
Date Task(s)

Activity

Accuracy

Notes

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Super star speech

Specific Sound Instructions P, B


P and B are produced by pressing the lips tightly together, stopping the breath from escaping. The lips then separate quickly, allowing the breath to escape explosively. P is a voiceless sound, produced by airflow. B is a voiced soundmade the same way, but with the voice turned on. Tips: 1. Using a mirror, explain and demonstrate the sound. Have the child put his hand, paper, or a feather close to the lips to feel or see the puffs of air. 2. Try having the child produce the P from an H sound by opening and closing the lips quickly. 3. Touch the childs lips with your finger to develop awareness of the lips. 4. If the sound is nasalized, hold the childs nostrils closed, to develop awareness of directing breath through the mouth. Place a mirror under the nose and have the child attempt to say the sound without fogging the mirror. 5. If B is not being voiced (sounding like P), teach the child to produce it after ah or uh. (aaabaaa or uh-buh)

Wordlist for P and B


Bat Beach Bear Bean Bacon Bee Beg Begin Bell Bench Berry Bend Begin Baby Maybe Rabbit Cabbage Nobody Somebody Neighbor Number Bluebird Robin Above Sob Bob Knob Tub Grab Job Bib Robe 18
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Cube Pie Pepper Pill Pilot Picnic Pencil Pillow Paint Penny Pick Pink Pull Put Play Puppy

Supper Happy Upon Paper Pumpkin Help Up Lip Lap Hop Ship Keep Peep Lump Camp

Specific Sound Instructions

T, D
To produce T and D, the tongue tip is placed just behind the front teeth, on the gum ridge. The sides of the tongue are also raised and touch the side teeth, blocking all air flow. The tongue is dropped suddenly and the breath is released explosively. T is a voiceless sound, produced by airflow. D is a voiced soundmade the same way, but with the voice turned on. Tips: 1. Have the child practice raising and lowering his tongue to the correct spot to develop awareness and strengthen the tongue muscle. 2. Using a mirror, explain and demonstrate the sound. Have the child put his hand, a sheet of paper or a feather close to the lips to feel or see the puffs of air. 3. Touch the spot where the tongue tip should touch with a finger, spoon, or popsicle stick. 4. A visual demonstration of the sound can be made by touching the fingers to the other hand, pressing firmly, then releasing suddenly as you say t. 5. If the sound is nasalized, hold the childs nostrils closed, to develop awareness of directing breath through the mouth. Place a mirror under the nose and have the child attempt to say the sound without fogging the mirror.

Wordlist for T and D


Tea Teacher Team Tear Tent Test Toe Tip Tinsel Tiptoe Tissue Toad Tide Today Into After Potato Sister Party Sometime It At Cut Got Not Hot Kite Salt Want West Last Goat Left Door 19
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Dragon Draw Donkey Duck Dust Dull Dove Dozen Desk Dish Dice Dock Dollar Lady Candy Ready Under

Nobody Indian Spider Window Did Head Red Had Bad Made And Sand Gold Child Cried Begged Buzzed

Super star speech

N
Tongue placement for N is the same as for T and D. The tongue tip touches the gum ridge and the tongue sides touch the side teeth, blocking airflow through the mouth. Unlike production of T and D, the soft palate is lowered, allowing sound to pass into the nasal cavity. Tips: 1. Using a mirror, explain and demonstrate the sound. If the child can produce T or D, compare the tongue placement for these sounds. Practice saying, T-D-N. 2. Model exaggerated production of N. 3. Touch the spot where the tongue tip should touch with a finger, spoon, or popsicle stick. If the tongue is protruding or lowered, push it into position with the popsicle stick. 4. If the tongue is not making proper contact with the sides of the teeth, N may sound like L. In this case, emphasize the contact with the back teeth. Using a mirror, practice idening the tongue. 5. If N sounds like D, try alternating M and N (ma-na, mmm-nnn) to achieve nasalization of the voice. Enlarged tonsils or adenoids may cause this problem.

Wordlist for N
Nail Name Neck Nest Never Newspaper Night Note Nurse Nut Needle Number Nun Many Pony Funny Tiny Dinner Peanut Banana Under Window Man Rain Moon Garden Listen Kitten Fine Sun Hen

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Specific Sound Instructions

K and G
To produce the K and G sounds, the back part of the tongue is raised and pressed against the roof of the mouth (soft palate), stopping all airflow. The front of the tongue is lowered. The tongue then drops, allowing the air that has been held behind the tongue to escape suddenly. The K is voiceless, produced by airflow. The G is produced with the voice on. Tips: 1. Demonstrate the sound in front of a mirror. Use a spoon or popsicle stick to touch the back of the tongue and the soft palate to help the child feel how the sound is made. (Be cautious about triggering the gag reflex as you do this.) Have the child put his hand, paper, or a feather close to the lips to feel or see the puffs of air. 2. Strengthen the back of the tongue and help the child identify the part of the tongue to be raised by pressing downward on the back of the tongue with a spoon while the child tries to push upward. 3. Have the child attempt to say T while you hold the tongue tip down. 4. Play listening games to help the child practice discriminating between T and K or between D and G. (Is this a dog? Is this a gog?) 5. Exaggerate the target sound when modeling it.

Wordlist for K and G


Cage Cake Calm Camel Camp Card Carrot Cook Cotton Kiss King Key Monkey Donkey Jacket Pocket Because Turkey Bucket Pancake Cookie Circus Rock Pick Work Crack Take Walk Milk Thank 21
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Box Fox Gas Game Gorilla Guitar Gum Goldfish Give Garden Go Begin Wagon Sugar Tiger

Angry Hungry Egg Leg Dig Log Bug Dug Flag Hug Rug Bag

Super star speech

NG
NG is produced with the same tongue placement as K and G. Instead of being an explosive sound, however, it is a nasal soundthe soft palate is lowered slightly to allow the sound to escape through the nose instead of the mouth. Tips: 1. Using a mirror, demonstrate proper tongue placement. Use a spoon or popsicle stick to touch the back of the tongue and the soft palate to help the child feel how the sound is made. The sound may be developed from a K or G. 2. Have the child attempt to produce N with the tongue tip held down. 3. If NG is not being nasalized, develop the sound from an N or M.

Wordlist for NG
Sing Song Long Ring Young Hang Swing Bring Going Nothing Something Morning Dancing Sink Pink Bank Thank Finger Drink Donkey Monkey Stronger Anger Finger Ringing

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Specific Sound Instructions

F and V
F and V are produced by touching the upper teeth to the lower lip. F is produced by passing the breath between the teeth and lip. V is produced in the same way with the voice turned on. Tips: 1. F and V are easy sounds to teach because the placement is so easy to see. Instruct the child to bite his lip and blow to produce F. After the F is produced, instruct him to turn his voice on to produce the V. Use of a mirror may be helpful. 2. Work on auditory discrimination between the error sound and F or V. (Is this a pig or a fig?) 3. If V is not being vocalized, thereby sounding like an F, have the child feel the vibrations on his neck while saying the sound. Produce V with a vowel (Va, Vee, uh-V).

Wordlist for F and V


Face Fall Fairy Family Fan Farm Father Fight Fence Feeling Fine Finger Fire Fish Fix Fog Fork Frog Freckle Before After Afternoon Careful Elephant Telephone Laughing Coffee Office If Off Life Knife Wife Wolf Puff Roof Gift Valley Vase Velvet Vet Vine Volcano Violin Visit Vacuum Vacation Ever Clover Cover Evening Seventy Eleven Heaven Give Live Glove Five Move Save Cave Slave Leave Stove

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L
L is produced by placing the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth, against the gum ridge. The sides of the tongue are lowered in order to allow the voice to pass around the sides of the tongue. Tips: 1. Model the correct placement of the tongue, using a mirror. Touch the gum ridge with a spoon or popsicle stick to instruct the child where to make tongue contact. 2. Practice raising and lowering the tongue tip to strengthen the tongue and develop awareness. 3. Have the child open his mouth widely, sustain an ah sound while raising his tongue tip to the L position. 4. Practice L vowel babbling. Lalala, loolooloo, leeleelee. You may find that the L is easier to produce with one vowel over another. Practice the easier syllables first. 5. Compare the tongue tip sounds. Have the child practice: tee, dee, nee, lee, etc. 6. If the child substitutes W for L, gently spread the childs lips to discourage him from rounding them when producing L.

Wordlist for L
Long Loose Lot Loud Love Low Lucky Lunch Lung Life Like Lion Lip Little Lollipop Lock Listen Load Loaf Lady Violet Alone Easily Family Polite Also Yellow Fellow Hollow Selling Pillow Hello 24
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Well Mill Hill Cool School Girl Owl Table Fiddle Apple Puzzle Old Cold Child Elf Dolls

Salt Built Blue Blow Cloud Clover Cloth Fly Flour Flat Glass Glue Play Plum Slide Slippery

Specific Sound Instructions

SH
SH is produced with the tongue tip raised and placed just behind the gum ridge. The tongue position is slightly behind the tongue position for S. The tongue sides contact the upper side teeth so that the airflow is directed over the tongue tip. Lips are slightly rounded. Tips: 1. Demonstrate tongue placement and lip rounding, using a mirror. 2. Develop SH from S. Have the child hold an S sound while slowly sliding his tongue back until SH is produced. A drill of TH-SSS-SHH may be helpful. Use the analogy of a turtle sliding his head back into his shell. 3. If the SH is too hard, sounding like a CH, instruct the child to say it slowly and softly. Have him draw out the sound for several seconds, perhaps blowing on his hand or a feather. 4. If air is leaking around the sides of the tongue, producing a distorted or lisping SH, have the child practice widening and narrowing his tongue, using a mirror. The tongue should be widened in the production of SH. Touch the sides of his tongue and instruct him to press the tongue sides against the back teeth. It may be helpful to lower the tongue tip with a popsicle stick to allow airflow over the top of the tongue rather than around the sides of the tongue.

Wordlist for SH
Shave Shed Sheet Shell Shepherd Shine Short Shirt Shoe Shoot Shop Shore Shoulder Shove Show Shower Shrimp Shuttle Shut Washes Wishes Dishes Bushes Dashes Seashore Ocean Nation Station Wash Radish Bush Hush Crush Dash Splash Fresh Flash Foolish English Push Trash Finish Fish

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Super star speech

CH and J
CH and J are produced with the tongue tip touching slightly behind the gum ridge. The tongue tip is released, producing an explosive sound. The lips are slightly rounded. Teeth are almost closed. CH can be considered a combination of the T and SH sounds, with J being the voiced counterpart of CH. The sound is made more quickly and with more pressure than SH. Tips: 1. Demonstrate the placement of CH or J, using a mirror. Using a popsicle stick, touch the correct spot for the tongue to touch. 2. Compare CH to a quick, hard SH. 3. Have the child produce T, then SH in quick succession. t-sh-t-sh-t-sh 4. Have the child blow on his hand, a paper or a feather in order to encourage a more explosive sound production. 5. Have the child say T, then slide the tongue back slightly to produce CH. If necessary, push the tongue back with a popsicle stick. 6. Compare the sound to the ch-ch-ch of a train. 7. If the child is leaking air around the sides of the tongue while attempting to produce CH or J, lower the center of the tongue tip with a popsicle stick to enable air to pass over the tongue.

Wordlist for CH and J


Chain Chalk Change Chase Cheap Cheerful Cheese Cheetah Cherry Chess Chicken Chimney Chimpanzee Chip Chocolate Choose Chop Church Peaches Marches Teacher Kitchen Pitcher Each Such Much Search Catch Hatch Touch Jigsaw puzzle Jingle 26
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Jogger Joke Judge Juggler Jumble Jungle Junk Juice Journey Pigeon Pages Danger Angel Enjoy Object Magic

Largest Soldier Charge Strange Village Cabbage Porridge College Language Edge Cottage Message Bridge Orange Cage

Specific Sound Instructions

TH
Th is produced by protruding the tongue slightly between the front teeth and blowing. The voiced TH is produced the same way, but using the voice instead of airflow. Tips: 1. Demonstrate TH using a mirror. Instruct the child to bite your tongue and blow. 2. If the child substitutes F or V for TH, draw his attention to the use of the tongue and teeth to make the sound. The teeth and lip should not make contact. Practice f-th-f-th to contrast the two sounds. If necessary, gently push the lower lip out of the way. 3. To teach the voiced TH, instruct the child to imitate the voiceless TH and to turn his voice on. It may be taught by having him say zzzz, then gradually move his tongue forward to between the teeth.

Wordlist for TH
Thimble Thin Think Thirsty Thorn Thought Thread Throat Thief Thunder Throne Throw Thank Nothing Anything Something Author Birthday Toothbrush Bathtub Both Bath South North Tooth Beth Ruth Cloth Mouth Earth Birth Month Sixth Tenth Health The They Them Then Than Those These Other Another Brother Father Mother Gather Together Weather Leather Smooth Bathe Clothe

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S and Z
S and Z are produced with the front of the tongue raised against the roof of the mouth. The tongue is wide and thin and makes contact with the teeth and gums at the sides and front of the mouth except for a narrow central opening through which the breath (S) or voice (Z) passes. The breath passes over the center of the tongue and hits the front teeth creating a hissing (S) or buzzing (Z) sound. The teeth are slightly apart. S and Z can also be made by placing the tongue tip against the lower teeth and raising the tongue just behind the tip against the upper gums. This technique can be taught if the first technique is difficult for the child to learn. The most common S and Z errors are a TH for S substitution and a lateral S with the air flowing over one or both sides of the tongue instead of the center of the tongue. Tips: 1. S and Z can be difficult sounds to teach. Often much trial and error is needed to find the technique that will be successful with any given child. The parent should experiment with different tongue positions and shapes in order to be able to identify the childs error and to better explain to the child how to change his sound production. Subtle variations in tongue position can make a great difference in the sound produced for S and Z. 2. Demonstrate the sound using a mirror. Emphasize the need for the breath to travel only across the very center of the tongue. Suggest that the child direct the breath between the front teeth. Hold a finger in front of the childs mouth and ask him to direct the airflow right to the finger. 3. Practice raising and lowering, widening and narrowing, and grooving the tongue. 4. Develop S or Z from T, D or N by lowering the tongue tip just enough for air to leak over it. Practice t-s-t-s or n-z-n-z. 5. Develop S from TH by slowly drawing the tongue into the mouth. th-ssss 6. Develop S from SH by moving the tongue forward slightly. sh-ssss 7. Ear training should be provided so that the child can distinguish a correct from an incorrect production of the sound. Play listening games until the child can reliably distinguish the correct sound of S or Z. 8. Instructing the child to bite his back teeth together to produce S or Z can help him to learn more accurate tongue placement. As he becomes more proficient, the teeth should be opened slightly. 9. To correct a lateral S, remind the child that the tongue must be wide with the sides touching the back teeth. Use a popsicle stick to stroke the sides of the tongue that should be in contact with the teeth. Fold a piece of paper to demonstrate the groove that should be down the center of the tongue. 10. For Z, instruct the child to make S and buzz with his voice.

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Specific Sound Instructions

Wordlist for S and Z


Sack Saddle Safe Sailor Sale Salt Same Sandal Sandwich Sauce Save Seal Seahorse Seagull Secret See-saw Send Silver Sink Sign Sister Soccer Son Soap Sock Suit Pencil Answer Myself Herself Sunset Saucer Outside Useful Bicycle Lucy Passing Dancing Possible Gasoline Christmas Miss Yes Bus Pass Face Place Piece Fence Hops Lips Rats Nests Story Strap Straw Street Stairs Sponge Spider Spoon Squash Squirrel Sneeze Sniff Snore Skeleton Skate Skirt Slippers Smooth Smile Zebra Zoo Zigzag Zipper Zodiac Zone Zero Zinc Zeal Visit Easy Busy Lazy Husband Present Pansy Music Scissors Is His Does Rise Bees Buzz These Cheese Always Rose Goes Pans Songs Leaves Dogs Rooms Tubs Rains Eyes As Eggs

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Super star speech

R
R is produced by widening and flattening the tongue. The sides of the tongue touch the upper back gums and teeth. The tongue tip is held in the center of the mouth and is curled upward. The voice is made to vibrate. Tips: 1. R can be a difficult sound to teach. It is hard for the child to see the correct tongue placement since the sound is primarily made in the back of the mouth. Much trial and error may be needed. 2. Provide a visual representation of the tongue by holding your hand palm up and curling the fingers upward. Slide the hand backward to show the backward movement of the tongue. Remind him to put his tongue far back in his mouth. 3. Touch the sides of the tongue and the back teeth with a popsicle stick and instruct the child to press the sides of his tongue against his back teeth and push upward or even to bite the sides of the tongue with his back teeth. The tactile cues created by touching the teeth and tongue are very helpful here. 4. Have the child relax his lips. Lip rounding encourages production of W. 5. Start with a production of L and gradually slide the tongue backward in the mouth until it approximates R. 6. Practice widening and narrowing the tongue and moving it forward and back in the mouth. 7. Teaching words or sound combinations of kr, and gr (creak, green, great) is sometimes helpful because K and G are also produced with the back of the tongue. Blends are usually more difficult to produce, but this may be an exception. 8. The vowel sounds ee and i are also produced with the tongue high and back in the mouth. Combining R with ee or i may aid in attaining correct production. (rrrreee, ring, reach ) 9. Exaggerate the sound of RRRR to draw the childs attention to it.

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Specific Sound Instructions

Wordlist for R
Raccoon Race Racket Radar Raft Rail Railroad Rain Raise Rake Raisin Ram Ranch Raspberry Rattle Raw Rat Ray Read Ready Reason Record Rectangle Refrigerator Reign Repair Reptile Rhinoceros Rib Ribbon Rice Rich Riddle Ride River Road Roast Robe Robin Rope Round Rowboat Rubber Ruby Around Very Every Carry Fairy Furry Marry Sorry Arrow Tomorrow Porridge Orange Terrible Squirrel Are Car Far Air Fair Chair Pear Or 31
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For Your Door Dear Fire Bring Brick Bread Broom Brass Cry Crowd Cradle Crack Scarecrow Scream Scratch Draw Dream Dry Drank Drill Children Hundred Friend From Fruit Frost Fred Grape Green Grace Hungry

Pray Present Princess Proper Spring Spread Try Treat Trunk Trust Street Stream String Three Throat Threw Shrub Shrill Shrink

Therapy Games and Activities


Try to make speech practice fun! It should not be a chore. Although drill and practice are necessary, there are many ways to make the drill more enjoyable for your child. Remember to let your child master the sound in isolation before he progresses to words and then sentences. Here are some ideas: 1. Make a scrapbook. Cut pictures out of magazines and catalogs that contain the target sound. This can become your childs personal practice book. 2. When riding in the car, look for things that begin with the target sound and practice pronouncing the words. 3. Have your child act out or pantomime action words containing the target sound. 4. Think of categories, such as animals, colors, names, and clothing and have your child think of words containing the target sound in each category. 5. If your child can read, have him pick out words in a book to practice. 6. Label paper bags with beginning, middle and end. Have your child sort his picture cards into the bags, identifying where in the word his target sound falls. This activity could be used for word or sentence practice or even as an introduction to a new sound. 7. Play a sound hunt game. Have a contest to see who can find the most objects containing the target sound. 8. Toss a ball or bean bag back and forth. As each person catches the ball or bean bag, he must name a word containing the target sound. 9. For sentence or conversation practice, play the suitcase game. Im going on a trip and I will pack a _________. Each person has to remember what the previous player has packed and add a new item. 10. For sentence or conversation practice, play guessing games. Im thinking of something at the circus that begins with S. Child must answer, Is it a __________? 11. Have the child read to you. You may want to circle all the target sounds in the passage first. 12. Trace the childs handprint and have him point to each finger while he says his target sound. 13. Make a deck of cards with target words printed on them. Write numbers on the cards and play War. 14. Make a deck of cards with target words printed on them. Print, STOP on some cards. Place cards in a stack. On his turn, each player draws cards, saying each word 3 times. The players turn ends when he draws a STOP card. The player with the most cards wins. 15. Any board game may be used in therapy. Each player must say a target word or sentence 3 times before each turn is taken. During the parents turn, the parent may wish to say the word and have the child listen to determine whether it was pronounced correctly or not.

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Games in This Book


1. Play the Matching Game (Concentration) with the included cards. Place cards (2 of each picture) face down on the table. Players take turns drawing 2 cards, looking for matches and saying each word 3 times. If a match is found, the player earns an extra turn. The player with the most matches wins. 2. Play Go Fish or Old Maid with the picture cards. 3. Lay 10 or 12 cards face up on the table. Have the child guess which picture you are describing. 4. Lay a row of picture cards face up on the table. Have the child name them as quickly as he can. 5. Add a die and game piece to any of the board games. The larger games consist of two sheets of cardstock that will need to be taped together and possibly colored. Write target words on the spaces on the game boards. (You may want to photocopy the games so that they can be reused with different sounds.)

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Bibliography Fry, Plantagenet Somerset. Junior Illustrated Dictionary. Newmarket, England: Brimax Books, 1987. Nemoy, Elizabeth McGinley, MA. The Correction of Defective Consonant Sounds. Magnolia, Massachusetts: Expression Company, 1967. Schoolfield, Lucille D. Better Speech and Better Reading. Boston, Massachusetts: Expression Company, 1975.

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Smoke Signals

Write a sound or word in each puff of smoke.


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Write your sound or a word on each petal. Suggestion: Write contrasting sounds (f-th-f-th-t-th) or (w-r-w-r).

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Write one of your words on each pear. Say each word 4 times.

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Every time you say your sound correctly, write it on the sidewalk. Orwrite a word on each space. Then add game tokens and a die to use as a board game.
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Each time you say your sound correctly, draw a leaf on the tree.

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Finish

Pick any word to say 10 times.

Help Doggie Find His Bone!


Bath time! Go back to start.

Win dog show! Go forward 2 spaces.

Chase a cat. Go back to start.

Start
Write practice words in the spaces. Say each word as you land on it. 40
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Go back to start!

Silly Snake Game

Start

Go ahead 2 spaces!

Finish! Go back 2.
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Write a word in each space. Roll a die to move. Say each word 3 times.

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Say the words in your balloons. Then draw a string for each one.

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Sentence Practice
Fill in the blank with a word that has your sound. Say each sentence 5 times. 1. I went to the store and bought some______________________.

2. I know a boy named ______________________________.

3. I know a girl named _______________________________.

4. Colors that have my sound are ________________, ____________________, and _______________________.

5. Foods that have my sound are ____________, _____________, ___________________, and __________________.

6. The state of ______________________and the city of ___________________ have my sound.

7. The month of ____________________________has my sound.

8. A street with my sound is __________________________.


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Sentence Practice
Fill in the blanks with words that have your sound. Say each sentence 3 times.

1. I like to play with my ____________________________.

2. Animals with my sound are _____________________and __________________.

3. Lets go to _______________________________________.

4. I like ________________________________________.

5. Body parts with my sound are ______________________ and ________________________.

6. I like to read about ____________________________________.

7. I see a _____________________________________________.

8. I want some ________________________________ for dinner.

9. Please give me ______________________________________. 44


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Color a happy face every time you say your sound or word correctly!


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Go forward one space.

Say 3 of your words, 2 times each.

Name two animals with your sound.

Say one of your words. Go back 3 spaces.

Think of a color with your sound in it.

Say, Run fast, Buzzy Bee!

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Run Fast Buzzy Bee!


Say 5 words, one time each. Stand up, turn around, and say 3 of your words.

Say any word 4 times.

Say one of your words 3 times.

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Tell your helper a word to say. Is there a color with your sound?

Say 3 of your words.

Go Forward 3 spaces.

Balance on one foot while you say a word 3 times.

Whisper a word 5 times.

Say a word 6 times.

Lose a turn.

Say two words.

Say one of your words 5 times, as fast as you can. Go forward one space.

Say 5 words, 2 times each.

Think of a girls name with your sound.

Say a word 5 times while you smile.

START

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Make a funny face.

Think of an animal with your sound.

Jump up and down and say a word.

Say 4 words.

Think of a food with your sound.

Go back one space.

Say 3 of your words one time each.

STATION

Say your best word in a sentence.

Think of a word to say 3 times very fast.

TRAIN TRACKS!
Pick a word to say 6 times. Pick a word to say 5 times.

Say, Railroad Tracks, 3 times. Teach your helper one of your words. Think of 2 sentences with your sound.

FINISH

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Hippo

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Hippo

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Juggle

j, g, l

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Juggle

j, g, l

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