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SUMMARY INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE/PURPOSE THEORY APPARATUS INTRODUCTION PROCEDURE RESULTS METHOD OF CALCULATION CONCLUSION DISCUSSION REFERENCES APPENDICES

SUMMARY
Pump has been widely used in any industrial company in order to overcome the limitation of the human energy in transferring fluid in the fastest way. There are many type of pump which is involve in those particular task as the pump is a device that transport the fluid in a certain distance. One type of common pump used is centrifugal pump. Centrifugal pump is the rotodynamic pump that use impeller to increase the pressure of the fluid. Besides the centrifugal pump, there are two types of pump that have same task as the centrifugal pump which are rotational gear pump and also piston pump. However, the differences in those pumps are their ability in transferring the fluid and also in their efficiency of doing those particular tasks. In this experiment, those pumps will be tested on their efficiency in transferring the fluid and also the cost that use in completing the jobs.

INTRODUCTION
Industrial sector is one of the largest distributer in financial for the country all around the world. This sector also carries at least 70% of any countries finance distribution which make it as one of the sectors which required huge amount of human work and also machine to improve the productivity thus fulfill the demands of the socials. However, some works have to be done by a specific machine as the limitation of human ability. Most of the company will use various type machines including a pump. Pump is the device that is being use to move a fluids through a certain distance. However, the selection of suitable pump is a vital process as there are many pump with their own ability and also its functionality. How the pump works is depending on the type of the pump used. Centrifugal pump will works via converting kinetic energy into potential energy measurable as static fluid pressure at the outlet of the pump. With the mechanical action of an electric motor, the rotation of the pump impeller imparts kinetic energy to the fluid through centrifugal force. The fluid is drawn from the inlet piping into the impeller and is accelerated outwards through the impeller vanes to the volute and outlet piping. However, if the outlet piping is too high to allow flow, the fluid kinetic energy is converted into static pressure. If the outlet piping is open at a lower level, the fluid will be released at greater speed. Differ from the centrifugal pump, piston pump use a suction to raise the pressure onto the fluid to be driven into particular distance. While gear pump works by rotating and also push the water that is trapped inside the gear teeth. The water then will be driven out of the gear pump as the fluid is forbidden to return back.

Efficiency of the pump can be determined by using these formulae : Efficiency = Power Out Power In

OBJECTIVE
The objective in this experiment is a) To compare the effectiveness of the piston pump, centrifugal pump and also gear pump.

APPARATUS AND DEVICE


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Water Tank Centrifugal Pump Gear pump Piston pump Pressure Transducer Motor

THEORY
There are several theory that is being used to determine the effectiveness of the pump used. The torque exerted by the motor is the product of the lever arm length and the force on the load cell. The load cell is calibrated by resting a known weight (typically about 300 g) on the small ball bearing that presses on the load cell center pin, after zeroing (tare button) the display. For example 298 grams will typically produce a reading of 227 meter units. The lever arm length in this experiment is the horizontal distance between the motor shaft centerline and the button on the load cell. The power delivered to the belt and then to the pump is given by the formula P = 2 Pi NT, where N is the rotational speed in revolutions per second, T is the torque in Newtons, and P hof the volumetric flow rate (m3/s) and the pressure drop across the pump (Pa = N/m2). The efficiency of the pump is then the ratio of the power absorbed by the fluid to the power supplied by the motor. With small pumps such as those supplied, efficiency may be quite low due to factors such as friction in the bearings, turbulence in the pumps, and backflow in the gear pump. Gear and centrifugal pumps are very different in construction and operation. As a first approximation, a gear pump is a positive displacement device, in the sense that it delivers a flow rate proportional to pump speed and independent of discharge pressure. In contrast, a centrifugal pump delivers a discharge pressure proportional to pump speed, and independent of flow rate. In the present experiment, closing the ball valve in the centrifugal pump discharge line causes no problems, while closing the ball valve in the gear pump discharge line could destroy the polymeric gears. Torque and Power The torque exerted by the motor is the product of the lever arm length and the force on the load cell . The load cell is calibrated by resting a known weight (typically about 300 g) on the small ball bearing that presses on the load cell center pin, after zeroing (tare button) the display. The power delivered to the belt and then to the pump is given by the formula P = 2 Pi NT, where N is the rotational speed in revolutions per second, T is the torque in Newtons, and P is power in Watts. This can be compared to the power delivered to the water, namely the product of the volumetric flow rate (m3/s) and the pressure drop across the pump (Pa = N/m2). The efficiency of the pump is then the ratio of the power absorbed by the fluid to the power supplied by the motor. With small pumps such as those supplied, efficiency may be quite low due to factors such as friction in the bearings, turbulence in the pumps, and backflow in the gear pump. Gear and centrifugal pumps are very different in construction and operation. As a first approximation, a gear pump is a positive displacement device, in the sense that it delivers a flow rate proportional to pump speed and independent of discharge pressure. In contrast, a centrifugal pump delivers a discharge pressure proportional to pump speed, and independent of flow rate.

PROCEDURE
The group is to form two constant speed, variable head test. Test RPM will be prescribed by the lab instructor (3400 RPM). 1) Before starting the motor, connect the magnetic pick up to the pulse counter and the torque transduser to a strain indicator. 2) Balance the strain indicator to zero at zero at zero load. Indirectly calibrate the torque sensor using the precision calibration resistors provided (50k ohm or 60k ohm resistor depending on torque sensor serial number) to stimulate the load (torque) noted on specification sheet. Note(for centrifugal pump): since the pump operation is to be counter-clockwise, the precision calibration resistor is to be connected across the green and black terminals of the strain indicator. (The shaft will rotate counter clockwise when viewed from the inlet side of the pumps. 3) Close the head valve on the discharge pipe and start the motor. Check to see if the pump discharge increases. If there is no pump discharge pressure in ten seconds, the pump is probably dry and must be primed. To primed the pump, open the cap on the flowmeter and add water to fill the pump. Close the flowmeter cap and the pump again. 4) Allow the pump to operate a few minutes before taking any data. During this time period, open and close the discharge valve and observed the suction and discharge pressure gauge. 5) Begin each of the tests with the head valve open. Use the variable pitch speed knob to set the motor shaft speed as prescribed by the instructor. There are 20 teeth on the gear (inside the torque sensor housing) that passes through the flux of magnetic pickup. Determine the number of teeth per second that is equivalent to the prescribed shaft RPM, set the pulse counter gate to one second, and adjust the variable pitch speed control knob until the prescribed shaft speed is obtained. 6) Before taking data, make sure the head valve is open. Vary the head of the pump by gradually opening the head valve over several increments (10-15) until the head valve is fully closed. At each increment (including the fully closed initial head valve position record): Suction pressure Discharge pressure Strain indicator reading (torque) Flow capacity

7) The two test are to be constant speed test at the same RPM. However, the data for one of the test will not be constant speed. As the head valve is opened, the load is reduced and the motor speed increases. To ensure constant speed tests, the following procedure is to be followed: Test 1: At each head valve position increment adjust the variable pitch speed control knob to maintain constant speed. Test 2: Do not adjust the variable pitch control knob to maintain constant speed. Record the actual RPM at each head valve position increment. 8) Repeat the procedure by using piston pump and gear pump 9) From the experiment, calculate the dynamic head, hydraulic horsepower, input horsepower and pump efficiency for both test for the three of the pump. Performances curves graph for pump is plotted.

RESULTS

Centrifugal Pump Flow: 120 LPM @ 5 m Head @ 2850 RPM Max Head: 8.8 m

Piston Pump Flow : 19 LPM @ 1040 RPM Max Pressure: 70 bar Bore: 18 mm Stroke: 19.5 mm

Gear Pump Flow: 10 LPM @ 5 m Head @ 1400 RPM Pressure: Limited at 5 bar

METHOD OF CALCULATION
These formulas are being used to determine the efficiency of the pump.

EFFICIENCY : Power Output Power Input

Power (W): Work (J) / Time (sec)

Flow : Q2 = Q1 (N2/N1)

Head : H2 = H1 (N2/N1)2

Input Power : HP2 = HP1 (N2/N1)3

CONCLUSION
Based on theoretical value, it can be conclude that centrifugal pump is the most efficient pump compared to the piston pump and also gear pump. This conclusion is made based on the efficiency of the centrifugal pump which is greater than piston pump and also gear pump. Centrifugal pump has an ability to deliver the fluids in higher pressure with ultimately dependent on the pressure. At low input pressure, the fluids can be delivered at higher pressure with centrifugal pump. This criteria is the most important in determination of the efficiency of pump.

DISCUSSIONS
Centrifugal pump has the highest efficiency due to the higher pressure produced to transfer the fluid without needs a higher pressure. Efficiency of the pumps does not only depending on the flow rate of the fluid but also include the cost that be taken by the pumps to deliver those fluid. Centrifugal pumps has the lowest cost consumption compare to gear pump and also piston pump. The flow rate of the centrifugal pump is the highest at lower pressure. Furthermore, centrifugal pump does not have to face a low flow-rate capability which might be a serious problem for the piston pump and also gear pump. Centrifugal pumps are suitable for transferring a variety of fluids ranging from clean, clear non-abrasive fluids to abrasive-slurries. However, a centrifugal pump is not the best choice for pumping highly viscous fluids due to dramatic drops in efficiency at high viscosities. Centrifugal pumps are not normally specified for viscosity. Centrifugal pumps are also not well suited to pumping entrained air. Reciprocating pumps such as piston pump are well suited for transferring clear, nonabrasive fluids, as well as abrasive slurries. In fact, the relatively low velocities of moving parts within a reciprocating pump make it particularly resistant to erosion in abrasive-slurry applications, provided that the pump is properly designed for the service. Reciprocating pumps maintain high efficiencies when pumping highly viscous fluids. Rotary pumps such as gear pump can also handle high viscosity fluids and high volumes of entrained gas. In fact, many rotary pumps operate at their best efficiency at higher viscosities. However, rotary pumps are not well suited for pumping corrosive fluids or fluids with abrasive solids because of close clearances between rotating and static pump components. The wide variety of centrifugal pumps manufactured offer a relatively large range of available capacities. Different type of the centrifugal pump such as radial-flow and mixed flow pumps are used for low to medium capacity applications. For high capacity applications, axialflow pumps are capable of delivering flow rates in excess of 100,000 galloon per minute (gpm). Centrifugal pumps are not stable at low flow rates, although there are special low-flow centrifugal pumps available that can deliver flow rates less than 10 gpm. However, for extreme low-flow applications (< 1 gpm), positive displacement pumps are a better selection. Extreme low-flow of the fluid also cause the centrifugal pump to shut down. Reciprocating and rotary pumps are capable of capacities ranging from low to medium, with flow rates peaking at 10,000+ gpm. In theory, reciprocating pumps can be manufactured to deliver more capacity, but they become prohibitively large and expensive at high flow rates. Both reciprocating and rotary pumps are capable of delivering product at extremely low flow rates (fractions of a gpm), making them particularly suitable for many chemical injection applications.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
There are some of the disadvantages of the centrifugal pump that might be occurred. However, to encounter such problems, there are several recommendations that might be used. 1) Do not let the pump run at the zero flow. -Do not let a centrifugal pump operate for long periods of time at zero flow. In residential systems, the pressure switch shuts the pump down when the pressure is high which means there is low or no flow. 2) Use pressure gauges - Make sure your pump has a pressure gauge on the discharge side close to the outlet of the pump this will help you diagnose pump system problems. It is also useful to have a pressure gauge on the suction side, the difference in pressure is proportional to the total head . The pressure gauge reading will have to be corrected for elevation since the reference plane for total head calculation is the suction flange of the pump. 3) Do not let a pump run dry, use a check valve - Most centrifugal pumps cannot run dry, ensure that the pump is always full of liquid. In residential systems, to ensure that the pump stays full of the liquid use a check valve at the water source end of the suction line. Certain types of centrifugal pumps do not require a check valve as they can generate suction at the pump inlet to lift the fluid into the pump.

REFERENCES
1) Olsen, R.M., Essentials of Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Second Edition, Inter national Te xtbook Company, 1968, 448 pp. 2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_pump#Pumps_for_open_and_closed_systems 3) www.sdrl.uc.edu/academic-course-info/docs/.../pump_test_lab.pdf 4) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_pump 5) www.idcon.com/pdf-doc/centrifugalpumps.pdf

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APPENDICES

Transducer

Piston pump

Centrifugal pump

Gear pump

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