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POWER ELECTRONICS CET

Channaveer.N

POWER ELECTRONICS

Power electronics is the application of solid-state electronics for the control and conversion of electric power

● Power Devices & Applications

● Power Electronics Circuits

● Solid State Control of DC & AC motors,PLC

Power Devices & Applications

POWER DIODE

● How it Looks Representation

POWER DIODE ● How it Looks Representation
POWER DIODE ● How it Looks Representation

IMP POINTS

● It is similar to PN junction diode

● Power Diodes have large Power , Current and Voltage handling Capability

● Power Diodes are uncontrolled devices

● Break down voltages is decided by depletion region

V-I Characteristics

V-I Characteristics

POWER TRANSISTOR

● How it Looks Representation

POWER TRANSISTOR ● How it Looks Representation

IMP POINTS

● It is similar to low power transistor

● Power Transistor have large Power , Current and Voltage handling Capability

● Power Transistor are controlled devices

● It turns on when current is given to base

● It turns off when current is removed from base

V-I Characteristics

V-I Characteristics
Region Emitter Collector Junction Junction ACTIVE Forward Reverse (amp) Bias Bias CUT-OFF Reverse Reverse
Region
Emitter
Collector
Junction
Junction
ACTIVE
Forward
Reverse
(amp)
Bias
Bias
CUT-OFF
Reverse
Reverse
(switch)
Bias
Bias
Saturation
Forward
Forward
Bias
Bias

THYRISTOR:

● It’s a 4 layer PN semiconductor device used for controlling and conversion of power ● Examples SCR DIAC TRIAC GTO IGBT

SCR(Silicon controlled Rectifier)

● How it Looks Representation Representations

SCR(Silicon controlled Rectifier) ● How it Looks Representation Representations
SCR(Silicon controlled Rectifier) ● How it Looks Representation Representations

IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT SCR

● It is a 4-Layer Device

● It is having 3 junctions

● It is having 3-terminals

● Current Rating is 3000A

● Voltage Rating is 10kV

● Power Handling 30MW

● It is a Unidirectional Device

● SCR is a gate Triggered Device

● Two Transistor Analogy

● SCR is made up of 1 NPN and 1PNP transistor

● Two Transistor Analogy ● SCR is made up of 1 NPN and 1PNP transistor

● When SCR is in Forward Bias

● When SCR is in Forward Bias FORWARD BLOCKING MODE FORWARD CONDUCTION MODE J1 is Forward

FORWARD BLOCKING MODE FORWARD CONDUCTION MODE

J1 is Forward Biased J1 is Forward Biased J2 is Reverse Biased J2 is Forward Biased J3 is Forward Biased J3 is Forward Biased

● When SCR is in Reverse Bias

● When SCR is in Reverse Bias Its is called as Reverse Blocking Mode J1 is

Its is called as Reverse Blocking Mode J1 is Reverse Biased J2 is Forward Biased J3 is Reverse Biased

● V-I Characteristics

● V-I Characteristics ● I L :Min current required to switch device from OFF to ON

● IL :Min current required to

switch device from OFF to ON

● IH :Min current required to hold device in ON state

●IL > IH

● VBO :Voltage above which SCR entersCond uction State

● VBR: Voltage

Methods Of Triggering SCR

Thermal Triggering : Triggering the device by heating

Radiation Triggering :Light particles are made to bombard the reverse bias junction j2

Voltage Triggering : A positive voltage applied between anode and cathode of SCR

dv/dt Triggering : Sudden change in voltage

Gate Triggering : A positive voltage

● Types of Gate Triggering Resistance(R) Resistance-Capacitance(RC) UJT Firing Circuit

SCR Protection

● Protection Against Over current:

Use Circuit Breaker & fast acting fuses in series with SCR

● Protection Against Over voltage:

By connecting non-linear resistance devices in parallel to SCR

● Protection Against Large di/dt :

By connecting ‘L’ in series with SCR ● Protection Against Large dv/dt:

By connecting snubber circuit in parallel with SCR

DIAC(Diode for Alternating Current)

● How it Looks Representation

DIAC(Diode for Alternating Current) ● How it Looks Representation
DIAC(Diode for Alternating Current) ● How it Looks Representation

IMPORTANT POINTS

● It’s a Four Layer Device

● It has three junctions

● It has two terminals MT1 and MT2

● DIAC is bidirectional device

● DIAC is nothing but 2 SCR’s in anti- parallel manner

● DIAC=TRIAC with out gate

● DIAC is used to trigger the gate of TRIAC eg. Light Dimmer CKT

V-I Characteristics

V-I Characteristics By This we can say DIAC can be triggered by both positive and negative

By This we can say DIAC can be triggered by both positive and negative half cycle

TRIAC(Triode for Alternating Current)

● How it Looks Representation

TRIAC(Triode for Alternating Current) ● How it Looks Representation
TRIAC(Triode for Alternating Current) ● How it Looks Representation

IMPORTANT POINTS

● It’s a Four Layer Device

● It has three junctions

● It has 3 terminals Gate,TE1 and TE2

● It is 2 SCR’s in anti-parallel manner

● Triac can be triggered by Gate,TE1 and TE2 ,So gate alone does not have control over triac ● Triac can be Triggered by both positive and negative half cycle

MOSFET(Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor)

● How it Looks Representation n-channel depletion type

MOSFET(Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor) ● How it Looks Representation n-channel depletion type
MOSFET(Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor) ● How it Looks Representation n-channel depletion type

IMPORTANT POINTS

● Two types of MOSFET

Depletion Type: The conduction channel is physically implanted Enhanced Type : The conduction channel is not physically implanted

● Flow of Current controlled by electric field

● MOSFET a voltage controlled device

● Used as switch and switching speed is of the order of nanosecond

● V-I is similar to power transistor

GTO(Gate Turn OFF Switch )

● How it Looks Representation

GTO(Gate Turn OFF Switch ) ● How it Looks Representation
GTO(Gate Turn OFF Switch ) ● How it Looks Representation

IMPORTANT POINTS

● In GTO , Gate turns on and turns off the switch

● Positive voltage turns on the device

● Negative voltage turns off the device

● Commutation Circuit is not required

● Current rating 1400A

● Voltage rating 2500V ● The forward VI characteristic is identical to a conventional thyristor

IGBT

● How it Looks Representation

IGBT ● How it Looks Representation
IGBT ● How it Looks Representation

IMPORTANT POINTS

● It is combination of merits of BJT and MOSFET

● Turn ON and Turn OFF time 1µs

● Current Rating 1200A

● Voltage Rating 1700V

● More Expensive that BJT

Commutation

● It’s a method of turning OFF thyristor with help of External circuit

● Types ● Natural Commutation: Connected to ac source , the current goes to 0 @ the end of half cycle

● Forced Commutation : Commutation by external Circuit

● Resonant(Class A) : ‘R’ , ’C’ and ‘L’ are in series with thyristor

● Self(Class B) : In this commutation is done by thyristor

● Auxiliary/Voltage(Class C) : Auxiliary thyristor is used for switching off main thyristor

● Complementary Commutation (Class D) :

In this capacitor is connect in parallel to main thyristor with one more thyristor called Complementary thyristor

● External Pulse Commutation (Class E)

Commutation is obtained by external pulse from transistor

Power Electronics Circuits

Rectifier: AC to DC

● Appln: DC transmission , HVDC transmission ● Classification

Rectifier (Based On DC OutPut) Uncontrolled (Fixed DC OutPut) Controlled (Variable DC OutPut)
Rectifier
(Based On DC OutPut)
Uncontrolled
(Fixed DC OutPut)
Controlled
(Variable DC
OutPut)
Controlled Rectifiers (Based On SCR’s and Diodes) Half Controlled (Diodes and SCR’s) Fully Controlled (SCR’s)
Controlled Rectifiers
(Based On SCR’s and Diodes)
Half Controlled
(Diodes and SCR’s)
Fully Controlled
(SCR’s)
Rectifiers (Based On SCR’s and Diodes) Half Wave Rectifiers (One Half Cycle) Full Wave Rectifiers
Rectifiers
(Based On SCR’s and Diodes)
Half Wave Rectifiers
(One Half Cycle)
Full Wave Rectifiers
(Two Half Cycle)
Rectifiers (Based On Transformer) Mid-Point Rectifiers (Uses Transformer)
Rectifiers
(Based On Transformer)
Mid-Point Rectifiers
(Uses Transformer)

Bridge Rectifiers (Not uses transformer)

Rectifiers (Based On Phase) Single phase Rectifiers Three phase Rectifiers
Rectifiers
(Based On Phase)
Single phase
Rectifiers
Three phase
Rectifiers
Rectifiers (Based On Quadrant) Semi Converter (One Full converter (Two Quadrant) Dual Converter (Four Quadrant)
Rectifiers
(Based On Quadrant)
Semi
Converter
(One
Full converter
(Two
Quadrant)
Dual Converter
(Four
Quadrant)

Quadrant)

Examples Of Rectifier

● Single phase half-Wave Controlled Rectifier (one SCR, half Cycle )

● Single phase Mid-point Controlled Rectifier (one transformer, two SCR’s, both cycles)

● Single phase Fully Controlled Bridge Rectifier (four SCR’s, both cycles)

● Single phase Half Controlled Bridge Rectifier (two SCR’s, two diodes, both cycles)

● Three phase Fully Controlled Bridge Rectifier (six SCR’s, both cycles of 3-

Choppers : Fixed DC to Variable DC

● Choppers are turn-off by forced commutation ● Appln: Electric traction, Trolley Cars, DC voltage regulation etc ● Classification Choppers

(Based On Frequency) Constant Frequency (Duty Cycle ‘α’ varied by varying TON and TOFF) Variable
(Based On Frequency)
Constant
Frequency
(Duty Cycle ‘α’
varied by varying
TON and TOFF)
Variable Frequency
(Duty Cycle ‘α’
varied by varying
by chopping
frequency)
Choppers (Based On Input(Vs) and Output(Vo)) Step-Up Transformer {(Vo>Vs), (1 Thyristor and 1 Diode)}
Choppers
(Based On Input(Vs) and Output(Vo))
Step-Up Transformer
{(Vo>Vs),
(1 Thyristor and 1
Diode)}

Step-Down Transformer {(Vo<Vs), (1 Thyristor and 1 Diode)}

Choppers (Based On Quadrant) Single Two Quadrant Four Quadrant Quadrant
Choppers
(Based On Quadrant)
Single
Two Quadrant
Four Quadrant
Quadrant

● Single Quadrant Choppers First Quadrant (Type A)

(1 Thyristor and 1 Diode)

● Single Quadrant Choppers First Quadrant (Type A) ( 1 Thyristor and 1 Diode )

Second Quadrant (Type B)

(1 Thyristor and 1 Diode)

Second Quadrant (Type B) ( 1 Thyristor and 1 Diode )

● TwoQuadrant Choppers Type C

(2 Thyristor and 2 Diode)

● TwoQuadrant Choppers Type C ( 2 Thyristor and 2 Diode )

Type D (2 Thyristor and 2 Diode)

Type D (2 Thyristor and 2 Diode)

● Four Quadrant Choppers

(4Thyristor and 4 Diode)

● Four Quadrant Choppers ( 4Thyristor and 4 Diode )

Inverters(Converts DC to AC)

● Classification

Inverter (Based On Source) Voltage Source Current Source
Inverter
(Based On Source)
Voltage Source
Current Source
Inverter (Based On O/P)
Inverter
(Based On O/P)

Single Phase Inverter

Three Phase Inverter

Inverter (Based On Connection) Series Inverter (All Components are in series with Load) Voltage Inverter
Inverter
(Based On Connection)
Series Inverter
(All Components are in
series with Load)
Voltage Inverter
(All Components are in
parallel with Load)

● Types

Single Phase half bridge Voltage Source Inverter (2 thyristors , 2 diodes) Single Phase Full bridge Voltage Source Inverter (4 thyristors , 4 diodes)

● Application

Variable speed ac motor devices, Induction heating, HVDC transmission ● Heart of Inverter is oscillating circuit

Cyclo-converters (One freq of ac to another freq of ac)

● Classification

Cycloconverters (Based On Phase) Single Phase to Single Phase Three Phase to Single Phase Three
Cycloconverters
(Based On Phase)
Single Phase
to Single
Phase
Three Phase
to Single
Phase
Three Phase
to Three
Phase
Cycloconverters (Based On Frequency) Step-Up (O/P freq > I/P freq) Step-Down (O/P freq < I/P
Cycloconverters
(Based On Frequency)
Step-Up
(O/P freq > I/P freq)
Step-Down
(O/P freq < I/P freq)
Cycloconverters (Based On Transformer) Mid point Tapping (Transformer used) Bridge (Transformer not used)
Cycloconverters
(Based On Transformer)
Mid point Tapping
(Transformer used)
Bridge
(Transformer not used)

● Examples Single Phase to Single Phase Cyclo- converter Centre-trapped (4 thyristors , 1 transformer) Bridge (6 thyristors ) Three Phase to Single Phase Cyclo- converter Half-wave (6 thyristors ) Bridge (12 thyristors ) Three Phase to Three Phase Cyclo- converter (6 thyristors ) Appln : Speed control of high power ac