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E.

Application of Reaction Rate Concept Application of the influence of surface area to rate of reaction touch can be applied in everyday life and industry. Examples of applications in everyday life are as follows. 1) In the process of making cassava chips, cassava sliced a goal to expand the surface so that when fried to quickly dry and crisp. 2) When frying the potatoes, so that the previous precocious potatoes diced. 3) Fireworks contain metal powders in order to quickly react and remove the light and colorful. In the chemical industry, to obtain high-quality results in significant amounts is done by a process that efficiently and effectively. Raw materials used are processed and added to the appropriate catalyst for the reaction rate can be controlled in such a way. This can be seen in the automobile industry, manufacture of ammonia, and sulfuric acid manufacturing industry below. I. Catalytic Converter) in Automobile Industry Catalytic converter exhaust systems remaining in the fuel combustion in motor vehicles using a heterogeneous catalyst, namely platinum (Pt). This catalytic function is to convert carbon monoxide CO2 of fuel burned to Coz. In addition, it also describes catalysts of nitrogen oxide (NO) to gaseous N2 and O2. 2CO(g) + O2(g) 2CO2(g) 2NO(g) N2(g) + O2(g) Here is how the catalyst for the reaction 2CO(g) + O2 2CO2(g) on the surface of metal

a. Adsorption, reactant molecules of CO and O2 bound to the surface. b. Activation, O2 molecules dissociate into atoms at the surface of the catalyst O. c. Reaction, the catalyst surface CO molecule is easy to move and react with O atoms to form CO2 CO(surface) + O(surface) CO2(surface)

d. Desorpsi, molecules leave the surface of the catalyst CO2. That cycle happens to catalyst reaction. The more catalyst surface area, the more CO is converted into CO2, so the levels of CO in the rest of the combustion can be reduced.
II. industrial manufacture of ammonia

In industry, ammonia production is done by Haber Bosch process. This process is performed by reacting hydrogen gas and nitrogen using platinum catalysts.
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) ; H : -184,76 KJ in temperature 25o

The reaction above is an equilibrium reaction so that the optimum reaction conditions will be discussed in chapter equilibrium. In order to rapidly achieve an equilibrium process, used an iron catalyst mixed Al203, MgO, CaO,and K20. III. sulfuric acid manufacturing industry Sulfuric acid is the chemical most widely considered its use. For example uncuk ingredients sulfac ammonium fertilizer, ammonium superphosphate fertilizer, and the electrolyte solution in the battery. Making do with the sulfuric acid contact process, the reaction between sulfur dioxide with oxygen using a platinum catalyst or vanadium pentaoksida. Catalyst pentaoksida vanadium (V2O5) is more commonly used as platinum catalyst easily poisoned by substances in the sulfur dioxide polluter. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) The reaction above is an equilibrium reaction so that the optimum reaction conditions will be discussed in chapter equilibrium. Next SO3 produced gas dissolved in water and to produce sulfuric acid.

EVALUATION OF CHAPTER 3

1). If 84 g of KOH solution (Mr =56 g/mole) is dissolved into 750 g of water, the concentration of the solution is .... a. 2.0 molar d. 2.0 molar b. 1.5 molar e. 1.5 molar c. 1.0 molar

2). A solution containing 585 mg of NaCl (Mr = 58.5 9/mole) for each 100 cm' has concentration as much as .... a. 0.1 molar d. 0.01 molar b. 0.1 molal e. 0.01 molal c. 5.85%

Definition of Reaction Rate 3). The diagram defines that .... (gambar) a. b. c. d. e. reaction occurs by adsorbing energy x is reaction enthalpy change reaction occurs if x > y it is an exothermic reaction x + y is Ea

4). At the reaction 2A + B A213, it order reaction on B. The correlation between the first rate of reaction of substance B can be shown in the graphic ....

5). Among these definitions, the one that is not true is a. catalysts accelerate the rate of reaction a. catalysts accelerate the rate of reaction b. the bigger the activation energy is, the faster the reaction will be c. the rate of reaction is determined by the slowest reaction steps d. catalysts do not change the reaction enthalpy e. the bigger the reactant's concentration is, the bigger to collision frequency will be CHEMISTRY 2 FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL YEAR XI 145

6). Reaction between H2 gas and O2 gas at 25 C of temperature occur very slowly, but if it is added with Pt powder the reaction will be faster. This shows that the rate of reaction is influenced by .... a. temperature b. pressure c. concentration d. catalyst e. substance properties

7). In the reaction: CI2 O7 2- + 6Fe2+ + 14H+ 2Cr3+ + 6Fe3+ + 7H2O.The rate of reaction gained from the measurement of Fe 2+ concentration is 4.5 x 10-3 M/minute. The rate of reaction defined by concentration change of Cr2O7 2- in M/minute is a. 2.7 x 10-2 d. 7.5 x 10-3

b. 4.5 x 10-3 e. 1.35 x 10-3 c. 7.5 x 10-1

8).In the reaction 2NO (g) + O2(g) 2NO2 (g), the rate of reaction for NO2 formation reaction is 6 x 102 M/seconds. The rate of decreasing O2 reaction is a. 6 x 10-2 M/second b 6 x 102 M/second c. 3 x 10-2 M/second d. 3 x 102 M/second e. 1.2 x 101 M/second

9). In a room, 5 L of N2O4 gas 0.8 mole is heated until a certain temperature so that it decomposes to NO2. After 4 seconds, there is 0.6 mole of NO2 gas in the room, so the average of decomposition rate of N2O4 is .... a. 1.5 x 10-2 M/second b. 2.5 x 10-2 M/second c 3.0 x 10-2 M/second d. 4.0 x 10-2 M/second e. 8.0 x 10-2M/second

10). In the reaction 1/2N2 + 3/2H2 NH3 , the rate of reaction based on N2 is defined as rN and based on H2 is defined as rN so ... a. r N = r b. r c. r
N H

d. r
H

= 2/3 r e. r
N

= 1/2 r = 1/3 r

= 1/3 r

Condition to Support Chemical Reaction 11). The correct definition about collision theory and kinetic reaction is .... a. each collision between particles will produce reaction

b. each collision between particles at high temperature will produce reaction c. pressure does not influence the number of collision between particles d. only collision between particles that has enough energy and good position will produce reaction e. no options above are true

12). It is known in the experiment (gambar) according to the figure, the fastest reaction occur in beaker glass number .... a. I b. II c. III CHEMISTRY 2 FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL YEAR XI 147 d. I V e. V

13). From an experiment, it is gained data as shown below. Experimen ts 1 2 3 4 Temperature (0C) 15 25 35 55 v (M/second) 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.32

If a reaction occurs at 45 C, so the rate of reaction is .... a. 0.016 b. 0.160 c. 0.048 14). Reaction A + B products d. 0.480 e. 0.640

Data 2 and 5 show that the rate of reaction is influenced by .... a. concentration b. substance properties c. temperature d. catalysts e. surfac area

15). For each 10 C of temperature increase, the rate of reaction will occur twice faster. The increase of the rate of reaction at 60 C compare to that at 20 C is .... a. 4 times b. 8 times c. 16 times 16). At tC of temperature, reaction will occur in 12 minutes, at (t + 30) C reaction will occur in .... a. 4 minutes d. 1.5 minutes b. 3 minutes e. 1 minute c. 2 minutes d. 32 times e. 64 times

17). Reaction occurs three times faster if the temperature rises 20 C. If at 10 C reaction occurs in 45 minutes, at 50 C of temperature reaction will occur in .... a. 1/50 minutes b. 1/25 minutes c. 1/5 minutes d. 1 minutes 50 e. 5 minutes 25

18). If at a certain temperature, the rate of decomposition

of N2O4 to NO2 and O2 is 2.5 x 10-6 M/s. The rate of formation of NO2 is .. .. a. 1.3 x 10-6 M/s b. 2.5 x 10-6 M/s c. 3.9 x 10-6 M/s d. 5.0 x 10-6 M/s e. 6.2 x 10-6 M/s

19). The experiment data in reaction between iron and hydrochloric acid are:

According to data above, the fastest reaction occur in experiment number.... a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 5

20). In reaction A + B C, the rate of reaction can be defined as .... a. the decrease of concentration A per time unit b. the multiple concentration of A and B per time unit c. the increase of concentration of A and B per time unit d. the decrease of concentration C per time unit e. the product of concentration A and B divided by concentration C CHEMISTRY 2 FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL YEAR XI 149

Essay

1). a. 0.4 g of NaOH (Mr = 40 g/mole) is dissolved in to 100 mL of solution. Calculate the molarity of NaOH solution. b. How many grams of CaCO3 (Mr =100 g/mole) must be dissolved into 250 mL solution to make 0.4 M solution?

2). In a 10 liter beaker, firstly there is 5 mole of NO, gas, then it undergoes decomposition: 2NO2 (g) 2NO (g) + O2 (g). After 3 hours, NO2 gas only has 1.40 mole. Calculate: a. the rate of decomposition reaction of NO2 gas, b. the rate of formation reaction of NO, c. the rate of formation reaction of O2!

3). A + B + C 4 products The equation of the rate of reaction is v = k [A]2 [C] If each concentration A,B and C are increased three times as much, how many times the rate of reaction will be faster now compared to the first rate?

4). 2A + 3B A2B3 The equation of the rate of reaction is v = k [A] [B ]2 The rate of reaction constant is k = 0.01 mole-2 L-2 , the initial concentration of A = 0.2 M and B = 0.4 M. After reaction occurs several times, then A has been reacted as 60%. Calculate the rate of reaction at that condition.

5).From reaction X + Y XY , is gained data below:

No.

A (molar)

B (molar)

The Rate of the Reaction M hour


-1

1 2

1.30 x 10-2 6.50 x 10-3

2.10 x 10-2 1.05 x 10-2

1.4 x 10-1 3.5 x 10-2

3 4

3.90 x 10-2 1.30 x 10-2

4.20 x 10-2 1.05 x 10-2

8.4 x 10-1 7.0 x 10-2

Determine: a. the order of reaction, b. equation of the rate of reaction, c. the rate of reaction constant, d, the rate of reaction if the concentration of A is 0.026 M and B is 0.021 M! CHEMISTRY 2 FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL YEAR XI 151