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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

Introduction

1. Introduction 11. More on Solution

2. FEA and ANSYS 12. More on Post-processing

3. ANSYS Basics 13. Coupling and Constraint

4. Stress Analysis Basics Equations

5. Modeling Decisions 14. Thermal Analysis

6. Importing Geometry 15. Thermal Stress Analysis

7. Solid Modeling 16. Submodeling

8. Meshing 17. Modal Analysis

9. Useful Utilities 18. Nonlinear Analysis

10. Working with Elements 19. Contact Analysis

I-1

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• People and Organizations

• About This Training Course

• Other Sources of Information / Education

• ANSYS Family of Products

• ANSYS Capabilities at a Glance

I-2

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• ANSYS, Inc.

– Developer of ANSYS family of products

– Headquartered in Canonsburg, PA - USA (south of Pittsburgh)

• Computer Aided Engineering Associates Inc.

– Sales and support network for ANSYS

– 1 of 35 ASDs worldwide (over 75 offices)

– Local expertise for ANSYS consulting and training

• ANSYS Support Coordinator (ASC)

– Jim Bunch for GE Power Systems

– Focal point for ANSYS correspondence; software updates, error

notices, newsletter and other mailings, etc.

I-3

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• Introduction to ANSYS

• FEA Best Practices

• Heat Transfer

• Dynamics

• Structural Non-linearities

• APDL Macros

through the attached web site :

http://web1.geps.ge.com/communities/engineering/gas/techauto/ using

"Training wizard".

I-4

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• Mechanical Engineering Consulting Firm

• ANSYS Support Distributor(ASD)

• Engineering Seminars

• Custom Software Development

• Website: www.caeai.com

I-5

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• ASD - ANSYS Support Distributor

• All ASDs are consulting firms:

– extensive finite element and ANSYS expertise

– active consultants

– local sales/marketing of ANSYS

– provide hotline support to local customers

– provide local training and consulting

I-6

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• Nicholas M. Veikos, Ph.D., President

• Peter R. Barrett, M.S.C.E., P.E., Vice President

• Michael Bak, Ph.D., Project Mgr.

• Kenneth R. Brown, Ph.D., Sr. Project Engr.

• Patrick Cunningham, M.S.M.E., Project Mgr.

• Dan Fridline, Ph.D., Project Mgr.

• Steven Hale, M.S.M.E., Project Mgr.

• Stan Kelley, M.S.M.E., P.E.,Applications Engr.

• James Kosloski, M.S.M.E., Project Mgr.

• Scott Zemitis, M.S.M.E.,P.E., Project Mgr.

• Lawrence L. Durocher, Ph.D., Director

I-7

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• Stress Analysis

– Linear and Nonlinear

– Static and Dynamic

– Implicit and Explicit Dynamics

• Thermal Analysis

– Linear and Nonlinear

– Steady-State and Transient

– Coupled Thermal-Flow

I-8

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• ANSYS

• DYNA3D

– modified public domain version

– Livermore Software version

• ProEngineer, Unigraphics

• CAEA Rotor Dynamics Code

I-9

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• Simulation/optimization of battery assembly

process(LD,LS,E-P,CONT)

Expanded Medical stents (LD,CONT, E-P, Shape

Memory) - Including FDA submittals

Contact(SUB,CONT)

I-10

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• Long term relationship with Gas turbine Industry

(United Technologies, GE) , Biomedical Industry,

Manufacturing, etc

• We develop materials and provide FEA training for

many customers (Pratt & Whitney, GE, Schick, etc)

– ANSYS courses

– FEA Best Practices(code independent)

• We provide hot-line ANSYS support (No Answering

Machine - Real engineers !)

I-11

• Goals

• Content

• Scope

• Delivery Format

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

June 2001

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc I-12

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• Skills

– Operating the ANSYS program using the Graphical User

Interface (GUI).

– Planning and performing basic analyses (linear, static,

structural).

• Knowledge

– Describing ANSYS capabilities and how to access them.

I-13

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• Introductory level only.

• Material is tailored to Gas Turbine industry

applications.

• Several advanced training courses available on

specific topics including:

– Finite Element Best Practices

– Dynamics

– Structural Nonlinearities

– APDL programming

– Heat Transfer

I-14

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• “Mentoring”

– working with experienced users or consultants

– check with your ASC

• Self-study

– On-line documentation

– Other ANSYS manuals (e.g., Workbook, Verification)

– ANSYS tutorials

– “Analysis Solutions” magazine

– Training manuals from other ANSYS courses

– ANSYS conference proceedings

• Advanced ANSYS training

– From Computer Aided Engineering Associates Inc.

– On-site or customized

I-15

FEA and ANSYS

ANSYS/ ANSYS/ ANSYS/

Professional Mechanical ANSYS/ Emag

Multiphysics

ANSYS/ ANSYS/

Structural ProFEA

ANSYS/

ED

ANSYS/

FLOTRAN

ANSYS/ DesignSpace

LS-DYNA ANSYS/ ANSYS/

PrepPost University

I-16

FEA and ANSYS

• ANSYS is a complete FEA software package used by

engineers worldwide in virtually all fields of engineering:

– Structural

– Thermal

– Fluid, including CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

– Electrical / Electrostatics

– Electromagnetics

• A partial list of industries in which ANSYS is used:

– Aerospace – Electronics & Appliances

– Automotive – Heavy Equipment & Machinery

– Biomedical – MEMS - Micro Electromechanical

– Bridges & Buildings Systems

– Sporting Goods

I-17

FEA and ANSYS

• ANSYS/Multiphysics is the flagship ANSYS product which

includes all capabilities in all engineering disciplines.

• There are three main component products derived from

ANSYS/Multiphysics:

– ANSYS/Mechanical - structural & thermal capabilities

– ANSYS/Emag - electromagnetics

– ANSYS/FLOTRAN - CFD capabilities

• Other product lines:

– ANSYS/LS-DYNA - for highly nonlinear structural problems

– DesignSpace - an easy-to-use design and analysis tool meant

for quick analysis within the CAD environment

– ANSYS/ProFEA - for ANSYS analysis & design optimization

within Pro/ENGINEER

I-18

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• Structural Analysis

• Thermal Analysis

• Fluid Analysis (CFD)

• Coupled-Field Analysis - Multiphysics

I-19

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

Structural Analysis determines deformations,

strains, stresses, and reaction forces.

• Structural analysis types:

– Static analysis - used for static loading conditions. It can

account for linear or nonlinear behavior such as: large

deflections, large strain, stress stiffening, contact, plasticity,

hyperelasticity, and creep.

– Modal analysis - calculates the natural frequencies and mode

shapes of a linear structure. Spectrum analysis is an extension

of modal analysis used to calculate stresses and strains due to

random vibrations (also known as response spectrum or PSD).

Cyclic Symmetry capabilities exist for Modal Analysis.

I-20

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

– Harmonic analysis - determines the response of a linear

structure to harmonically time-varying (sinusoidal)

loads.

– Transient Dynamic analysis - determines the response of

a structure to arbitrarily time-varying loads. It can

account for the same types of nonlinear behavior as for

static analysis.

– Eigenvalue Buckling analysis - used to calculate linear

buckling loads and to determine buckling mode shapes.

(Nonlinear buckling analysis can be done with transient

dynamics.)

I-21

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• Special purpose features:

– Fracture mechanics

– Composite analysis

– Fatigue analysis

alternative to standard ANSYS transient dynamics.

– Intended for very large deformation simulations where inertia

forces are dominant and accounts for all nonlinearities.

– Its explicit formulation solves impact, crushing, and rapid

forming problems by the most efficient methods available

today.

I-22

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

Thermal Analysis calculates the steady-state or

transient temperature distribution in an object.

Other quantities of interest include amount of

heat lost or gained, thermal gradients, and

thermal flux.

• Thermal analysis is often followed by structural

analysis to calculate stresses from differential

thermal expansion.

• ANSYS capabilities:

– Phase change (melting or freezing), and internal heat

generation (e.g., Joule heating from an electric current)

– Primary heat transfer modes (conduction, convection,

radiation)

I-23

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

Fluid Analysis is used to determine the flow and

thermal characteristics of moving fluid. Fluid

analysis types include:

– Acoustic analysis - considers the interaction between a

fluid medium and the surrounding solid, for sound-wave

propagation or submerged-structure dynamics.

– Contained-fluid analysis - considers the effects of a

contained, non-flowing fluid. It can determine hydrostatic

pressures due to sloshing.

– Dynamic fluid coupling analysis - uses a fluid coupling

element in a structural dynamic analysis, based on the

dynamic response of a constrained mass of fluid.

I-24

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

• The ANSYS/FLOTRAN licensing option provides

comprehensive CFD (“Computational Fluid

Dynamics”) capability:

– Compressible and incompressible flow

– Laminar and turbulent flow

– Multiple species

I-25

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

Coupled-Field Analysis considers the mutual

interaction between two or more fields. The fact

that each field depends upon another makes it

impossible to solve each separately, therefore you

need a program that can solve both physics

problems by combining them.

• Example: A piezoelectric analysis requires the

simultaneous solution of the voltage distribution

(electric) and strains (structural).

• Other situations which typically require coupled-

field analyses:

– Thermal-stress analyses

– Fluid-structure interaction

– Induction heating, induction stirring

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

I-26

Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

FEA and ANSYS

A. What is FEA? Training Manual

• Finite Element Analysis is a way to simulate loading

conditions on a design and determine the design’s response

to those conditions.

• The design is modeled using discrete building blocks called

elements.

– Each element has exact

Historical Note

equations that describe how it

responds to a certain load. • The finite element method of

structural analysis was created by

– The “sum” of the response of all academic and industrial researchers

elements in the model gives the during the 1950s and 1960s.

• The underlying theory is over 100

total response of the design. years old, and was the basis for

– The elements have a finite pen-and-paper calculations in the

evaluation of suspension bridges

number of unknowns, hence the and steam boilers.

name finite elements.

2-2

FEA and ANSYS

...What is FEA? Training Manual

• The finite element model, which has a finite number of

unknowns, can only approximate the response of the

physical system, which has infinite unknowns.

– So the question arises: How good is the approximation?

– Unfortunately, there is no easy

answer to this question. It

depends entirely on what you are

simulating and the tools you use

for the simulation. We will,

however, attempt to give you

guidelines throughout this

training course.

2-3

FEA and ANSYS

...What is FEA? Training Manual

Why is FEA needed?

• To reduce the amount of prototype testing

– Computer simulation allows multiple “what-if” scenarios to be

tested quickly and effectively.

– Example: Surgical implants, such as an artificial knee

– Cost savings

– Time savings… reduce time to market!

– Create more reliable, better-quality designs

2-4

Training Manual

Degrees of Freedom

Degrees of freedom (DOFs) characterize the response

of a field.

UY

ROTY Discipline DOF

Structural Displacement

UX Thermal Temperature

ROTZ ROTX Electrical Voltage

UZ Fluid Pressure

Structural DOFs Magnetic Magnetic Potential

2-5

Training Manual

Nodes and Elements

Load Node: Coordinate location in space where

degrees of freedom and actions of the

physical system exist.

(called stiffness or coefficient matrix)

of the interaction among the degrees

of freedom of a set of nodes.

Elements may be line, area, or

solid, and two or three dimensional.

Load elements, connected to nodes, subjected to loads.

2-6

Training Manual

Nodes and Elements (cont’d)

• The behavior of each element is represented by several

linear equations.

total structure.

model having fewer than 100 equations (“degrees of

freedom”), even a small ANSYS simulation of today can

have 5,000 unknowns. The matrix can have 25,000,000

stiffness coefficients.

Historical Note

Early ANSYS development followed hardware progress. ANSYS was first released in

1970, running on $1,000,000 CDC, Univac, and IBM mainframe computers which were

much less powerful than today’s PCs. A Pentium PC could solve that 5,000 x 5,000

matrix system in a few minutes, instead of days as in the past.

2-7

Element Theory

Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual

The fundamental equations employed in structural analysis are

nodal equilibrium equations, which can be expressed in

matrix notation as:

ì .. ü ì.ü

[M ]íU ý + [C ]íU ý + [K ]{U } = {F }

î þ î þ

where :

[M ] = mass matrix

{U } = nodal acceleration vector

[C] = damping matrix

{U } = nodal velocity vector

[K ] = stiffness matrix

{F} = nodal force vector

2-8

Element Theory

Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual

(continued)

The previous equation expresses dynamic nodal equilibrium, i.e.,

the inertia forces plus the damping forces plus the elastic forces at

the nodes must balance the externally applied nodal forces. In this

case, displacements and forces are generalized to include

translations/rotations and forces/moments at the nodes.

equation that looks like the matrix form of a simple spring equation:

[K ]{U } = {F }

every direction. The stiffness coefficient Kij, the entry in the ith row and the

jth column of the [K] matrix, is the force required in the direction of DOF “i”

to produce a unit displacement of DOF ‘j’ while holding all other

displacements equal to zero. This physical interpretation is the basis for

developing stiffness matrices based on physical reasoning and

experimental results.

2-9

Element Theory

Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual

(continued)

Element characteristics are calculated on the basis of physical reasoning

for very simple elements such as springs, spars and beams. Consider the

simplest finite element, a linear spring having two degrees of freedom,

the extensional displacements at each end.

Employ the fundamental definition of a stiffness coefficient, impose a

unit displacement at one end and restrain all other degrees of freedom.

Each unit displacement condition generates one column of the element

stiffness matrix.

U1 k U2

k FR FR = K 22 = k

K12 = − k

2′

FR k

FR FR = K11 = k é K11 K12 ù

1′ ∴ [K ] = ê

K 21 = − k ë K 21 K 22 úû

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

2-10

Element Theory

Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual

(continued)

For a system experiencing nonzero values of U1 and U2,

superposition yields:

F1 = K11U1 + K12U 2

F2 = K 21U1 + K 22U 2

or in matrix form:

í ý = {F } = ê ú í ý = [K ]{U }

î F2 þ ë K 21 K 22 û îU 2 þ

where [K] is the element stiffness matrix for the spring element.

2-11

Element Theory

Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual

(continued)

The element contributions are summed to form the overall

system equilibrium equations.

Consider the simple two-element model shown below:

k=10 lbs/inch 2k

1 2

é U1 U 2ù é U 2 U3ù

[K]1 = êê 10 −10úú [K]2 = êê 20 − 20úú

ëê−10 10úû êë− 20 20úû

2-12

Element Theory

Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual

(continued)

Assembling the element contributions yields the overall system

equations,

ï ï ê ï ï

í F2 ý = ê K 21 K 22 K 23 ú íU 2 ý

ú

ïF ï êK K 32 K 33 úû ïîU 3 ïþ

î 3 þ ë 31

ì F1 ü é 10 − 10 0ù ì 0 ü

ï ï ê ú ïU ï

0

í ý ê = − 10 30 − 20

úí 2 ý

ï60ï ê 0 − 20 20úû ïîU 3 ïþ

î þ ë

2-13

Element Theory

Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual

(continued)

Note the system characteristics:

• Each column sums to zero; if the DOF contain both translations and

rotations, each column will not sum to zero.

• The main diagonal elements are always positive.

• The system stiffness matrix is sparse and banded.

• At every node, in every direction, the user knows either the nodal

displacement or the applied nodal force (but not both).

The last two equations can be solved for U2 and U3 and, then knowing

U2 and U3, the

reaction force at node 1 can be calculated from the first equation.

2-14

Element Theory

Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual

(continued)

Most elements are formulated on the basis of an energy principle or a

weighted residual approach.

The overall approach is outlined below:

• Assume a displacement field for the element, usually a polynomial

function.

• Compute the polynomial coefficients in terms of the unknown nodal

displacement components.

• Calculate the strains in terms of the nodal displacements.

• Use the stress–strain relationship to derive the stress-nodal

displacement equations.

• Substitute the expressions for stress and strain into the strain

energy calculation and integrate over the element volume to obtain

the element stiffness matrix.

• Substitute the nodal displacement approximations into the

expression for work done to obtain equivalent nodal forces.

2-15

Element Theory

Structural vs. Thermal Solutions Training Manual

The solution of a structural problem and a thermal problem

are very similar numerically. Physical quantities of structural

and thermal analyses are analogous in the following ways:

Structural Thermal

Displacements Temperatures

Stresses Flux

Internal Heat Generation per Unit

Temperature Distribution

Volume

2-16

Training Manual

Nodes and Elements (cont’d)

The DOFs at a node are a function of the element type

connected to the node.

J J

3-D Beam

3-D Spar (Pin Joints)

UX, UY, UZ,

UX, UY, UZ

ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ

I I

L K

2-D or Axisymmetric Solid L K

UX, UY

3-D Quadrilateral Shell

I J

UX, UY, UZ,

I J ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ

P O P O

3-D Structural Solid 3-D Thermal Solid

M UX, UY, UZ M

N N TEMP

L L

K K

I J I J

2-17

Training Manual

Nodes and Elements (cont’d)

Information is passed from element to element only at

common nodes.

2 nodes

1 node

A B A B

element A does not “talk” to elements A and B

element B (merge required) “talk” to each other

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

2-18

Training Manual

The Element Shape Function

• FEA solves for DOF values only at nodes.

allows values of a DOF from the nodes to be mapped to

points within the element.

results within the element.

for a given element.

the true behavior directly affects the accuracy of the

solution.

2-19

The Element Shape Function (Cont’d) Training Manual

Linear approximation to quadratic curve

Arbritrary distribution (Poor Results)

of DOF values

Actual quadratic curve

Actual Part

Node Element

1 2

Linear approximations approximate curves match)

(Better Results) (Best Results)

Actual quadratic

curve

3 4

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

2-20

Training Manual

The Element Shape Function (cont’d)

Observations:

• DOF values may or may not accurately match the true

solution at the nodes, but typically match it in an

average sense across an element.

DOFs (e.g., structural stresses, thermal gradients).

capture DOFs within an element may not be adequate

for these derived data because derived data is

calculated from derivatives of the element shape

function.

2-21

Training Manual

The Element Shape Function (cont’d)

The Bottom Line:

• When you choose an element type, you are

implicitly choosing and accepting the

element shape function assumed for that

element type.

• Make sure you have a sufficient number of

nodes and elements to adequately capture

the behavior of your problem given the

assumed element shape function of the

element type you have chosen.

2-22

1-D Elastic Rod: Direct Method

Training Manual

Physical System:

δ A,E

P P

L

2-23

1-D Elastic Rod: Direct Method

Training Manual

Spar Element: Real Constant: A

Material Property: E

x

ui uj

1 L 2

– Apply unit displacement to uj and hold ui,

– Apply unit displacement to ui and reaction forces are 2nd column

hold uj, reaction forces are 1st column

AE é 1 − 1ù

[ k] = ê− 1 1 ú

L ë û

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

2-24

1-D Elastic Rod: Formal Method

Training Manual

• Shape Functions:

ui uj

éL− x xù

[N] = ê

ë L L úû

1 L 2

• Strain Displacement Relationship:

d é−1 1 ù

[ B] = [ N ] = êë L L úû

dx

• Integrate to Determine Element Stiffness Matrix*:

ì − 1ü

AE é 1 − 1ù

L

T ï L ïé − 1 1ù

[ k ] = ò [ B] [ E ] [ B] dV = AE ò í 1 ý ê dx =

0 ï ïë L

ú

Lû L êë − 1 1 úû

î Lþ

* - based on virtual work argument where work done by external forces is equated to

internally stored strain energy. Refer to a textbook for details.

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

2-25

1-D Elastic Rod: Example Problem

Using Frontal Solution Method

Training Manual

Finite Element Model: Assume all elements have

same A, E, and L

x

u1 u2 u3 u4

P

1 1 2 2 3 3 4

• Assemble Global Stiffness Matrix:

é 1 −1 0 0ù

ê− 1 1 2 − 1 0ú

AE ê ú

[ K] = 2

L ê 0 −1 2 − 1ú

ê 3 ú

ë 0 0 − 1 1û

2-26

1-D Elastic Rod: Example Problem

Using Frontal Solution Method Training Manual

• Write Equations of Static Equilibrium:

[ M ] {U

} + [ C ] {U

} + [ K ] { U } = { F}

é 1 −1 0 0ù ì u1 ü ì f 1ü

ê ú ï ï ï ï

AE ê − 1 2 − 1 0 ú ï u2 ï ïf 2ï

í ý = í ý

L ê 0 − 1 2 − 1ú ï u3ï ï f 3ï

ê ú ï u4 ï ïf 4ï

ë 0 0 − 1 1 û î þ î þ

• Apply Loads and B/Cs:

é 2 −1 0 ù ìu2 ü ìP ü

AE ê ú ï ï ï ï

− 1 2 − 1ú í u3ý = í0ý

L ê ï ï ï0ï

êë 0 − 1 1 úû

îu4 þ î þ

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

2-27

1-D Elastic Rod: Example Problem

Using Frontal Solution Method Training Manual

– Multiply Row 1 by 1/2 and add to Row 2

é2 −1 0ù ìu2 ü ì P ü

AE ê ú ï ï ï ï

0 3/ 2 − 1ú í u3ý = í P/2 ý

L ê ï ï ï ï

êë 0 1 úû

−1 îu4 þ î 0 þ

– Multiply Row 2 by 2/3 and add to Row 3

é2 − 1 0 ù ì u2 ü ì P ü

AE ê ú ï ï ï ï

0 3 / 2 − 1 í u3ý = í P/2 ý

L ê ú

ï ï ï ï

êë 0 1 / 3úû

0 î u4 þ î P/3 þ

é1 −1/ 2 0 ù ìu2 ü ì P/2 ü

AE ê ú ï ï ï ï

0 1 − 2 / 3ú í u3ý = í P/3ý

L ê ï ï ï ï

êë0 1 úû

0 îu4 þ î P þ

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

2-28

1-D Elastic Rod: Example Problem

Using Frontal Solution Method Training Manual

– Back substitute for displacements

ìu2ü ì1 / 2 + 1 / 2 u 3 ü ì1ü

ï ï PL ï ï PL ï ï

í u3ý = í1 / 3 + 2 / 3 u 4 ý = í1ý

ï ï AE ï ï AE ï ï

îu4þ î 1 þ î1þ

equilibrium equations:

ì 0 ü

ïæ PL ö ï

ïçè AE ÷ø ï

AE ï ï æ PLAE ö

[

f1 = L 1 −1 0 0 ] æ PL ö

íç ÷ ý = −ç

è LAE ø

÷ = −P

ïè AE ø ï

ïæ PL ö ï

ïç ÷ ï

îè AE ø þ

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

2-29

1-D Elastic Rod: Example Problem

Using Frontal Solution Method Training Manual

• Strains are computed for each element from displacements using the strain-

displacement matrix [B].

The strains in Element 1 are computed as follows:

1 ì 0 ü PL P

{ε } = [B ]{u } = [− 1 1 ]í PL ý = =

L î AE þ AEL AE

PE P

{σ } = [ E ]{ ε } = =

AE A

• Note: Displacements are continuous across element boundaries, while

Stresses and Strains are not continuous.

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

2-30

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

3. ANSYS Basics

• In this chapter, we will discuss the basics of how to enter and

exit ANSYS, how to use the GUI and on-line help, and the

database and files created by ANSYS.

• Topics Covered:

A. Starting ANSYS

B. The GUI

C. Graphics & Picking

D. On-Line Help

E. The Database and Files

F. Exiting ANSYS

3-2

ANSYS Basics

A. Starting ANSYS

• There are two ways to start ANSYS:

– By Launcher

– By Command Line

Unix

launcher

Launcher

• Allows you to start ANSYS and other

ANSYS utilities by pressing buttons on a

menu.

• On Unix systems, issue xansys57 & to Windows

bring up the launcher. launcher

• On Windows systems, press Start >

Programs > ANSYS 5.7.

3-3

ANSYS Basics

...Starting ANSYS

Launcher (cont’d)

• Automatically brings up the GUI (Graphical User

Interface) when ANSYS is started in interactive

mode.

• A note on Interactive vs. Batch mode:

– Interactive mode allows you to interact “live” with

ANSYS, reviewing each operation as you go.

– Batch mode works on an input file of commands and

allows you to run ANSYS in the background.

• No live interaction, therefore any errors in input will

cause the batch run to stop.

• Best suited for operations that don’t need user

interaction, such as a solve.

– We will use ANSYS in interactive mode in this course.

3-4

ANSYS Basics

...Starting ANSYS

Launcher (cont’d)

• Pressing the Interactive button on the

launcher brings up a dialog box

containing start-up options, e.g:

– ANSYS product

– Working directory - the directory in

which all files will be stored.

– Graphics device - set to 3-D if you

have a 3-D graphics device card.

Otherwise, set to X11 on Unix, win32

on Windows.

– Jobname - file name prefix, up to 32

characters, assigned to all files

produced by this session. Defaults to

“file” or last specified name.

– Amount of memory - default values

should suffice in most cases.

3-5

ANSYS Basics

...Starting ANSYS

Launcher (cont’d)

• After choosing the desired start-up options, press the Run

button to start ANSYS.

Command Line

• ANSYS is started by typing a command at the system level.

For example:

– ansys57

– ansys57 -g

– ansys57 -g -j plate

– ansys57 -g -p ANE3FL -d 3d -j proj1 -m 128

3-6

ANSYS Basics

...Starting ANSYS

Command Line (cont’d)

• Typical start-up options, commonly known as command line

options, are:

-g (to automatically bring up the GUI upon start-up)

-p product_code

-d graphics_device

-j jobname

-m memory

is issued.

• Refer to your ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for

details on the command line options.

3-7

ANSYS Basics

B. The GUI

• Entering ANSYS brings up the following GUI windows:

Input Utility Menu

Displays program Contains functions

prompt messages which are available

and a text field for throughout the

typing commands. ANSYS session, such

All previously typed as file controls,

commands appear for selecting, graphics

easy reference and controls, parameters,

access. and exiting.

Contains the primary Contains push

ANSYS functions, buttons for executing

organized by commonly used

processors ANSYS commands

(preprocessor, and functions.

solution, general Customized buttons

postprocessor, etc.) can be created.

Output Graphics

Displays text output Displays graphics

from the program. It created in ANSYS or

is usually positioned imported into ANSYS.

behind the other

windows and can be

raised to the front

when necessary.

3-8

ANSYS Basics

...The GUI

Main Menu

• Contains the main functions required for an

analysis.

• Independent, “sticky” windows allow you to

complete all necessary steps before moving on to

the next function.

• Conventions:

“…” indicates a dialog box

“ +” indicates graphical picking

“ >” indicates a submenu

“ ” (blank) indicates an action

3-9

ANSYS Basics

...The GUI

Utility Menu

• Contains utilities that are generally available throughout the

ANSYS session: graphics, on-line help, select logic, file

controls, etc.

• Same conventions as Main Menu:

– “…” indicates a dialog box

– “ +” indicates graphical picking

– “ >” indicates a submenu

– “ ” (blank) indicates an action

3-10

ANSYS Basics

...The GUI

Input Window

• Allows you to enter commands. (Most GUI functions actually

“send” commands to ANSYS. If you know these commands,

you can type them in the Input Window.)

• Also used for prompts during graphical picking.

Command Syntax

3-11

ANSYS Basics

...The GUI

Toolbar

• Contains abbreviations -- short-cuts to commonly used

commands and functions.

• A few predefined abbreviations are available, but you can add

your own. Requires knowledge of ANSYS commands.

• A powerful feature which you can use to create your own

“button menu” system!

3-12

ANSYS Basics

...The GUI

Layout

Input

• Three predefined menu layouts are available

(Launcher > Interactive > GUI Configuration):

– Input window on left (default)

– Input window on right

– Input window on bottom Input

save it using Utility Menu > MenuCtrls > Save

Menu Layout.

– Unix systems store the layout in an ASCII

resource file called ANSYS57, located in $HOME.

– Windows systems store the layout in the system

registry.

Input

3-13

ANSYS Basics

...The GUI

Preferences

• The Preferences dialog (Main Menu >

Preferences) allows you to filter out

menu choices that are not applicable

to the current analysis.

• For example, if you are doing a

thermal analysis, you can choose to

filter out other disciplines, thereby

reducing the number of menu items

available in the GUI:

– Only thermal element types will be

shown in the element type selection

dialog.

– Only thermal loads will be shown.

– Etc.

3-14

ANSYS Basics

...The GUI

Other GUI Notes

• Some dialog boxes have both Apply and OK buttons.

– Apply applies the dialog settings, but retains (does not close) the

dialog box for repeated use.

– OK applies the dialog settings and closes the dialog box.

Caution: Closing the output window closes the entire ANSYS

session!

• Remember that you are not restricted to using the menus. If

you know the command, feel free to enter it in the Input

Window!

3-15

ANSYS Basics

...The GUI

• Demo:

– Start ANSYS using the launcher

– Show the various parts of the GUI

– Bring up “Keypoints in Active CS” dialog box and show the

difference between OK and Apply

– Show the Preferences dialog

– Explain the Output window

3-16

ANSYS Basics

C. Graphics & Picking

• The most heavily used interactive

capabilities are graphics and graphical

picking.

– Graphics is used to visualize the model,

/replot

loading, results, and other input and kplot

output data. lplot

aplot

– Picking is used for model creation,

vplot

meshing, loading, etc. nplot

eplot

• Use Plot in the Utility menu to produce gplot

plots, or issue the commands shown.

3-17

ANSYS Basics

...Graphics & Picking

• The PlotCtrls menu is used to control

how the plot is displayed:

– plot orientation

– zoom

– colors

– symbols

– annotation

– animation

– etc.

orientation (view) and zooming are the

most commonly used functions.

3-18

ANSYS Basics

...Graphics & Picking

• The default view for a model is the front

view: looking down the +Z axis of the

model.

• To change it, use dynamic mode — a way

to orient the plot dynamically using the

Control key and mouse buttons.

– Ctrl + Left mouse button pans the model.

– Ctrl + Middle mouse button:

↕ zooms the model

↔ spins the model (about screen Z)

– Ctrl + Right mouse button rotates the model:

↕ about screen X P Z R

↔ about screen Y

Ctrl

3-19

ANSYS Basics

...Graphics & Picking

• If you don’t want to hold down the

Control key, you can use the Dynamic

Mode setting in the Pan-Zoom-Rotate

dialog box.

– The same mouse button assignments

apply.

– On 3-D graphics devices, you can also

dynamically orient the light source.

Useful for different light source

shading effects.

3-20

ANSYS Basics

...Graphics & Picking

• Other functions in the Pan- Front +Z view, from (0,0,1)

Zoom-Rotate dialog box: Back -Z view (0,0,-1)

Top +Y view (0,1,0)

– Preset views Bot -Y view (0,-1,0)

Right +X view (1,0,0)

– Zoom-in on specific regions Left -X view (-1,0,0)

of the model Iso Isometric (1,1,1)

Obliq Oblique (1,2,3)

– Pan, zoom, or rotate in WP Working plane view

discrete increments (as

specified by the Rate slider)

Zoom By picking center of a

• Rotation is about the square

Box Zoom By picking two

screen X, Y, Z corners of a box

coordinates. Win Zoom Same as Box Zoom,

but box is proportional

– Fit the plot to the window to window.

Back Up “Unzoom” to previous

– Reset everything to default zoom.

3-21

ANSYS Basics

...Graphics & Picking

Picking

• Picking allows you to identify model

entities or locations by clicking in the

Graphics Window.

• A picking operation typically involves the

use of the mouse and a picker menu. It is

indicated by a + sign on the menu.

• For example, you can create keypoints by

picking locations in the Graphics Window

and then pressing OK in the picker.

3-22

ANSYS Basics

...Graphics & Picking

Two types of picking:

Example of

• Retrieval picking Retrieval Picker

– Picking existing entities for a

subsequent operation.

– Allows you to enter entity

numbers in the Input Window.

– Use the Pick All button to

indicate all entities.

• Locational picking

– Locating coordinates of a point,

such as a keypoint or node.

– Allows you to enter coordinates Example of

in the Input Window. Locational Picker

3-23

ANSYS Basics

...Graphics & Picking

Mouse button assignments for picking:

• Left mouse button picks (or unpicks)

the entity or location closest to the

mouse pointer. Pressing and dragging Apply

allows you to “preview” the item being Toggle

picked (or unpicked). Pick

Pick / Unpick

Saves the time required to move the

mouse over to the Picker and press the

Apply button. Use Shift-Right button on

a two-button mouse.

• Right mouse button toggles between

pick and unpick mode.

3-24

ANSYS Basics

...Graphics & Picking

Hotspot locations for picking:

• Areas and Volumes have one hotspot near the centroid of

the solid model entity.

• Lines have three hotspots - one in the middle and one near

each end.

Why this is important: When you are required to “pick” an

entity, you must pick on the hotspot.

3-25

ANSYS Basics

D. On-Line Help

• ANSYS uses an HTML-based documentation system to

provide extensive on-line help.

• You can get help on:

– ANSYS commands

– element types

– analysis procedures

– special GUI “widgets” such as Pan-Zoom-Rotate

– Tutorials

– Verification models

– The ANSYS web site

3-26

ANSYS Basics

...On-Line Help

• There are several ways to start the help system:

– Launcher > Help System

– Utility Menu > Help > Help Topics

– Any dialog box > Help

– Type HELP,name in the Input Window. Name is a command or

element name.

3-27

ANSYS Basics

...On-Line Help

• Pressing the Help System buttton on the launcher brings up two

browser windows:

– a navigational window containing Table of Contents and Index

– a document window containing the help information.

3-28

ANSYS Basics

...On-Line Help

• Use the Contents tab to

browse to the item of interest.

• Use the Index tab to quickly

locate specific commands,

terminology, concepts, etc.

• Use the Search tab to query

the entire help system for

specific words or phrases.

• Use the Favorites tab to add

your own frequently

referenced help sections.

3-29

ANSYS Basics

...On-Line Help

• ANSYS also provides

an HTML-based on-

line tutorial.

• The tutorial consists

of detailed

instructions for a set

of problems solved in

ANSYS.

• To access the tutorial,

click on Utility Menu >

Help > ANSYS

Tutorials.

3-30

ANSYS Basics

...On-Line Help

• Demo:

– Launch the help system from the launcher

– Bring up an Analysis Guide

– Type “help,kplot” in the Input window

– Search for the string “harmonic response”

3-31

ANSYS Basics

E. The Database & Files

• The term ANSYS database refers to the data ANSYS

maintains in memory as you build, solve, and postprocess

your model.

• The database stores both your input data and ANSYS results

data:

– Input data -- information you must enter, such as model

dimensions, material properties, and load data.

– Results data -- quantities that ANSYS calculates, such as

displacements, stresses, strains, and reaction forces.

3-32

ANSYS Basics

...The Database & Files

Save and Resume

• Since the database is stored in the computer’s memory

(RAM), it is good practice to save it to disk frequently so that

you can restore the information in the event of a computer

crash or power failure.

• The SAVE operation copies the database from memory to a

file called the database file (or db file for short).

– The easiest way to do a save is to click on Toolbar > SAVE_DB

– Or use:

• Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db

• Utility Menu > File > Save as…

• SAVE command

3-33

ANSYS Basics

...The Database & Files

• To restore the database from the db file back into memory,

use the RESUME operation.

– Toolbar > RESUME_DB

– Or use:

• Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname.db

• Utility Menu > File > Resume from…

• RESUME command

but you can choose a different name by using the “Save as”

or “Resume from” functions.

3-34

ANSYS Basics

...The Database & Files

• Notes on SAVE and RESUME:

– Choosing the Save as or Resume from function does NOT

change the current jobname.

– If you save to the default file name and a jobname.db already

exists, ANSYS will first copy the “old” file to jobname.dbb as a

back-up.

– The db file is simply a “snapshot” of what is in memory at the

time the save is done.

3-35

ANSYS Basics

...The Database & Files

• Tips on SAVE and RESUME:

– Periodically save the database as you progress through an

analysis. ANSYS does NOT do automatic saves.

– You should definitely SAVE the database before attempting an

unfamiliar operation (such as a Boolean or meshing) or an

operation that may cause major changes (such as a delete).

• RESUME can then be used as an “undo” if you don’t like the

results of that operation.

– SAVE is also recommended before doing a solve.

3-36

ANSYS Basics

...The Database & Files

Clearing the Database

• The Clear Database operation allows

you to “zero out” the database and

start fresh. It is similar to exiting

and re-entering ANSYS.

– Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New

– Or use the /CLEAR command.

3-37

ANSYS Basics

...The Database & Files

Files

• ANSYS writes and reads several files during an analysis. File

names are of the format jobname.ext.

• Jobname

– A name you choose while starting ANSYS, up to 32 characters.

Defaults to file.

– Can be changed within ANSYS with the /FILNAME command

(Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname).

• Extension

– Identifies the contents of the file, such as .db for database.

– Usually assigned by ANSYS but can be defined by user

(/ASSIGN).

3-38

ANSYS Basics

...The Database & Files

• Typical files:

jobname.log: Log file, ASCII.

• Contains a log of every command issued during the session.

• If you start a second session with the same jobname in the same

working directory, ANSYS will append to the previous log file (with a

time stamp).

jobname.err: Error file, ASCII.

• Contains all errors and warnings encountered during the session.

jobname.db, .dbb: Database file, binary.

• Compatible across all platforms.

jobname.rst, .rth: Results files, binary.

• Contains results data calculated by ANSYS during solution.

• Compatible across all platforms.

3-39

ANSYS Basics

...The Database & Files

File Management Tips

• Run each analysis project in a separate working directory.

• Use different jobnames to differentiate various analysis runs.

• You should keep the following files after any ANSYS

analysis:

– log file ( .log)

– database file ( .db)

– results files (.rst, .rth, …)

– load step files, if any (.s01, .s02, ...)

– physics files (.ph1, .ph2, ...)

• Use /FDELETE or Utility Menu > File > ANSYS File Options to

automatically delete files no longer needed by ANSYS during

that session.

3-40

ANSYS Basics

F. Exiting ANSYS

• Three ways to exit ANSYS:

– Toolbar > QUIT

– Utility Menu > File > Exit

– Use the /EXIT command in the Input Window

3-41

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

Stress Analysis Basics

Overview

• Stress analysis is a general term used to describe analyses

where the results quantities include stresses and strains. It

is also known as structural analysis.

• As described in Chapter 1, ANSYS allows several types of

stress analyses:

Static Transient Dynamic

Modal Spectrum

Harmonic Explicit Dynamics

the steps involved in an analysis. We will add more detail

later, so think of this chapter as a “quick start” guide.

4-2

Stress Analysis Basics

...Overview

• Topics covered:

A. Analysis Steps

B. Geometry

C. Meshing

D. Loading

E. Solve

F. Reviewing Results

G. Checking Validity of Solution

H. Workshop

4-3

Stress Analysis Basics

A. Analysis Steps

Every analysis involves three main steps:

• Preprocessing

– Create or import the model geometry

Preprocessing

– Mesh the geometry

• Solution

– Apply loads Solution

– Solve

• Postprocessing

– Review results

– Check the validity of the solution Postprocessing

4-4

Stress Analysis Basics

...Analysis Steps

• Notice that the ANSYS Main Menu is also organized in terms

of preprocessing, solution, and postprocessing.

4-5

Stress Analysis Basics

...Analysis Steps

• The preprocessor (called PREP7 in ANSYS) is where you

provide the majority of the input to the program.

• Its main purpose is to generate the finite element model,

which consists mainly of nodes, elements, and material

property definitions. You can also use PREP7 to apply loads.

• Usually begins with definition of the model geometry.

• A solid model model is typically used to represent model

geometry.

– A CAD-type mathematical representation that defines the

geometry of the structure.

– May consist of solids or just surfaces, depending on what is

being modeled.

4-6

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

B. Geometry

• A typical solid model is defined by volumes, areas, lines, and

keypoints.

– Volumes are bounded by areas. They represent solid objects.

– Areas are bounded by lines. They represent faces of solid

objects, or planar or shell objects.

– Lines are bounded by keypoints. They represent edges of

objects.

– Keypoints are locations in 3-D space. They represent vertices of

objects.

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

4-7

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Geometry

• There is a hierarchy among solid model entities.

Keypoints are the “foundation” entities. Lines are Volumes

“built” from the keypoints, areas from lines, and Areas

volumes from areas.

Lines

• This hierarchy holds true regardless of how the Keypoints

solid model is created.

entity if it is attached to a higher-order entity. (with a few

exceptions … discussed later.)

Volumes

I’ll just

change Areas OOPs! Vo

this line

Areas

Lines Lines

lu

m

es

Keypoints Keypoints

4-8

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Geometry

• You can either create a solid model in ANSYS or import it

from another software package.

• Details of both methods will be presented later. For now, we

will briefly discuss how to import an IGES file and

scale/position the geometry if needed.

• IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) is a way to

transfer solid model geometry from one software package to

another.

– An IGES file is ASCII, allowing it to be easily transported

between computer systems.

– Most packages, including ANSYS, allow you to write as well as

read an IGES file.

4-9

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Geometry

• To import an IGES file into ANSYS:

– Utility Menu > File > Import > IGES...

• In the resulting dialog box, choose the

No defeaturing * (default) and press OK

(defaults for everything else).

• In the second dialog box, choose the

desired file and press OK.

– OR use the IGESIN command:

• /aux15

• ioptn,iges,nodefeat

• igesin,filename,extension,directory

• finish

* Details about the default vs. alternate method and the other options will be presented later.

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

4-10

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Geometry

• When the import is completed, ANSYS will automatically plot

the geometry.

geometry as needed.

– ANSYS allows many

operations on the solid

model, which we will

describe later.

– For now, we will discuss

how to scale the model to a

different set of units. (Note:

Scaling is NOT available for

a “Defeature” IGES import.)

– In Chapter 6 you will learn

how to reorient the model as

well.

4-11

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Geometry

• Scaling is typically needed when you want to convert the geometry

to a different set of units, say from inches to millimeters.

• To scale a model in ANSYS:

– First save the database -- Toolbar >

SAVE_DB or SAVE command.

– Then Main Menu > Preprocessor >

Operate > Scale > Volumes (choose the

highest-level entity available in the

model)

• [Pick All] to pick all volumes

• Then enter desired scale factors

for RX, RY, RZ and set IMOVE to

“Moved” instead of “Copied”

– Or use the VLSCALE command:

• vlscale,all,,,25.4,25.4,25.4,,,1

4-12

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Geometry

• Demo:

– Import pipe.igs using:

• “No Defeaturing” method

• All other defaults

– Orient the model as shown

– Save as pipe.db

4-13

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Geometry

• Preprocessing

! Geometry

– Meshing

• Solution

– Loading

– Solve

• Postprocessing

– Review results

– Check validity of solution

4-14

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

C. Meshing

• Meshing is the process used to “fill” the solid model with

nodes and elements, i.e, to create the FEA model.

– Remember, you need nodes and elements for the finite element

solution, not just the solid model. The solid model does NOT

participate in the finite element solution.

meshing

4-15

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

• There are three steps to meshing:

– Define element attributes

– Specify mesh controls

– Generate the mesh

model that you must establish prior to meshing. They

include:

– Element types

– Real constants

– Material properties

4-16

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

Element Type

• The element type is an important choice that determines the

following element characteristics:

– Degree of Freedom (DOF) set. A thermal element type, for

example, has one dof: TEMP, whereas a structural element type

may have up to six dof: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ.

– Element shape -- brick, tetrahedron, quadrilateral, triangle, etc.

– Dimensionality -- 2-D (X-Y plane only), or 3-D.

– Assumed displacement shape -- linear vs. quadratic.

you can choose. Details on how to choose the “correct”

element type will be presented later. For now, let’s see how

to define an element type.

4-17

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

• To define an element type:

– Preprocessor > Element Type >

Add/Edit/Delete

• [Add] to add new element

type

• Choose the desired type

(such as SOLID92) and

press OK

• [Options] to specify

additional element options

– Or use the ET command:

• et,1,solid92

4-18

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

• Notes:

– Setting preferences to the desired discipline (Main Menu >

Preferences) will show only the element types valid for that

discipline.

– You should define the element type early in the preprocessing

phase because many of the menu choices in the GUI are filtered

out based on the current DOF set. For example, if you choose a

structural element type, thermal load choices will be “grayed

out” or not shown at all.

4-19

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

Real Constants

• Real constants are used for geometric properties that cannot

be completely defined by the element’s geometry. For

example:

– A beam element is defined by a line joining two nodes. This

defines only the length of the beam. To specify the beam’s

cross-sectional properties, such as the area and moment of

inertia, you need to use real constants.

– A shell element is defined by a quadrilateral or triangular area.

This defines only the surface area of the shell. To specify the

shell thickness, you need to use real constants.

– Most 3-D solid elements do not require a real constant since the

element geometry is fully defined by its nodes.

4-20

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

• To define real constants:

– Preprocessor > Real Constants

• [Add] to add a new real constant set.

• If multiple element types have been defined, choose the

element type for which you are specifying real constants.

• Then enter the real constant values.

– Or use the R family of commands.

some don’t require any real constants. Check the Elements

Manual, available on-line, for details.

4-21

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

Material Properties

• Every analysis requires some material property input:

Young’s modulus EX for structural elements, thermal

conductivity KXX for thermal elements, etc.

• There are two ways to define material properties:

– Material library

– Individual properties

4-22

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

Using the Material Library

• This method allows you to choose a predefined set of properties for

a given material.

• ANSYS supplies typical structural and thermal properties (linear

only) for some common materials, but we strongly recommend that

you create your own material library.

• To choose a material from the library:

– First define the library path.

• Preprocessor > Material Props >

Material Library > Library Path

– Enter the location from which

to READ material data, e.g,

/ansys57/matlib.

• Or use the /MPLIB command.

4-23

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

– Then “import” a material from the

library.

• Preprocessor > Material Library >

Import Library

– Choose the units system.

This is used only to filter the

list of files shown in the

subsequent dialog. ANSYS

has no knowledge of units

and does NOT do unit

conversion.

– Choose the desired material

file, such as steel AISI

C1020.

• Or use the MPREAD command

with the LIB option.

4-24

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

Specifying Individual Material Properties

• Instead of choosing a material name, this method involves directly

specifying the required properties through the Material Model GUI.

• To specify individual

properties:

– Preprocessor > Material

Props > Material Models

• Double-click on the

appropriate

property to be

defined.

4-25

Stress Analysis - Preprocessing

...Meshing

• Work through the tree

structure to the material

type to be defined.

• Then enter the individual

property values.

• Or use the MP command.

– mp,ex,1,30e6

– mp,prxy,1,.3

4-26

Stress Analysis - Preprocessing

...Meshing

• Add temperature dependent

properties

• Graph properties v.

temperature

4-27

Stress Analysis - Preprocessing

...Meshing

• Copy material models from

one table to another

• Delete material models

4-28

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

A Note on Units

• You do not need to tell ANSYS the system of units you are

using. Simply decide what units you will use, then make sure

all of your input is consistent.

– For example, if the model geometry is in inches, make sure that

all other input data — material properties, real constants, loads,

etc. — are in terms of inches.

numbers you input without questioning their validity.

• The command /UNITS allows you to specify a units system,

but it is simply a recording device to let other users of your

model know what units you used.

4-29

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

Specifying Mesh Controls is the second step in meshing.

• Many mesh controls are available in ANSYS. For now, we will

present a simple method of specifying mesh density, called

SmartSizing.

• SmartSizing is an algorithm that assigns element divisions to

all lines in the model based on line length, curvature, and

proximity to holes, etc.

• You simply specify a “size level” ranging from 1 (very fine

mesh) to 10 (very coarse mesh), and ANSYS takes care of the

rest.

4-30

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

• The MeshTool is the best way to specify mesh

controls:

– Preprocessor > MeshTool.

– Activate SmartSizing. Size level defaults to 6.

• First save the database.

• Then press [Mesh] in the MeshTool.

– This brings up a picker. Press [Pick All] in the picker to

indicate all entities.

4-31

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

• When the meshing is complete, ANSYS will automatically plot

the elements.

– The default element plot shows all element edges as straight

lines even for a quadratic element type.

– To show curved element edges, issue /EFACET,2 (or Utility Menu

> PlotCtrls > Size and Shape…).

4-32

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

...Meshing

• Demo:

– Resume pipe.db (if needed)

– Define SHELL63 element type

– Specify real constant thickness = 1/8 in

– Use the Material Model GUI to define Material 1:

• Structural, Linear, Elastic, Isotropic

• Young’s modulus EX = 30e6

• Poisson’s ratio PRXY = .3

– Save as pipe.db, then mesh the model using SMRT,4

– Save as pipemesh.db

4-33

Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing

…Meshing

• Preprocessing

! Geometry

! Meshing

• Solution

– Loading

– Solve

• Postprocessing

– Review results

– Check validity of solution

4-34

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

D. Loading

• The solution step is where we apply loads on the object and

let the solver calculate the finite element solution.

• Loads are available both in the Solution and Preprocessor

menus.

4-35

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

• There are five categories of loads:

DOF Constraints Specified DOF values, such as

displacements in a stress analysis or

temperatures in a thermal analysis.

Concentrated Loads Point loads, such as forces or heat flow

rates.

Surface Loads Loads distributed over a surface, such as

pressures or convections.

Body Loads Volumetric or field loads, such as

temperatures (causing thermal expansion)

or internal heat generation.

Inertia Loads Loads due to structural mass or inertia,

such as gravity and angular velocity.

4-36

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

• You can apply loads either on the solid model or directly on

the FEA model (nodes and elements).

– Solid model loads are easier to apply because there are fewer

entities to pick.

– Moreover, solid model loads are independent of the mesh. You

don’t need to reapply the loads if you change the mesh.

Constraint Constraints

on line at nodes

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

4-37

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

• Regardless of how you apply the loads, the solver expects all

loads to be in terms of the finite element model. Therefore,

solid model loads are automatically transferred to the

underlying nodes and elements during solution.

• We will now discuss how to apply the following types of

structural loads:

– Displacement constraints

– Forces

– Pressures

– Gravity

– Angular Velocity

4-38

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

Displacement Constraints

• Used to specify where the model is fixed (zero displacement locations).

• Interpreted in nodal coordinate system (defined later).

• Can also be non-zero, to simulate a known deflection.

– Solution > -Loads- Apply > Displacement

• Choose where you want to apply

the constraint.

• Pick the desired entities in the

graphics window.

• Then choose the constraint

direction. Value defaults to zero.

– Or use the D family of commands:

DK, DL, DA, D.

4-39

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

• Displacement constraints are also used to enforce symmetry

or antisymmetry boundary conditions.

– Symmetry BC: Out-of-plane displacements and in-plane

rotations are fixed.

– Antisymmetry BC: In-plane displacements and out-of-plane

rotations are fixed.

UX=0 UY=UZ=0

ROTY=ROTZ=0 ROTX=0

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

4-40

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

• A force is a concentrated load (or

“point load”) that you can apply at a

node or keypoint.

• Point loads such as forces are

appropriate for line element models

such as beams, spars, and springs.

• When applied to solid and shell

models, point loads can cause stress

singularities. This effectively means

that stresses are unreliable in the

vicinity of the load (discussed later).

4-41

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

Note that for axisymmetric models:

• Input values of forces are based on the full 360°.

• Output values (reaction forces) are also based on the full 360°.

• For example, suppose a cylindrical shell of radius r has an edge

load of P lb/in. To apply this load on a 2-D axisymmetric shell model

(SHELL51 elements, for example), you would specify a force of 2π πrP.

P lb/in 2πrP lb

4-42

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

• To apply a force, the following information is needed:

– node or keypoint number (which you can identify by picking)

– force magnitude (which should be consistent with the system of

units you are using)

– direction of the force — FX, FY, or FZ

Use:

– Solution > -Loads- Apply > Force/Moment

– Or the commands FK or F

nodal coordinate system (discussed later).

4-43

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

Pressures

• To apply a pressure:

– Solution > -Loads- Apply > Pressure

• Choose where you want to apply the

pressure -- usually on lines for 2-D

models, on areas for 3-D models.

• Pick the desired entities in the

graphics window.

• Then enter the pressure value. A

positive value indicates a

compressive pressure (acting

towards the centroid of the

element).

– Or use the SF family of commands:

SFL, SFA, SFE, SF.

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

4-44

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

• For a 2-D model, where

pressures are usually applied 500 500

on a line, you can specify a L3

tapered pressure by entering a VALI = 500

value for both the I and J ends

of the line. 1000

• I and J are determined by the 500

L3

line direction. If you see the VALI = 500

taper going in the wrong VALJ = 1000

direction, simply reapply the

pressure with the values 1000

reversed. 500

L3

VALI = 1000

VALJ = 500

4-45

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

Gravity

• To apply gravitational acceleration:

– Solution > -Loads- Apply > Gravity

– Or use the ACEL command.

• Notes:

– X, Y, Z Components are interpreted in the Global Cartesian

coordinate system.

– A positive value causes deflection in the negative direction. If Y

is pointing upwards, for example, a positive ACELY value will

cause the structure to move downwards. This is because we are

actually applying and inertia load not an acceleration.

– Density (or mass in some form) must be defined for gravity and

other inertia loads.

4-46

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

Angular Velocity

• To apply angular (rotational) velocity:

– Solution > -Loads- Apply > Other > Angular Velocity

– Or use the OMEGA command.

Notes:

• Angular Velocity units are Radians/Time.

• Velocity vector components are interpreted about

the Global Cartesian coordinate system axes.

• Density (or mass in some form) must be defined for

gravity and other inertia loads to be effective.

• The DOMEGA command can be used to specify

angular acceleration.

4-47

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

Verifying applied loads

• Plot them by activating load symbols:

– Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols

– Commands -- /PBC, /PSF, /PBF

• Or list them:

– Utility Menu > List > Loads >

4-48

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

Modifying and Deleting Loads

• To modify a load value, simply reapply the load

with the new value.

• To delete loads:

– Solution > -Loads- Delete >

– When you delete solid model loads, ANSYS also

automatically deletes all corresponding finite

element loads.

4-49

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

...Loading

• Preprocessing

! Geometry

! Meshing

• Solution

! Loading

– Solve

• Postprocessing

– Review results

– Check validity of solution

4-50

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

E. Solve

• The solve step is where you let the solver calculate the finite

element solution.

• First, it is a good idea to review and check your analysis data,

e.g:

– Consistent units

– Element types, options, and real constants

– Material properties

• Density if inertia loading

• Coefficient of thermal expansion if thermal stress

– Mesh density, especially in stress concentration regions

– Load values and directions

– Reference temperature for thermal expansions

4-51

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

…Solve

• To initiate the solve:

– First save the database!

– Then:

• Solution > -Solve- Current LS

• Or issue the SOLVE command.

database and to the results file, jobname.rst (or

.rth for thermal).

Input

Data

Database Solver

Results Results

Data Results File

4-52

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

…Solve

• During solution, ANSYS provides a lot of useful information in the

Output Window, such as:

– Mass properties of the model

• The mass calculation is quite accurate; centroid and mass moment

calculations are rough approximations

– Range of element matrix coefficients

• May indicate a problem with material properties or real constants if

maximum/minimum ratio > 1.0E8

– Model size and solver statistics

– Summary of files written and their sizes:

• jobname.emat - element matrix file

• jobname.esav - element saved data file

• jobname.tri - triangularized matrix file

• jobname.rst - results file

4-53

Stress Analysis Basics - Solution

…Solve

• Preprocessing

! Geometry

! Meshing

• Solution

! Loading

! Solve

• Postprocessing

– Review results

– Check validity of solution

4-54

Stress Analysis Basics - Postprocessing

F. Reviewing Results

• Postprocessing is without doubt the most important step in

an analysis. You may be required to make design decisions

based on the results, so it is a good idea not only to review

the results carefully, but also to check the validity of the

solution.

• ANSYS has two postprocessors:

– POST1, the General Postprocessor, to review a single set of

results over the entire model.

– POST26, the Time-History Postprocessor, to review results at

selected points in the model over time. Mainly used for transient

and nonlinear analyses. (Not discussed in this course.)

4-55

Stress Analysis Basics - Postprocessing

...Reviewing Results

• Reviewing results of a stress analysis generally involves:

– Deformed shape

– Stresses

– Reaction forces

Deformed Shape

• Gives a quick indication of whether the loads were applied in

the correct direction.

• Legend column shows the maximum displacement, DMX.

• You can also animate the deformation.

4-56

Stress Analysis Basics - Postprocessing

...Reviewing Results

• To plot the deformed

shape:

– General Postproc > Plot

Results > Deformed Shape

– Or use the PLDISP

command.

• For animation:

– Utility Menu > PlotCtrls >

Animate > Deformed Shape

– Or use the ANDISP

command.

4-57

Stress Analysis Basics - Postprocessing

...Reviewing Results

Stresses

• The following stresses are typically available for a 3-D solid

model:

– Component stresses — SX, SY, SZ, SXY, SYZ, SXZ (global

Cartesian directions by default)

– Principal stresses — S1, S2, S3, SEQV (von Mises), SINT (stress

intensity)

locate “hot spots” or trouble regions.

– Nodal solution: Stresses are averaged at the nodes, showing

smooth, continuous contours.

– Element solution: No averaging, resulting in discontinuous

contours.

4-58

Stress Analysis Basics - Postprocessing

...Reviewing Results

• To plot stress contours:

– General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solu… or PLNSOL command

– General Postproc > Plot Results > Element Solu… or PLESOL command

– Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Results... or ANCNTR

command

4-59

Stress Analysis Basics - Postprocessing

...Reviewing Results

A Note on PowerGraphics

• It is the default graphics setting (/GRAPH,POWER).

• Plots only the visible surfaces and ignores

everything “underneath.”

• Advantages:

– Faster replot, crisp graphics.

– Smooth, almost photo-realistic displays.

– Prevents stress averaging across material and real

constant boundaries.

graphics”):

– Required to be off for Error Calculations

– Toolbar > POWERGRPH

– Or issue /GRAPH,FULL.

4-60

Stress Analysis Basics - Postprocessing

...Reviewing Results

Reaction Forces

• The sum of the reaction forces in each direction must equal

the sum of applied loads in that direction.

• Best viewed as a listing:

– General Postprocessor > List Results > Reaction Solution… or

PRRSOL command

4-61

Stress Analysis Basics - Postprocessing

...Reviewing Results

• Preprocessing

! Geometry

! Meshing

• Solution

! Loading

! Solve

• Postprocessing

! Review results

– Check validity of solution

4-62

Stress Analysis Basics - Postprocessing

G. Checking Validity of Solution

• It is always a good idea to do a “sanity check” and make sure

that the solution is acceptable.

• What you need to check depends on the type of problem you

are solving, but here are some typical questions to ask:

Do the reaction forces balance the applied loads?

Where is the maximum stress located?

– If it is at a singularity, such as a point load or a re-entrant corner,

the value is generally meaningless. (We will discuss more about

this in Chapter 5.)

– If so, the load magnitudes may be wrong, or you may need to do

a nonlinear analysis.

4-63

Stress Analysis Basics - Postprocessing

...Checking Validity of Solution

Is the mesh adequate?

– This is always debatable, but you can gain confidence in the

mesh by using error estimation data (discussed in Chapter 12).

– Other ways to check mesh adequacy:

• Plot the element solution (unaveraged stresses) and look for

elements with high stress gradients. These regions are

candidates for mesh refinement.

• If there is a significant difference between the nodal

(averaged) and element (unaveraged) stress contours, the

mesh may be too coarse.

• Similarly, if there is a significant difference between

PowerGraphics and full graphics stresses, the mesh may be

too coarse.

• Re-mesh with twice as many elements, re-solve, and compare

the results. (But this may not always be practical.)

4-64

Stress Analysis Basics

• Preprocessing

! Geometry

! Meshing

• Solution

! Loading

! Solve

• Postprocessing

! Review results

! Check validity of solution

4-65

Stress Analysis Basics

H. Workshop

• Do the following exercises:

1A. Stress Analysis – Lathe Cutter

1B. Stress Analysis – 2D Corner Bracket

4-66

INTRODUCITON TO ANSYS for GE

Modeling Decisions

Overview

• Before starting an analysis in ANSYS, you need to make a

few decisions, such as the analysis type needed and the type

of model you want to build.

• In this chapter, we will discuss some of the decision making

process. The purpose is to give you an idea of the amount of

planning generally needed before “jumping in” to do the

analysis.

• Topics covered:

– A. Which analysis type?

– B. What to model?

– C. Which element type?

5-2

Modeling Decisions

A. Which analysis type?

• The analysis type usually belongs to one of the following

disciplines:

Structural Motion of solid bodies, pressure on solid bodies,

or contact of solid bodies

Thermal Applied heat, high temperatures, or changes in

temperature

Fluid Motion of gases/fluids, or contained gases/fluids

Coupled-Field Combinations of any of the above

5-3

Modeling Decisions

...Which analysis type?

• Once you choose a structural analysis, the next questions

are:

– Static or dynamic analysis?

– Linear or nonlinear analysis?

subjected to some excitation (loading), it responds with three

types of forces:

– static forces (due to stiffness)

– inertia forces (due to mass)

– damping forces

5-4

Modeling Decisions

...Which analysis type?

Static vs. Dynamic Analysis

• A static analysis assumes that only stiffness forces are

significant.

• A dynamic analysis takes into account all 3 types of forces.

– If the diver is standing still, a static analysis might be sufficient.

– But if the diver is jumping up and down, you will need to do a

dynamic analysis.

5-5

Modeling Decisions

...Which analysis type?

• Inertia and damping forces are usually significant if the

applied loads vary rapidly with time.

• Therefore you can use time-dependency of loads as a way to

choose between static and dynamic analysis.

– If the loading is constant over a relatively long period of time,

choose a static analysis.

– Otherwise, choose a dynamic analysis.

structure’s lowest natural frequency, a static analysis may be

acceptable.

5-6

Modeling Decisions

...Which analysis type?

• The effect of load rate on deflection can be seen in this

response-spectra diagram for three different types of impulse

loading:

• Notice that if loads are applied very rapidly, the DLF < 1.

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

5-7

Modeling Decisions

...Which analysis type?

Linear vs. Nonlinear Analysis

• A linear analysis assumes that the loading causes negligible

changes to the stiffness of the structure. Typical

characteristics are:

– Small deflections

– Strains and stresses within the elastic limit

– No abrupt changes in stiffness such as two bodies coming into

and out of contact

Stress

Elastic modulus

(EX)

Strain

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

5-8

Modeling Decisions

...Which analysis type?

• A nonlinear analysis is needed if the loading causes

significant changes in the structure’s stiffness. There are

three main categories of nonlinear phenomena:

– Geometric - Large deflections, Large strains, stress stiffening

– Material – Plasticity, hyperelasticity, creep

– Changing Status - Contact between two bodies, thermostat

Stress

Yield Point

Proportional

Limit

5-9

Modeling Decisions

B. What to Model?

• Many modeling decisions must be made before building an

analysis model:

– How much detail should be included?

– Does symmetry apply?

– Will the model contain stress singularities?

5-10

Modeling Decisions

...What to Model?

Details

• Small details that are unimportant to the analysis should not be

included in the analysis model. You can suppress such features

before sending a model to ANSYS from a CAD system.

• For some structures, however, "small" details such as fillets or

holes can be locations of maximum stress and might be quite

important, depending on your analysis objectives.

5-11

Modeling Decisions

...What to Model?

Symmetry

• Many structures are symmetric in some form and allow only a

representative portion or cross-section to be modeled.

• The main advantages of using a symmetric model are:

– It is generally easier to create the model.

– It allows you to make a finer, more detailed model and thereby

obtain better results than would have been possible with the full

model.

5-12

Modeling Decisions

...What to Model?

• To take advantage of symmetry, all of the following must be

symmetric:

– Geometry

– Material properties

– Loading conditions

– Axisymmetry

– Planar or reflective

– Repetitive or translational

– Rotational

5-13

Modeling Decisions

...What to Model?

Axisymmetry

• Symmetry about a central axis, such as in light bulbs, straight

pipes, cones, circular plates, and domes.

• Plane of symmetry is the cross-section anywhere around the

structure. Thus you are using a single 2-D “slice” to

represent 360° — a real savings in model size!

axisymmetric in most cases.

However, if it is not, and if the

analysis is linear, the loads can be

separated into harmonic

components for independent

solutions that can be superposed.

5-14

Modeling Decisions

...What to Model?

Planar or reflective symmetry

• One half of the structure is a mirror image of the other half.

The mirror is the plane of symmetry.

• Loading may be symmetric or anti-symmetric about the plane

of symmetry.

both reflective and

rotational symmetry

5-15

Modeling Decisions

...What to Model?

Repetitive or translational symmetry

• Repeated segments arranged along a straight line, such as a

long pipe with evenly spaced cooling fins.

• Loading is also assumed to be “repeated” along the length of

the model.

5-16

Modeling Decisions

...What to Model?

All nodes which lie on a PLANE OF SYMMETRY are allowed to rotate

and translate within that plane only. In other words, the translational

DOF normal to the symmetry plane and out of plane rotational DOF’s

(if present) are fixed for all nodes on the plane of symmetry.

from translation and rotation in that plane. In other words, the in

plane translational DOF’s and in plane rotational DOF (if present) are

fixed for all nodes on the antisymmetry plane.

Remember:

SYMMETRY + ANTISYMMETRY = TOTAL CONSTRAINT

Example: 2-D Beam with left end on sym/antisym plane (active DOF’s: UX,UY,RZ)

+ =

Symmetry (UX=RZ=0) Antisymmetry (UY=0) Total Constraint (UX=UY=RZ=0)

5-17

Modeling Decisions

...What to Model?

Rotational symmetry

• Repeated segments arranged about a central axis, such as in

turbine rotors.

• Only one segment of the structure needs to be modeled.

• Loading is also assumed to be symmetric about the axis.

planes of mirror symmetry. By

simply applying the standard

rules for planes of symmetry,

we enforce rotational

symmetry. Would this be

acceptable if the loading did

not exhibit similar symmetry?

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

5-18

Modeling Decisions

...What to Model?

Rotational (Cyclic) symmetry

• Sometimes the repeating sector does not have straight sides.

• Rotational symmetry is still evident, but it is not enforceable

simply by using constraints as before.

• We need to use coupled sets to

enforce rotational symmetry in

these situations.

coupled sets to enforce rotational

symmetry.

5-19

Modeling Decisions

...What to Model?

• In some cases, only a few minor details will disrupt a

structure's symmetry. You may be able to ignore such

details (or treat them as being symmetric) in order to gain the

benefits of using a smaller model. How much accuracy is

lost as the result of such a compromise might be difficult to

estimate.

5-20

Modeling Decisions

...What to Model?

Stress singularities

• A stress singularity is a location in a finite element model

where the stress value is unbounded (infinite). Examples:

– A point load, such as an applied force or moment

– An isolated constraint point, where the reaction force behaves

like a point load

– A sharp re-entrant corner (with zero fillet radius)

refined at a stress

P σ = P/A

singularity, the stress As A Þ 0, σ Þ ∞

value increases and

never converges.

5-21

Modeling Decisions

...What to Model?

• Real structures do not contain stress singularities. They are

a fiction created by the simplifying assumptions of the model.

• So how do you deal with stress singularities?

– If they are located far away from the region of interest, you

can simply ignore them by deactivating the affected zone

while reviewing results.

– If they are located in the region of interest, you will need to

take corrective action, such as:

• adding a fillet at re-entrant corners and redoing the

analysis.

• replacing a point force with an equivalent pressure load.

• “spreading out” displacement constraints over a set of

nodes.

5-22

Modeling Decisions

C. Which Element Type?

• This is an important decision you usually need to make

before beginning the analysis.

• Typical issues are:

– Which element category? Solid, shell, beam, etc.

– Which element shape function order? Linear or quadratic.

– How dense should mesh be? Usually determined by the

objectives of the analysis.

5-23

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

Element category

• ANSYS offers many different categories of elements. Some

of the commonly used ones are:

– Line elements

– Shells

– 2-D solids

– 3-D solids

5-24

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• Line elements:

– Beam elements are used to model bolts, tubular members, C-

sections, angle irons, or any long, slender members where only

membrane and bending stresses are needed.

– Spar elements are used to model springs, bolts, preloaded bolts,

and truss members.

– Spring elements are used to model springs, bolts, or long

slender parts, or to replace complex parts by equivalent

stiffnesses.

5-25

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• Shell elements:

– Used to model thin panels or curved surfaces.

– The definition of “thin” depends on the application, but as a

general guideline, the major dimensions of the shell structure

(panel) should be at least 10 times its thickness.

5-26

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• 2-D Solid elements:

– Used to model a cross-section of solid objects.

– Must be modeled in the global Cartesian X-Y plane.

– All loads are in the X-Y plane, and the response (displacements)

are also in the X-Y plane.

– Element behavior may be one of the following:

• plane stress

• plane strain

• axisymmetric

• axisymmetric harmonic Y

Z X

5-27

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• Plane stress assumes zero stress

in the Z direction.

– Valid for components in which the

Y

Z dimension is smaller than the X

and Y dimensions.

Z X

– Z-strain is non-zero.

– Optional thickness (Z direction)

allowed.

– Used for structures such as flat

plates subjected to in-plane

loading, or thin disks under

pressure or centrifugal loading.

5-28

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• Plane strain assumes zero strain in the Z

direction.

– Valid for components in which the Z

dimension is much larger than the X and Y

dimensions.

– Z-stress is non-zero. Z

– Used for long, constant-cross-section

structures such as structural beams. Y

X

5-29

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• Axisymmetry assumes that the 3-D model

and its loading can be generated by revolving

a 2-D section 360° about the Y axis.

– Axis of symmetry must coincide with the

global Y axis.

– Negative X coordinates are not permitted.

– Y direction is axial, X direction is radial, and Z

direction is circumferential (hoop) direction.

– Hoop displacement is zero; hoop strains and

stresses are usually very significant.

– Used for pressure vessels, straight pipes,

shafts, etc.

5-30

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• Axisymmetric harmonic is a special case of axisymmetry

where the loads can be non-axisymmetric.

– The non-axisymmetric loading decomposed into Fourier series

components, applied and solved separately, and then combined

later. No approximation is introduced by this simplification!

– Used for non-axisymmetric loads such as torque on a shaft.

5-31

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• 3-D Solid elements:

– Used for structures which, because of geometry, materials,

loading, or detail of required results, cannot be modeled with

simpler elements.

– Also used when the model geometry is transferred from a 3-D

CAD system, and a large amount of time and effort is required to

convert it to a 2-D or shell form.

5-32

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• In summary, the anticipated state of stress should dictate

which element type is required.

• For example, the likely alignment of stresses may be known

in advance:

5-33

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• In other situations, alignment of the stress field may be

arbitrary and difficult to anticipate:

5-34

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

Element Order

• Element order refers to the polynomial order of the element’s

shape functions.

• What is a shape function?

– It is a mathematical function that gives the “shape” of the results

within the element. Since FEA solves for DOF values only at

nodes, we need the shape function to map the nodal DOF values

to points within the element.

– The shape function represents assumed behavior for a given

element.

– How well each assumed element shape function matches the

true behavior directly affects the accuracy of the solution, as

shown on the next slide.

5-35

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• When you choose an element type, you are implicitly

choosing and accepting the element shape function assumed

for that element type. Therefore, check the shape function

information before you choose an element type.

• Typically, a linear element has only corner nodes, whereas a

quadratic element also has midside nodes.

• Quadratic elements exhibit faster convergence rates for

deflections and stresses than do linear elements. For planar

problems . . .

5-36

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

Linear elements Quadratic elements

• Can support only a linear variation • Can support a quadratic variation

of displacement and therefore of displacement and therefore a

(mostly) only a constant state of linear variation of stress along

stress along element edges. element edges.

• Need to use a large number of • Fewer elements are needed to

elements to resolve high stress resolve high stress gradients.

gradients.

• Can represent curved edges and

• Models curved surfaces as surfaces more accurately than

faceted. linear elements.

• Preferred for elastic-plastic • Preferred for linear elastic analysis

analysis because of higher because of high convergence

integration point/DOF ratio. rates for deflections and stresses.

5-37

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• ANSYS permits mixing of linear and quadratic element types.

• When doing so, try to maintain shape function agreement along

mating element edges/faces. If you do not, then stresses will not be

reliable at mating surfaces.

• When mixing linear and quadratic elements, always mesh the linear

portions first.

• ANSYS will automatically drop midside nodes from quadratic

elements when meshing in 2D. In 3D, we need to use transition

pyramid elements to insure shape function compatibility. The hex-

to-tet transition procedure will be presented later.

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001

5-38

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• Notes:

– For in-plane behavior of shell models, the difference between

linear and quadratic elements is not as dramatic as for solid

models. Linear shells are therefore usually preferred.

– Besides linear and quadratic elements, a third kind is available,

known as p-elements. P-elements can support anywhere from a

quadratic to an 8th-order variation of displacement within a

single element and include automatic solution convergence

controls.

5-39

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

Mesh Density

• The fundamental premise of FEA is that as the number of

elements (mesh density) is increased, the solution gets

closer and closer to the true solution.

• However, solution time and computer resources required

also increase dramatically as you increase the number of

elements.

• The objectives of the analysis usually decide which way the

slider bar below should be moved.

5-40

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• If you are interested in highly accurate stresses:

– A fine mesh will be needed, omitting no geometric details at any

location in the structure where such accuracy is needed.

– Stress convergence should be demonstrated.

– Any simplification anywhere in the model might introduce

significant error.

– A relatively coarse mesh is sufficient.

– Small geometry details may be omitted.

5-41

Modeling Decisions

...Which Element Type?

• If you are interested in mode shapes (modal analysis):

– Small details can usually be omitted, but symmetry may not be

appropriate

– Simple mode shapes can be captured using a relatively coarse

mesh.

– Complex mode shapes may require a uniform, moderately fine

mesh.

• Thermal Analyses:

– Small details can usually be omitted, but since many thermal

analyses are followed by a stress analysis, stress

considerations generally determine this.

– Mesh density is usually determined by expected thermal

gradients. A fine mesh is required for high thermal gradients,

whereas a coarse mesh may be sufficient for low gradients.

5-42

Modeling Decisions

…What Element Shapes to Use?

• In general, linear quadrilateral/hexahedral elements are

preferable to linear triangle/tetrahedral elements.

– Linear tri/tet elements have only one integration point, so they

are called isostrain/isostress elements.

– Linear tri/tet elements exhibit excessive bending stiffness. Many

of these elements are needed to model even the simplest of

structures.

– Linear quad/hex elements have more integration points and, with

the use of extra shape functions, efficiently model linear stress

gradients.

5-43

Modeling Decisions

…What Element Shapes to Use?

• In general, quadratic quadrilateral/hexahedral elements

perform similarly to quadratic triangle/tetrahedral elements:

– Quadratic quad/hex and quadratic tri/tet elements have multiple

integration points and accurately model linear stress gradients.

– Quadratic quad/hex elements exhibit similar convergence rates

as quadratic tri/tet elements.

5-44

Modeling Decisions

…How Many Elements?

• If you are interested in detailed stress

information, it is important that you are

able to anticipate where gradients are

likely to be highest:

– Around notches or fillets

– Where loads are changing rapidly

– Transition element size gradually from

areas of high mesh density.

• When modeling

curved surfaces,

you will need more

linear elements than

quadratic elements.

Here is a guideline:

5-45

Modeling Decisions

…Aspect Ratio, Angles & Warping

• The ideal element shape is a

square/cube. The more an

element deviates from the 1:1

aspect ratio and 90 degree

corners of the ideal element

shape, the more error is

introduced. Reasonable limits

will depend with the situation

(element type, bending vs. bulk

deformation, are accurate

stresses sought?.

• When modeling curved surfaces,

avoid excessive warping:

• ANSYS will warn you when aspect ratio, angle and warping limits

have been exceeded. ANSYS allows you to specify your own limits.

5-46

Modeling decisions

Workshop

• Do the following exercise:

2. Modeling decisions

5-47

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

Solid Model Sources

There are 3 commonly used approaches to creating ANSYS finite element

models, as shown in the table below.

Optio n CAD Pac kag e ANS YS

1. Build s olid mode l.

• Option A, Building a solid

A 2. Me s h finite e le me nt model. model in ANSYS.

1. Build s olid mode l. 1. Import s olid mode l • Option B, Importing a solid

B 2. De fe ature as ne e de d.

3. Export s olid mode l.

2. Comple te or modify a s

ne e ded.

model into ANSYS. Translators

3. Mes h finite e le me nt mode l. are available to take model

geometry into ANSYS within

C 1. Build s olid mode l

2. De fe a ture a s nee de d.

Import finite e leme nt mode l the ANSYS program, as stand

3. Mes h finite ele ment alone programs, and from third

mode l.

4. Export finite ele ment party vendors.

mode l. • Option C, Importing a finite

element model into ANSYS.

Covered in this lesson.

6-2

Importing Geometry

Overview

• If the geometry of the part you want to analyze has already

been created in a CAD package, it is usually more efficient to

import it into ANSYS than to re-create it.

• In this chapter, we will discuss the various import options

available in ANSYS:

A. IGES Imports — expands on IGES importing.

B. Connection Products — How to import UG and parasolid files.

C. F.E. Model Imports — How to import nodes and element files.

D. Workshop — a hands-on exercise on importing.

6-3

Importing Geometry

A. IGES Imports

• The general procedure to import an IGES file has already

been discussed in Chapter 4. In this section, we will explore

some of the options available:

– the two methods, No Defeaturing and Defeaturing

– the Merge, Solid, and Small options

6-4

Importing Geometry

...IGES Imports

• No Defeaturing Method — Imports and stores geometry in the

standard ANSYS database. [ioptn,iges,nodefeat]

+ Faster and more reliable than the Defeaturing method.

+ Allows the full set of solid model operations.

– No defeaturing tools are available.

+ This is the DEFAULT and recommended method.

6-5

Importing Geometry

...IGES Imports

• Defeaturing Method — Imports and stores geometry

in a special database that allows you to repair and

defeature the model. [ioptn,iges,defeat]

+ Ability to defeature, i.e, to remove minor details such

as protrusions, cavities, and small holes.

– Because of the special database used to store

geometry, only a limited number of solid model

operations are available.

– Generally requires more memory and is somewhat

slower than the “No defeaturing” method.

+ This method is efficient for single solid models that

will be imported, loaded, meshed and solved.

– In general, it is NOT recommended when advanced

geometry capabilities are required.

6-6

Importing Geometry

...IGES Imports

• Merge Option

– YES by default, to merge coincident entities so that adjacent

areas meet at a common line, and adjacent lines meet at a

common keypoint.

– Switch it to NO only if you are using the Defeaturing method and

your initial attempt runs out of memory.

– ioptn,merge,yes/no

merge

6-7

Importing Geometry

...IGES Imports

• Solid Option

– YES default, to automatically create a volume (solid) after

importing and merging.

– Switch it to NO if you want to import surfaces only and create a

shell or 2-D plane model.

– ioptn,solid,yes/no

6-8

Importing Geometry

...IGES Imports

• Small Option

– YES by default, to automatically delete small, sliver-like areas

that might be troublesome for meshing.

– Available only for the Defeature method.

– Switch it to NO if you find gaps or “holes” in the model.

– ioptn,small,yes/no

6-9

Importing Geometry

B. Connection Products

• IGES importing involves a dual translation process:

CAD IGES ANSYS

• CAD packages support the IGES standard to varying degrees, so

IGES import does not always work well.

• ANSYS Connection products address this problem by directly

reading the “native” part files produced by the CAD package.

Consequently there is generally a much higher import success rate

as compared to IGES:

CAD ANSYS

– Connection for Unigraphics

– Connection for Parasolid

– Connection for Pro/ENGINEER (not discussed)

– Connection for CADDS (not discussed)

– Connection for SAT (not discussed)

6-10

Importing Geometry

...Connection Products

• Connection for UG

– Reads .prt file produced by Unigraphics Geometry type options:

(from Electronic Data Systems Corp.). – Solids to volume

– Requires Unigraphics software. – Surfaces to areas

– Wireframes to lines

– Utility Menu > File > Import > UG...

– Or ~ugin

selected layers and

geometry types

Defeaturing. This has

same limitations as

Default IGES import.

6-11

Importing Geometry

...Connection Products

• Connection for Parasolid

– Reads .x_t or .xmt_txt file produced by CAD packages that use the

Parasolid modeler.

– Does not require Parasolid software.

Option to read only

– Tends to be a little more robust than UG selected geometry types

connection product sometimes.

– May need to scale geometry after import.

Typically a scale factor of 0.0254 is used

when importing (inches to meters

conversion).

– Utility Menu > File > Import > PARA...

– Or ~parain

– Can Import Assemblies

No Defeaturing is default

6-12

Importing Geometry

…Geometry Import Tips

Whether importing using IGES or a Connection product, here are

some tips to help you maximize your import success rate:

• Transfer only the portion of the geometry required for the

analysis.

• Defeature all details which are not needed for the analysis.

Thoughtful CAD model design is required so that features can

be suppressed individually without disturbing other parts of the

model.

• Set the part accuracy to the tightest allowed by the CAD

program (typically 1E-4) before exporting. In UG this must be

done before the part is created. Other CAD packages (e.g.,

ProE) permit changes during part creation.

6-13

Importing Geometry

…Geometry Import Tips for UG Models

• Before exporting, use the Examine Geometry feature in UG to

identify any troublesome features (short lines, sharp corners,

poorly defined surfaces, etc.). This is found under:

INFO > ANALYSIS > EXAMINE GEOM > SET ALL CHECKS

Problems identified need to be resolved in UG before proceeding.

• Parts created in older versions of UG may need to be updated and

examined before exporting.

• Parts created in newer versions of UG may need to be imported via

Parasolid connection. ANSYS support for UG versions tends to lag

by a few months.

• Check UG-to-ANSYS Correspondence Table (partname.tbl) after

import for info about the attributes received by ANSYS.

• If parts fail to convert, check the ug.log file for warnings and errors

about the part file itself. Review the ans.log file for warnings and

errors regarding construction of the imported model in ANSYS.

6-14

Importing Geometry

C. F.E. Model Imports

• In addition to solid model geometry, ANSYS can also import

finite element model data (nodes and elements) from certain

packages.

• The most common approach is for the software vendor to

“write out” the nodes and elements in a format that ANSYS

can read. This format is published in the ANSYS

Programmer’s Manual.

• Some software packages, such as FEMAP from Enterprise

Software Products Inc., provide an interface that allows you

to transfer more than just nodes and elements.

6-15

Importing Geometry

D. Workshop

• Refer to your Workshop Supplement and perform the

following exercise:

3. Blade Import, Modeling and Meshing – 3D Blade – Part A

6-16

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