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Introduction to ANSYS

for General Electric

presented by:
INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc


Introduction

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


1. Introduction 11. More on Solution
2. FEA and ANSYS 12. More on Post-processing
3. ANSYS Basics 13. Coupling and Constraint
4. Stress Analysis Basics Equations
5. Modeling Decisions 14. Thermal Analysis
6. Importing Geometry 15. Thermal Stress Analysis
7. Solid Modeling 16. Submodeling
8. Meshing 17. Modal Analysis
9. Useful Utilities 18. Nonlinear Analysis
10. Working with Elements 19. Contact Analysis

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• People and Organizations
• About This Training Course
• Other Sources of Information / Education
• ANSYS Family of Products
• ANSYS Capabilities at a Glance

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• ANSYS, Inc.
– Developer of ANSYS family of products
– Headquartered in Canonsburg, PA - USA (south of Pittsburgh)
• Computer Aided Engineering Associates Inc.
– Sales and support network for ANSYS
– 1 of 35 ASDs worldwide (over 75 offices)
– Local expertise for ANSYS consulting and training
• ANSYS Support Coordinator (ASC)
– Jim Bunch for GE Power Systems
– Focal point for ANSYS correspondence; software updates, error
notices, newsletter and other mailings, etc.

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• Introduction to ANSYS
• FEA Best Practices
• Heat Transfer
• Dynamics
• Structural Non-linearities
• APDL Macros

For Additional ANSYS training at GE POWER, please sign-up


through the attached web site :

http://web1.geps.ge.com/communities/engineering/gas/techauto/ using
"Training wizard".

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• Mechanical Engineering Consulting Firm
• ANSYS Support Distributor(ASD)
• Engineering Seminars
• Custom Software Development
• Website: www.caeai.com

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• ASD - ANSYS Support Distributor
• All ASDs are consulting firms:
– extensive finite element and ANSYS expertise
– active consultants
– local sales/marketing of ANSYS
– provide hotline support to local customers
– provide local training and consulting

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• Nicholas M. Veikos, Ph.D., President
• Peter R. Barrett, M.S.C.E., P.E., Vice President
• Michael Bak, Ph.D., Project Mgr.
• Kenneth R. Brown, Ph.D., Sr. Project Engr.
• Patrick Cunningham, M.S.M.E., Project Mgr.
• Dan Fridline, Ph.D., Project Mgr.
• Steven Hale, M.S.M.E., Project Mgr.
• Stan Kelley, M.S.M.E., P.E.,Applications Engr.
• James Kosloski, M.S.M.E., Project Mgr.
• Scott Zemitis, M.S.M.E.,P.E., Project Mgr.
• Lawrence L. Durocher, Ph.D., Director

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• Stress Analysis
– Linear and Nonlinear
– Static and Dynamic
– Implicit and Explicit Dynamics
• Thermal Analysis
– Linear and Nonlinear
– Steady-State and Transient
– Coupled Thermal-Flow

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• ANSYS
• DYNA3D
– modified public domain version
– Livermore Software version
• ProEngineer, Unigraphics
• CAEA Rotor Dynamics Code

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• Simulation/optimization of battery assembly
process(LD,LS,E-P,CONT)

• Analysis/optimization of Self and Balloon


Expanded Medical stents (LD,CONT, E-P, Shape
Memory) - Including FDA submittals

• Gas Turbine Hub-Shaft Spline


Contact(SUB,CONT)

• Golf Ball/Club Impact Analysis(DYNA)

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• Long term relationship with Gas turbine Industry
(United Technologies, GE) , Biomedical Industry,
Manufacturing, etc
• We develop materials and provide FEA training for
many customers (Pratt & Whitney, GE, Schick, etc)
– ANSYS courses
– FEA Best Practices(code independent)
• We provide hot-line ANSYS support (No Answering
Machine - Real engineers !)

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• Goals
• Content
• Scope
• Delivery Format
INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

June 2001
n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc I-12
INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• Skills
– Operating the ANSYS program using the Graphical User
Interface (GUI).
– Planning and performing basic analyses (linear, static,
structural).

• Knowledge
– Describing ANSYS capabilities and how to access them.

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• Introductory level only.
• Material is tailored to Gas Turbine industry
applications.
• Several advanced training courses available on
specific topics including:
– Finite Element Best Practices
– Dynamics
– Structural Nonlinearities
– APDL programming
– Heat Transfer

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• “Mentoring”
– working with experienced users or consultants
– check with your ASC
• Self-study
– On-line documentation
– Other ANSYS manuals (e.g., Workbook, Verification)
– ANSYS tutorials
– “Analysis Solutions” magazine
– Training manuals from other ANSYS courses
– ANSYS conference proceedings
• Advanced ANSYS training
– From Computer Aided Engineering Associates Inc.
– On-site or customized

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FEA and ANSYS

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


ANSYS/ ANSYS/ ANSYS/
Professional Mechanical ANSYS/ Emag
Multiphysics

ANSYS/ ANSYS/
Structural ProFEA
ANSYS/
ED
ANSYS/
FLOTRAN

ANSYS/ DesignSpace
LS-DYNA ANSYS/ ANSYS/
PrepPost University

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FEA and ANSYS

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• ANSYS is a complete FEA software package used by
engineers worldwide in virtually all fields of engineering:
– Structural
– Thermal
– Fluid, including CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)
– Electrical / Electrostatics
– Electromagnetics
• A partial list of industries in which ANSYS is used:
– Aerospace – Electronics & Appliances
– Automotive – Heavy Equipment & Machinery
– Biomedical – MEMS - Micro Electromechanical
– Bridges & Buildings Systems
– Sporting Goods

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FEA and ANSYS

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• ANSYS/Multiphysics is the flagship ANSYS product which
includes all capabilities in all engineering disciplines.
• There are three main component products derived from
ANSYS/Multiphysics:
– ANSYS/Mechanical - structural & thermal capabilities
– ANSYS/Emag - electromagnetics
– ANSYS/FLOTRAN - CFD capabilities
• Other product lines:
– ANSYS/LS-DYNA - for highly nonlinear structural problems
– DesignSpace - an easy-to-use design and analysis tool meant
for quick analysis within the CAD environment
– ANSYS/ProFEA - for ANSYS analysis & design optimization
within Pro/ENGINEER

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• Structural Analysis
• Thermal Analysis
• Fluid Analysis (CFD)
• Coupled-Field Analysis - Multiphysics

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
Structural Analysis determines deformations,
strains, stresses, and reaction forces.
• Structural analysis types:
– Static analysis - used for static loading conditions. It can
account for linear or nonlinear behavior such as: large
deflections, large strain, stress stiffening, contact, plasticity,
hyperelasticity, and creep.
– Modal analysis - calculates the natural frequencies and mode
shapes of a linear structure. Spectrum analysis is an extension
of modal analysis used to calculate stresses and strains due to
random vibrations (also known as response spectrum or PSD).
Cyclic Symmetry capabilities exist for Modal Analysis.

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
– Harmonic analysis - determines the response of a linear
structure to harmonically time-varying (sinusoidal)
loads.
– Transient Dynamic analysis - determines the response of
a structure to arbitrarily time-varying loads. It can
account for the same types of nonlinear behavior as for
static analysis.
– Eigenvalue Buckling analysis - used to calculate linear
buckling loads and to determine buckling mode shapes.
(Nonlinear buckling analysis can be done with transient
dynamics.)

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• Special purpose features:
– Fracture mechanics
– Composite analysis
– Fatigue analysis

• The ANSYS/LS-DYNA licensing option provides an


alternative to standard ANSYS transient dynamics.
– Intended for very large deformation simulations where inertia
forces are dominant and accounts for all nonlinearities.
– Its explicit formulation solves impact, crushing, and rapid
forming problems by the most efficient methods available
today.

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
Thermal Analysis calculates the steady-state or
transient temperature distribution in an object.
Other quantities of interest include amount of
heat lost or gained, thermal gradients, and
thermal flux.
• Thermal analysis is often followed by structural
analysis to calculate stresses from differential
thermal expansion.
• ANSYS capabilities:
– Phase change (melting or freezing), and internal heat
generation (e.g., Joule heating from an electric current)
– Primary heat transfer modes (conduction, convection,
radiation)

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
Fluid Analysis is used to determine the flow and
thermal characteristics of moving fluid. Fluid
analysis types include:
– Acoustic analysis - considers the interaction between a
fluid medium and the surrounding solid, for sound-wave
propagation or submerged-structure dynamics.
– Contained-fluid analysis - considers the effects of a
contained, non-flowing fluid. It can determine hydrostatic
pressures due to sloshing.
– Dynamic fluid coupling analysis - uses a fluid coupling
element in a structural dynamic analysis, based on the
dynamic response of a constrained mass of fluid.

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
• The ANSYS/FLOTRAN licensing option provides
comprehensive CFD (“Computational Fluid
Dynamics”) capability:
– Compressible and incompressible flow
– Laminar and turbulent flow
– Multiple species

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE
Coupled-Field Analysis considers the mutual
interaction between two or more fields. The fact
that each field depends upon another makes it
impossible to solve each separately, therefore you
need a program that can solve both physics
problems by combining them.
• Example: A piezoelectric analysis requires the
simultaneous solution of the voltage distribution
(electric) and strains (structural).
• Other situations which typically require coupled-
field analyses:
– Thermal-stress analyses
– Fluid-structure interaction
– Induction heating, induction stirring
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Training Manual
INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc


FEA and ANSYS
A. What is FEA? Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Finite Element Analysis is a way to simulate loading
conditions on a design and determine the design’s response
to those conditions.
• The design is modeled using discrete building blocks called
elements.
– Each element has exact
Historical Note
equations that describe how it
responds to a certain load. • The finite element method of
structural analysis was created by
– The “sum” of the response of all academic and industrial researchers
elements in the model gives the during the 1950s and 1960s.
• The underlying theory is over 100
total response of the design. years old, and was the basis for
– The elements have a finite pen-and-paper calculations in the
evaluation of suspension bridges
number of unknowns, hence the and steam boilers.
name finite elements.

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FEA and ANSYS
...What is FEA? Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• The finite element model, which has a finite number of
unknowns, can only approximate the response of the
physical system, which has infinite unknowns.
– So the question arises: How good is the approximation?
– Unfortunately, there is no easy
answer to this question. It
depends entirely on what you are
simulating and the tools you use
for the simulation. We will,
however, attempt to give you
guidelines throughout this
training course.

Physical System F.E. Model

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FEA and ANSYS
...What is FEA? Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Why is FEA needed?
• To reduce the amount of prototype testing
– Computer simulation allows multiple “what-if” scenarios to be
tested quickly and effectively.

• To simulate designs that are not suitable for prototype testing


– Example: Surgical implants, such as an artificial knee

• The bottom line:


– Cost savings
– Time savings… reduce time to market!
– Create more reliable, better-quality designs

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Training Manual
Degrees of Freedom

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Degrees of freedom (DOFs) characterize the response
of a field.

UY
ROTY Discipline DOF
Structural Displacement
UX Thermal Temperature
ROTZ ROTX Electrical Voltage
UZ Fluid Pressure
Structural DOFs Magnetic Magnetic Potential

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Training Manual
Nodes and Elements

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Load Node: Coordinate location in space where
degrees of freedom and actions of the
physical system exist.

Element: Mathematical, matrix representation


(called stiffness or coefficient matrix)
of the interaction among the degrees
of freedom of a set of nodes.
Elements may be line, area, or
solid, and two or three dimensional.

The FEA model consists of a number of simply shaped


Load elements, connected to nodes, subjected to loads.

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Training Manual
Nodes and Elements (cont’d)

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• The behavior of each element is represented by several
linear equations.

• As a group, the elements form a mathematical model of the


total structure.

• Although the ladder illustration suggests a finite element


model having fewer than 100 equations (“degrees of
freedom”), even a small ANSYS simulation of today can
have 5,000 unknowns. The matrix can have 25,000,000
stiffness coefficients.

Historical Note
Early ANSYS development followed hardware progress. ANSYS was first released in
1970, running on $1,000,000 CDC, Univac, and IBM mainframe computers which were
much less powerful than today’s PCs. A Pentium PC could solve that 5,000 x 5,000
matrix system in a few minutes, instead of days as in the past.

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Element Theory
Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


The fundamental equations employed in structural analysis are
nodal equilibrium equations, which can be expressed in
matrix notation as:
ì .. ü ì.ü
[M ]íU ý + [C ]íU ý + [K ]{U } = {F }
î þ î þ
where :
[M ] = mass matrix
{U } = nodal acceleration vector
[C] = damping matrix
{U } = nodal velocity vector
[K ] = stiffness matrix
{F} = nodal force vector

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Element Theory
Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual
(continued)

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


The previous equation expresses dynamic nodal equilibrium, i.e.,
the inertia forces plus the damping forces plus the elastic forces at
the nodes must balance the externally applied nodal forces. In this
case, displacements and forces are generalized to include
translations/rotations and forces/moments at the nodes.

The equations simplify for static, or quasi-static analysis to an


equation that looks like the matrix form of a simple spring equation:
[K ]{U } = {F }

• This equation represents nodal equilibrium at every node in the model in


every direction. The stiffness coefficient Kij, the entry in the ith row and the
jth column of the [K] matrix, is the force required in the direction of DOF “i”
to produce a unit displacement of DOF ‘j’ while holding all other
displacements equal to zero. This physical interpretation is the basis for
developing stiffness matrices based on physical reasoning and
experimental results.

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Element Theory
Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual
(continued)
Element characteristics are calculated on the basis of physical reasoning

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


for very simple elements such as springs, spars and beams. Consider the
simplest finite element, a linear spring having two degrees of freedom,
the extensional displacements at each end.
Employ the fundamental definition of a stiffness coefficient, impose a
unit displacement at one end and restrain all other degrees of freedom.
Each unit displacement condition generates one column of the element
stiffness matrix.

U1 k U2

k FR FR = K 22 = k
K12 = − k
2′
FR k
FR FR = K11 = k é K11 K12 ù
1′ ∴ [K ] = ê
K 21 = − k ë K 21 K 22 úû
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Element Theory
Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual
(continued)

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


For a system experiencing nonzero values of U1 and U2,
superposition yields:

F1 = K11U1 + K12U 2
F2 = K 21U1 + K 22U 2
or in matrix form:

ì F1 ü é K11 K12 ù ìU1 ü


í ý = {F } = ê ú í ý = [K ]{U }
î F2 þ ë K 21 K 22 û îU 2 þ

where [K] is the element stiffness matrix for the spring element.

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Element Theory
Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual
(continued)

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


The element contributions are summed to form the overall
system equilibrium equations.
Consider the simple two-element model shown below:

k=10 lbs/inch 2k

1 2

The element stiffness matrices are,


é U1 U 2ù é U 2 U3ù
[K]1 = êê 10 −10úú [K]2 = êê 20 − 20úú
ëê−10 10úû êë− 20 20úû

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2-12
Element Theory
Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual
(continued)

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Assembling the element contributions yields the overall system
equations,

ì F1 ü é K11 K12 K13 ù ìU1 ü


ï ï ê ï ï
í F2 ý = ê K 21 K 22 K 23 ú íU 2 ý
ú
ïF ï êK K 32 K 33 úû ïîU 3 ïþ
î 3 þ ë 31

ì F1 ü é 10 − 10 0ù ì 0 ü
ï ï ê ú ïU ï
0
í ý ê = − 10 30 − 20
úí 2 ý
ï60ï ê 0 − 20 20úû ïîU 3 ïþ
î þ ë

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Element Theory
Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual
(continued)

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Note the system characteristics:

• The element and overall system stiffness matrices are symmetric.


• Each column sums to zero; if the DOF contain both translations and
rotations, each column will not sum to zero.
• The main diagonal elements are always positive.
• The system stiffness matrix is sparse and banded.
• At every node, in every direction, the user knows either the nodal
displacement or the applied nodal force (but not both).

The last two equations can be solved for U2 and U3 and, then knowing
U2 and U3, the
reaction force at node 1 can be calculated from the first equation.

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Element Theory
Fundamental Equations for Structural Analysis Training Manual
(continued)

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Most elements are formulated on the basis of an energy principle or a
weighted residual approach.
The overall approach is outlined below:
• Assume a displacement field for the element, usually a polynomial
function.
• Compute the polynomial coefficients in terms of the unknown nodal
displacement components.
• Calculate the strains in terms of the nodal displacements.
• Use the stress–strain relationship to derive the stress-nodal
displacement equations.
• Substitute the expressions for stress and strain into the strain
energy calculation and integrate over the element volume to obtain
the element stiffness matrix.
• Substitute the nodal displacement approximations into the
expression for work done to obtain equivalent nodal forces.

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Element Theory
Structural vs. Thermal Solutions Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


The solution of a structural problem and a thermal problem
are very similar numerically. Physical quantities of structural
and thermal analyses are analogous in the following ways:

Structural Thermal

Displacements Temperatures

Strains Thermal Gradients

Stresses Flux

BC Forces Heat Flow

BC Pressure Heat Flux

Elastic Foundation Convection


Internal Heat Generation per Unit
Temperature Distribution
Volume

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Training Manual
Nodes and Elements (cont’d)

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


The DOFs at a node are a function of the element type
connected to the node.
J J
3-D Beam
3-D Spar (Pin Joints)
UX, UY, UZ,
UX, UY, UZ
ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ
I I
L K
2-D or Axisymmetric Solid L K
UX, UY
3-D Quadrilateral Shell
I J
UX, UY, UZ,
I J ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ
P O P O
3-D Structural Solid 3-D Thermal Solid
M UX, UY, UZ M
N N TEMP
L L
K K
I J I J

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Training Manual
Nodes and Elements (cont’d)

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Information is passed from element to element only at
common nodes.

2 nodes

1 node

A B A B

Separate, but coincident nodes- Shared nodes-


element A does not “talk” to elements A and B
element B (merge required) “talk” to each other
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Training Manual
The Element Shape Function

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• FEA solves for DOF values only at nodes.

• An element shape function is a mathematical function that


allows values of a DOF from the nodes to be mapped to
points within the element.

• Thus, an element shape function gives the “shape” of the


results within the element.

• An element shape function represents assumed behavior


for a given element.

• How well each assumed element shape function matches


the true behavior directly affects the accuracy of the
solution.

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The Element Shape Function (Cont’d) Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Linear approximation to quadratic curve
Arbritrary distribution (Poor Results)
of DOF values
Actual quadratic curve

Actual Part
Node Element
1 2

Quadratic approximation (actual and


Linear approximations approximate curves match)
(Better Results) (Best Results)
Actual quadratic
curve

Nodes Elements Node Element


3 4
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2-20
Training Manual
The Element Shape Function (cont’d)

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Observations:
• DOF values may or may not accurately match the true
solution at the nodes, but typically match it in an
average sense across an element.

• Typical solution data are usually derived from the


DOFs (e.g., structural stresses, thermal gradients).

• Element shape functions that do not accurately


capture DOFs within an element may not be adequate
for these derived data because derived data is
calculated from derivatives of the element shape
function.

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Training Manual
The Element Shape Function (cont’d)

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


The Bottom Line:
• When you choose an element type, you are
implicitly choosing and accepting the
element shape function assumed for that
element type.
• Make sure you have a sufficient number of
nodes and elements to adequately capture
the behavior of your problem given the
assumed element shape function of the
element type you have chosen.

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1-D Elastic Rod: Direct Method
Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Physical System:
δ A,E

P P
L

• Strength of Materials: σ = P/A

• Hooke's Law: σ = Eε , where ε = δ/L

• Combining Equations Yields: δ = PL/(AE)

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1-D Elastic Rod: Direct Method
Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Spar Element: Real Constant: A
Material Property: E
x
ui uj

1 L 2

Directly Determine Element Stiffness Matrix:


– Apply unit displacement to uj and hold ui,
– Apply unit displacement to ui and reaction forces are 2nd column
hold uj, reaction forces are 1st column

AE é 1 − 1ù
[ k] = ê− 1 1 ú
L ë û
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1-D Elastic Rod: Formal Method
Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Shape Functions:
ui uj
éL− x xù
[N] = ê
ë L L úû
1 L 2
• Strain Displacement Relationship:

d é−1 1 ù
[ B] = [ N ] = êë L L úû
dx
• Integrate to Determine Element Stiffness Matrix*:
ì − 1ü
AE é 1 − 1ù
L
T ï L ïé − 1 1ù
[ k ] = ò [ B] [ E ] [ B] dV = AE ò í 1 ý ê dx =
0 ï ïë L
ú
Lû L êë − 1 1 úû
î Lþ
* - based on virtual work argument where work done by external forces is equated to
internally stored strain energy. Refer to a textbook for details.
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1-D Elastic Rod: Example Problem
Using Frontal Solution Method
Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Finite Element Model: Assume all elements have
same A, E, and L
x
u1 u2 u3 u4
P
1 1 2 2 3 3 4
• Assemble Global Stiffness Matrix:

é 1 −1 0 0ù
ê− 1 1 2 − 1 0ú
AE ê ú
[ K] = 2
L ê 0 −1 2 − 1ú
ê 3 ú
ë 0 0 − 1 1û

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1-D Elastic Rod: Example Problem
Using Frontal Solution Method Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Write Equations of Static Equilibrium:

[ M ] {U
 } + [ C ] {U
 } + [ K ] { U } = { F}

é 1 −1 0 0ù ì u1 ü ì f 1ü
ê ú ï ï ï ï
AE ê − 1 2 − 1 0 ú ï u2 ï ïf 2ï
í ý = í ý
L ê 0 − 1 2 − 1ú ï u3ï ï f 3ï
ê ú ï u4 ï ïf 4ï
ë 0 0 − 1 1 û î þ î þ
• Apply Loads and B/Cs:
é 2 −1 0 ù ìu2 ü ìP ü
AE ê ú ï ï ï ï
− 1 2 − 1ú í u3ý = í0ý
L ê ï ï ï0ï
êë 0 − 1 1 úû
îu4 þ î þ
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1-D Elastic Rod: Example Problem
Using Frontal Solution Method Training Manual

• Solve Equations Using Gauss Elimination:

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


– Multiply Row 1 by 1/2 and add to Row 2
é2 −1 0ù ìu2 ü ì P ü
AE ê ú ï ï ï ï
0 3/ 2 − 1ú í u3ý = í P/2 ý
L ê ï ï ï ï
êë 0 1 úû
−1 îu4 þ î 0 þ
– Multiply Row 2 by 2/3 and add to Row 3

é2 − 1 0 ù ì u2 ü ì P ü
AE ê ú ï ï ï ï
0 3 / 2 − 1 í u3ý = í P/2 ý
L ê ú
ï ï ï ï
êë 0 1 / 3úû
0 î u4 þ î P/3 þ

- Normalize to diagonal coefficients


é1 −1/ 2 0 ù ìu2 ü ì P/2 ü
AE ê ú ï ï ï ï
0 1 − 2 / 3ú í u3ý = í P/3ý
L ê ï ï ï ï
êë0 1 úû
0 îu4 þ î P þ
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1-D Elastic Rod: Example Problem
Using Frontal Solution Method Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


– Back substitute for displacements

ìu2ü ì1 / 2 + 1 / 2 u 3 ü ì1ü
ï ï PL ï ï PL ï ï
í u3ý = í1 / 3 + 2 / 3 u 4 ý = í1ý
ï ï AE ï ï AE ï ï
îu4þ î 1 þ î1þ

• Reactions are computed by plugging displacements in to original static


equilibrium equations:
ì 0 ü
ïæ PL ö ï
ïçè AE ÷ø ï
AE ï ï æ PLAE ö
[
f1 = L 1 −1 0 0 ] æ PL ö
íç ÷ ý = −ç
è LAE ø
÷ = −P
ïè AE ø ï
ïæ PL ö ï
ïç ÷ ï
îè AE ø þ
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1-D Elastic Rod: Example Problem
Using Frontal Solution Method Training Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Strains are computed for each element from displacements using the strain-
displacement matrix [B].
The strains in Element 1 are computed as follows:

1 ì 0 ü PL P
{ε } = [B ]{u } = [− 1 1 ]í PL ý = =
L î AE þ AEL AE

• Element stresses are computed from strains by applying Hooke’s Law:

PE P
{σ } = [ E ]{ ε } = =
AE A
• Note: Displacements are continuous across element boundaries, while
Stresses and Strains are not continuous.
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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc


3. ANSYS Basics

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• In this chapter, we will discuss the basics of how to enter and
exit ANSYS, how to use the GUI and on-line help, and the
database and files created by ANSYS.
• Topics Covered:
A. Starting ANSYS
B. The GUI
C. Graphics & Picking
D. On-Line Help
E. The Database and Files
F. Exiting ANSYS

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ANSYS Basics
A. Starting ANSYS

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• There are two ways to start ANSYS:
– By Launcher
– By Command Line
Unix
launcher

Launcher
• Allows you to start ANSYS and other
ANSYS utilities by pressing buttons on a
menu.
• On Unix systems, issue xansys57 & to Windows
bring up the launcher. launcher
• On Windows systems, press Start >
Programs > ANSYS 5.7.

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ANSYS Basics
...Starting ANSYS

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Launcher (cont’d)
• Automatically brings up the GUI (Graphical User
Interface) when ANSYS is started in interactive
mode.
• A note on Interactive vs. Batch mode:
– Interactive mode allows you to interact “live” with
ANSYS, reviewing each operation as you go.
– Batch mode works on an input file of commands and
allows you to run ANSYS in the background.
• No live interaction, therefore any errors in input will
cause the batch run to stop.
• Best suited for operations that don’t need user
interaction, such as a solve.
– We will use ANSYS in interactive mode in this course.

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3-4
ANSYS Basics
...Starting ANSYS

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Launcher (cont’d)
• Pressing the Interactive button on the
launcher brings up a dialog box
containing start-up options, e.g:
– ANSYS product
– Working directory - the directory in
which all files will be stored.
– Graphics device - set to 3-D if you
have a 3-D graphics device card.
Otherwise, set to X11 on Unix, win32
on Windows.
– Jobname - file name prefix, up to 32
characters, assigned to all files
produced by this session. Defaults to
“file” or last specified name.
– Amount of memory - default values
should suffice in most cases.

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ANSYS Basics
...Starting ANSYS

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Launcher (cont’d)
• After choosing the desired start-up options, press the Run
button to start ANSYS.

Command Line
• ANSYS is started by typing a command at the system level.
For example:
– ansys57
– ansys57 -g
– ansys57 -g -j plate
– ansys57 -g -p ANE3FL -d 3d -j proj1 -m 128

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ANSYS Basics
...Starting ANSYS

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Command Line (cont’d)
• Typical start-up options, commonly known as command line
options, are:
-g (to automatically bring up the GUI upon start-up)
-p product_code
-d graphics_device
-j jobname
-m memory

• The working directory is the directory in which the command


is issued.
• Refer to your ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for
details on the command line options.

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3-7
ANSYS Basics
B. The GUI

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Entering ANSYS brings up the following GUI windows:
Input Utility Menu
Displays program Contains functions
prompt messages which are available
and a text field for throughout the
typing commands. ANSYS session, such
All previously typed as file controls,
commands appear for selecting, graphics
easy reference and controls, parameters,
access. and exiting.

Main Menu Toolbar


Contains the primary Contains push
ANSYS functions, buttons for executing
organized by commonly used
processors ANSYS commands
(preprocessor, and functions.
solution, general Customized buttons
postprocessor, etc.) can be created.

Output Graphics
Displays text output Displays graphics
from the program. It created in ANSYS or
is usually positioned imported into ANSYS.
behind the other
windows and can be
raised to the front
when necessary.

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ANSYS Basics
...The GUI

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Main Menu
• Contains the main functions required for an
analysis.
• Independent, “sticky” windows allow you to
complete all necessary steps before moving on to
the next function.
• Conventions:
“…” indicates a dialog box
“ +” indicates graphical picking
“ >” indicates a submenu
“ ” (blank) indicates an action

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3-9
ANSYS Basics
...The GUI

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Utility Menu
• Contains utilities that are generally available throughout the
ANSYS session: graphics, on-line help, select logic, file
controls, etc.
• Same conventions as Main Menu:
– “…” indicates a dialog box
– “ +” indicates graphical picking
– “ >” indicates a submenu
– “ ” (blank) indicates an action

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3-10
ANSYS Basics
...The GUI

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Input Window
• Allows you to enter commands. (Most GUI functions actually
“send” commands to ANSYS. If you know these commands,
you can type them in the Input Window.)
• Also used for prompts during graphical picking.

Command Syntax

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ANSYS Basics
...The GUI

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Toolbar
• Contains abbreviations -- short-cuts to commonly used
commands and functions.
• A few predefined abbreviations are available, but you can add
your own. Requires knowledge of ANSYS commands.
• A powerful feature which you can use to create your own
“button menu” system!

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ANSYS Basics
...The GUI

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Layout
Input
• Three predefined menu layouts are available
(Launcher > Interactive > GUI Configuration):
– Input window on left (default)
– Input window on right
– Input window on bottom Input

• You can also create your own layout and then


save it using Utility Menu > MenuCtrls > Save
Menu Layout.
– Unix systems store the layout in an ASCII
resource file called ANSYS57, located in $HOME.
– Windows systems store the layout in the system
registry.
Input

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ANSYS Basics
...The GUI

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Preferences
• The Preferences dialog (Main Menu >
Preferences) allows you to filter out
menu choices that are not applicable
to the current analysis.
• For example, if you are doing a
thermal analysis, you can choose to
filter out other disciplines, thereby
reducing the number of menu items
available in the GUI:
– Only thermal element types will be
shown in the element type selection
dialog.
– Only thermal loads will be shown.
– Etc.

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ANSYS Basics
...The GUI

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Other GUI Notes
• Some dialog boxes have both Apply and OK buttons.
– Apply applies the dialog settings, but retains (does not close) the
dialog box for repeated use.
– OK applies the dialog settings and closes the dialog box.

• The Output Window is independent of the ANSYS menus.


Caution: Closing the output window closes the entire ANSYS
session!
• Remember that you are not restricted to using the menus. If
you know the command, feel free to enter it in the Input
Window!

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ANSYS Basics
...The GUI

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Demo:
– Start ANSYS using the launcher
– Show the various parts of the GUI
– Bring up “Keypoints in Active CS” dialog box and show the
difference between OK and Apply
– Show the Preferences dialog
– Explain the Output window

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3-16
ANSYS Basics
C. Graphics & Picking

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• The most heavily used interactive
capabilities are graphics and graphical
picking.
– Graphics is used to visualize the model,
/replot
loading, results, and other input and kplot
output data. lplot
aplot
– Picking is used for model creation,
vplot
meshing, loading, etc. nplot
eplot
• Use Plot in the Utility menu to produce gplot
plots, or issue the commands shown.

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ANSYS Basics
...Graphics & Picking

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• The PlotCtrls menu is used to control
how the plot is displayed:
– plot orientation
– zoom
– colors
– symbols
– annotation
– animation
– etc.

• Among these, changing the plot


orientation (view) and zooming are the
most commonly used functions.

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3-18
ANSYS Basics
...Graphics & Picking

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• The default view for a model is the front
view: looking down the +Z axis of the
model.
• To change it, use dynamic mode — a way
to orient the plot dynamically using the
Control key and mouse buttons.
– Ctrl + Left mouse button pans the model.
– Ctrl + Middle mouse button:
↕ zooms the model
↔ spins the model (about screen Z)
– Ctrl + Right mouse button rotates the model:
↕ about screen X P Z R

↔ about screen Y
Ctrl

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ANSYS Basics
...Graphics & Picking

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• If you don’t want to hold down the
Control key, you can use the Dynamic
Mode setting in the Pan-Zoom-Rotate
dialog box.
– The same mouse button assignments
apply.
– On 3-D graphics devices, you can also
dynamically orient the light source.
Useful for different light source
shading effects.

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ANSYS Basics
...Graphics & Picking

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Other functions in the Pan- Front +Z view, from (0,0,1)
Zoom-Rotate dialog box: Back -Z view (0,0,-1)
Top +Y view (0,1,0)
– Preset views Bot -Y view (0,-1,0)
Right +X view (1,0,0)
– Zoom-in on specific regions Left -X view (-1,0,0)
of the model Iso Isometric (1,1,1)
Obliq Oblique (1,2,3)
– Pan, zoom, or rotate in WP Working plane view
discrete increments (as
specified by the Rate slider)
Zoom By picking center of a
• Rotation is about the square
Box Zoom By picking two
screen X, Y, Z corners of a box
coordinates. Win Zoom Same as Box Zoom,
but box is proportional
– Fit the plot to the window to window.
Back Up “Unzoom” to previous
– Reset everything to default zoom.

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ANSYS Basics
...Graphics & Picking

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Picking
• Picking allows you to identify model
entities or locations by clicking in the
Graphics Window.
• A picking operation typically involves the
use of the mouse and a picker menu. It is
indicated by a + sign on the menu.
• For example, you can create keypoints by
picking locations in the Graphics Window
and then pressing OK in the picker.

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ANSYS Basics
...Graphics & Picking

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Two types of picking:
Example of
• Retrieval picking Retrieval Picker
– Picking existing entities for a
subsequent operation.
– Allows you to enter entity
numbers in the Input Window.
– Use the Pick All button to
indicate all entities.

• Locational picking
– Locating coordinates of a point,
such as a keypoint or node.
– Allows you to enter coordinates Example of
in the Input Window. Locational Picker

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ANSYS Basics
...Graphics & Picking

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Mouse button assignments for picking:
• Left mouse button picks (or unpicks)
the entity or location closest to the
mouse pointer. Pressing and dragging Apply
allows you to “preview” the item being Toggle
picked (or unpicked). Pick
Pick / Unpick

• Middle mouse button does an Apply.


Saves the time required to move the
mouse over to the Picker and press the
Apply button. Use Shift-Right button on
a two-button mouse.
• Right mouse button toggles between
pick and unpick mode.

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ANSYS Basics
...Graphics & Picking

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Hotspot locations for picking:
• Areas and Volumes have one hotspot near the centroid of
the solid model entity.
• Lines have three hotspots - one in the middle and one near
each end.
Why this is important: When you are required to “pick” an
entity, you must pick on the hotspot.

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3-25
ANSYS Basics
D. On-Line Help

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• ANSYS uses an HTML-based documentation system to
provide extensive on-line help.
• You can get help on:
– ANSYS commands
– element types
– analysis procedures
– special GUI “widgets” such as Pan-Zoom-Rotate

• You can also access:


– Tutorials
– Verification models
– The ANSYS web site

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ANSYS Basics
...On-Line Help

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• There are several ways to start the help system:
– Launcher > Help System
– Utility Menu > Help > Help Topics
– Any dialog box > Help
– Type HELP,name in the Input Window. Name is a command or
element name.

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ANSYS Basics
...On-Line Help

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Pressing the Help System buttton on the launcher brings up two
browser windows:
– a navigational window containing Table of Contents and Index
– a document window containing the help information.

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ANSYS Basics
...On-Line Help

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Use the Contents tab to
browse to the item of interest.
• Use the Index tab to quickly
locate specific commands,
terminology, concepts, etc.
• Use the Search tab to query
the entire help system for
specific words or phrases.
• Use the Favorites tab to add
your own frequently
referenced help sections.

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ANSYS Basics
...On-Line Help

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• ANSYS also provides
an HTML-based on-
line tutorial.
• The tutorial consists
of detailed
instructions for a set
of problems solved in
ANSYS.
• To access the tutorial,
click on Utility Menu >
Help > ANSYS
Tutorials.

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ANSYS Basics
...On-Line Help

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Demo:
– Launch the help system from the launcher
– Bring up an Analysis Guide
– Type “help,kplot” in the Input window
– Search for the string “harmonic response”

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ANSYS Basics
E. The Database & Files

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• The term ANSYS database refers to the data ANSYS
maintains in memory as you build, solve, and postprocess
your model.
• The database stores both your input data and ANSYS results
data:
– Input data -- information you must enter, such as model
dimensions, material properties, and load data.
– Results data -- quantities that ANSYS calculates, such as
displacements, stresses, strains, and reaction forces.

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ANSYS Basics
...The Database & Files

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Save and Resume
• Since the database is stored in the computer’s memory
(RAM), it is good practice to save it to disk frequently so that
you can restore the information in the event of a computer
crash or power failure.
• The SAVE operation copies the database from memory to a
file called the database file (or db file for short).
– The easiest way to do a save is to click on Toolbar > SAVE_DB
– Or use:
• Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db
• Utility Menu > File > Save as…
• SAVE command

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ANSYS Basics
...The Database & Files

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• To restore the database from the db file back into memory,
use the RESUME operation.
– Toolbar > RESUME_DB
– Or use:
• Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname.db
• Utility Menu > File > Resume from…
• RESUME command

• The default file name for SAVE and RESUME is jobname.db,


but you can choose a different name by using the “Save as”
or “Resume from” functions.

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ANSYS Basics
...The Database & Files

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Notes on SAVE and RESUME:
– Choosing the Save as or Resume from function does NOT
change the current jobname.
– If you save to the default file name and a jobname.db already
exists, ANSYS will first copy the “old” file to jobname.dbb as a
back-up.
– The db file is simply a “snapshot” of what is in memory at the
time the save is done.

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ANSYS Basics
...The Database & Files

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Tips on SAVE and RESUME:
– Periodically save the database as you progress through an
analysis. ANSYS does NOT do automatic saves.
– You should definitely SAVE the database before attempting an
unfamiliar operation (such as a Boolean or meshing) or an
operation that may cause major changes (such as a delete).
• RESUME can then be used as an “undo” if you don’t like the
results of that operation.
– SAVE is also recommended before doing a solve.

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ANSYS Basics
...The Database & Files

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Clearing the Database
• The Clear Database operation allows
you to “zero out” the database and
start fresh. It is similar to exiting
and re-entering ANSYS.
– Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New
– Or use the /CLEAR command.

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ANSYS Basics
...The Database & Files

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Files
• ANSYS writes and reads several files during an analysis. File
names are of the format jobname.ext.
• Jobname
– A name you choose while starting ANSYS, up to 32 characters.
Defaults to file.
– Can be changed within ANSYS with the /FILNAME command
(Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname).

• Extension
– Identifies the contents of the file, such as .db for database.
– Usually assigned by ANSYS but can be defined by user
(/ASSIGN).

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ANSYS Basics
...The Database & Files

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Typical files:
jobname.log: Log file, ASCII.
• Contains a log of every command issued during the session.
• If you start a second session with the same jobname in the same
working directory, ANSYS will append to the previous log file (with a
time stamp).
jobname.err: Error file, ASCII.
• Contains all errors and warnings encountered during the session.
jobname.db, .dbb: Database file, binary.
• Compatible across all platforms.
jobname.rst, .rth: Results files, binary.
• Contains results data calculated by ANSYS during solution.
• Compatible across all platforms.

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ANSYS Basics
...The Database & Files

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


File Management Tips
• Run each analysis project in a separate working directory.
• Use different jobnames to differentiate various analysis runs.
• You should keep the following files after any ANSYS
analysis:
– log file ( .log)
– database file ( .db)
– results files (.rst, .rth, …)
– load step files, if any (.s01, .s02, ...)
– physics files (.ph1, .ph2, ...)
• Use /FDELETE or Utility Menu > File > ANSYS File Options to
automatically delete files no longer needed by ANSYS during
that session.

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ANSYS Basics
F. Exiting ANSYS

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Three ways to exit ANSYS:
– Toolbar > QUIT
– Utility Menu > File > Exit
– Use the /EXIT command in the Input Window

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc


Stress Analysis Basics
Overview

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Stress analysis is a general term used to describe analyses
where the results quantities include stresses and strains. It
is also known as structural analysis.
• As described in Chapter 1, ANSYS allows several types of
stress analyses:
Static Transient Dynamic
Modal Spectrum
Harmonic Explicit Dynamics

• In this chapter, we will use a linear static analysis to describe


the steps involved in an analysis. We will add more detail
later, so think of this chapter as a “quick start” guide.

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4-2
Stress Analysis Basics
...Overview

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Topics covered:
A. Analysis Steps
B. Geometry
C. Meshing
D. Loading
E. Solve
F. Reviewing Results
G. Checking Validity of Solution
H. Workshop

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4-3
Stress Analysis Basics
A. Analysis Steps

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Every analysis involves three main steps:
• Preprocessing
– Create or import the model geometry
Preprocessing
– Mesh the geometry

• Solution
– Apply loads Solution
– Solve

• Postprocessing
– Review results
– Check the validity of the solution Postprocessing

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Stress Analysis Basics
...Analysis Steps

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Notice that the ANSYS Main Menu is also organized in terms
of preprocessing, solution, and postprocessing.

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4-5
Stress Analysis Basics
...Analysis Steps

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• The preprocessor (called PREP7 in ANSYS) is where you
provide the majority of the input to the program.
• Its main purpose is to generate the finite element model,
which consists mainly of nodes, elements, and material
property definitions. You can also use PREP7 to apply loads.
• Usually begins with definition of the model geometry.
• A solid model model is typically used to represent model
geometry.
– A CAD-type mathematical representation that defines the
geometry of the structure.
– May consist of solids or just surfaces, depending on what is
being modeled.

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4-6
Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing
B. Geometry

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• A typical solid model is defined by volumes, areas, lines, and
keypoints.
– Volumes are bounded by areas. They represent solid objects.
– Areas are bounded by lines. They represent faces of solid
objects, or planar or shell objects.
– Lines are bounded by keypoints. They represent edges of
objects.
– Keypoints are locations in 3-D space. They represent vertices of
objects.

Volumes Areas Lines & Keypoints


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Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing
...Geometry

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• There is a hierarchy among solid model entities.
Keypoints are the “foundation” entities. Lines are Volumes
“built” from the keypoints, areas from lines, and Areas
volumes from areas.
Lines
• This hierarchy holds true regardless of how the Keypoints
solid model is created.

• ANSYS will not allow you to delete or modify a lower-order


entity if it is attached to a higher-order entity. (with a few
exceptions … discussed later.)

Volumes
I’ll just
change Areas OOPs! Vo
this line

Areas
Lines Lines
lu
m
es
Keypoints Keypoints

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4-8
Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing
...Geometry

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• You can either create a solid model in ANSYS or import it
from another software package.
• Details of both methods will be presented later. For now, we
will briefly discuss how to import an IGES file and
scale/position the geometry if needed.
• IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) is a way to
transfer solid model geometry from one software package to
another.
– An IGES file is ASCII, allowing it to be easily transported
between computer systems.
– Most packages, including ANSYS, allow you to write as well as
read an IGES file.

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Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing
...Geometry

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• To import an IGES file into ANSYS:
– Utility Menu > File > Import > IGES...
• In the resulting dialog box, choose the
No defeaturing * (default) and press OK
(defaults for everything else).
• In the second dialog box, choose the
desired file and press OK.
– OR use the IGESIN command:
• /aux15
• ioptn,iges,nodefeat
• igesin,filename,extension,directory
• finish

* Details about the default vs. alternate method and the other options will be presented later.
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4-10
Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing
...Geometry

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• When the import is completed, ANSYS will automatically plot
the geometry.

• You may then modify the


geometry as needed.
– ANSYS allows many
operations on the solid
model, which we will
describe later.
– For now, we will discuss
how to scale the model to a
different set of units. (Note:
Scaling is NOT available for
a “Defeature” IGES import.)
– In Chapter 6 you will learn
how to reorient the model as
well.

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Stress Analysis Basics - Preprocessing
...Geometry

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Scaling is typically needed when you want to convert the geometry
to a different set of units, say from inches to millimeters.
• To scale a model in ANSYS:
– First save the database -- Toolbar >
SAVE_DB or SAVE command.
– Then Main Menu > Preprocessor >
Operate > Scale > Volumes (choose the
highest-level entity available in the
model)
• [Pick All] to pick all volumes
• Then enter desired scale factors
for RX, RY, RZ and set IMOVE to
“Moved” instead of “Copied”
– Or use the VLSCALE command:
• vlscale,all,,,25.4,25.4,25.4,,,1

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• Demo:
– Import pipe.igs using:
• “No Defeaturing” method
• All other defaults
– Orient the model as shown
– Save as pipe.db

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• Preprocessing
! Geometry
– Meshing

• Solution
– Loading
– Solve

• Postprocessing
– Review results
– Check validity of solution

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• Meshing is the process used to “fill” the solid model with
nodes and elements, i.e, to create the FEA model.
– Remember, you need nodes and elements for the finite element
solution, not just the solid model. The solid model does NOT
participate in the finite element solution.

meshing

Solid model FEA model

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• There are three steps to meshing:
– Define element attributes
– Specify mesh controls
– Generate the mesh

• Element attributes are characteristics of the finite element


model that you must establish prior to meshing. They
include:
– Element types
– Real constants
– Material properties

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Element Type
• The element type is an important choice that determines the
following element characteristics:
– Degree of Freedom (DOF) set. A thermal element type, for
example, has one dof: TEMP, whereas a structural element type
may have up to six dof: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ.
– Element shape -- brick, tetrahedron, quadrilateral, triangle, etc.
– Dimensionality -- 2-D (X-Y plane only), or 3-D.
– Assumed displacement shape -- linear vs. quadratic.

• ANSYS has a “library” of over 150 element types from which


you can choose. Details on how to choose the “correct”
element type will be presented later. For now, let’s see how
to define an element type.

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• To define an element type:
– Preprocessor > Element Type >
Add/Edit/Delete
• [Add] to add new element
type
• Choose the desired type
(such as SOLID92) and
press OK
• [Options] to specify
additional element options
– Or use the ET command:
• et,1,solid92

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• Notes:
– Setting preferences to the desired discipline (Main Menu >
Preferences) will show only the element types valid for that
discipline.
– You should define the element type early in the preprocessing
phase because many of the menu choices in the GUI are filtered
out based on the current DOF set. For example, if you choose a
structural element type, thermal load choices will be “grayed
out” or not shown at all.

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Real Constants
• Real constants are used for geometric properties that cannot
be completely defined by the element’s geometry. For
example:
– A beam element is defined by a line joining two nodes. This
defines only the length of the beam. To specify the beam’s
cross-sectional properties, such as the area and moment of
inertia, you need to use real constants.
– A shell element is defined by a quadrilateral or triangular area.
This defines only the surface area of the shell. To specify the
shell thickness, you need to use real constants.
– Most 3-D solid elements do not require a real constant since the
element geometry is fully defined by its nodes.

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• To define real constants:
– Preprocessor > Real Constants
• [Add] to add a new real constant set.
• If multiple element types have been defined, choose the
element type for which you are specifying real constants.
• Then enter the real constant values.
– Or use the R family of commands.

• Different element types require different real constants, and


some don’t require any real constants. Check the Elements
Manual, available on-line, for details.

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Material Properties
• Every analysis requires some material property input:
Young’s modulus EX for structural elements, thermal
conductivity KXX for thermal elements, etc.
• There are two ways to define material properties:
– Material library
– Individual properties

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Using the Material Library
• This method allows you to choose a predefined set of properties for
a given material.
• ANSYS supplies typical structural and thermal properties (linear
only) for some common materials, but we strongly recommend that
you create your own material library.
• To choose a material from the library:
– First define the library path.
• Preprocessor > Material Props >
Material Library > Library Path
– Enter the location from which
to READ material data, e.g,
/ansys57/matlib.
• Or use the /MPLIB command.

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– Then “import” a material from the
library.
• Preprocessor > Material Library >
Import Library
– Choose the units system.
This is used only to filter the
list of files shown in the
subsequent dialog. ANSYS
has no knowledge of units
and does NOT do unit
conversion.
– Choose the desired material
file, such as steel AISI
C1020.
• Or use the MPREAD command
with the LIB option.

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Specifying Individual Material Properties
• Instead of choosing a material name, this method involves directly
specifying the required properties through the Material Model GUI.

• To specify individual
properties:
– Preprocessor > Material
Props > Material Models
• Double-click on the
appropriate
property to be
defined.

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• Work through the tree
structure to the material
type to be defined.
• Then enter the individual
property values.
• Or use the MP command.
– mp,ex,1,30e6
– mp,prxy,1,.3

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• Add temperature dependent
properties
• Graph properties v.
temperature

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• Copy material models from
one table to another
• Delete material models

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A Note on Units
• You do not need to tell ANSYS the system of units you are
using. Simply decide what units you will use, then make sure
all of your input is consistent.
– For example, if the model geometry is in inches, make sure that
all other input data — material properties, real constants, loads,
etc. — are in terms of inches.

• ANSYS does NOT do units conversion! It simply accepts all


numbers you input without questioning their validity.
• The command /UNITS allows you to specify a units system,
but it is simply a recording device to let other users of your
model know what units you used.

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Specifying Mesh Controls is the second step in meshing.
• Many mesh controls are available in ANSYS. For now, we will
present a simple method of specifying mesh density, called
SmartSizing.
• SmartSizing is an algorithm that assigns element divisions to
all lines in the model based on line length, curvature, and
proximity to holes, etc.
• You simply specify a “size level” ranging from 1 (very fine
mesh) to 10 (very coarse mesh), and ANSYS takes care of the
rest.

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• The MeshTool is the best way to specify mesh
controls:
– Preprocessor > MeshTool.
– Activate SmartSizing. Size level defaults to 6.

Generating the mesh is the final step in meshing.


• First save the database.
• Then press [Mesh] in the MeshTool.
– This brings up a picker. Press [Pick All] in the picker to
indicate all entities.

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• When the meshing is complete, ANSYS will automatically plot
the elements.
– The default element plot shows all element edges as straight
lines even for a quadratic element type.
– To show curved element edges, issue /EFACET,2 (or Utility Menu
> PlotCtrls > Size and Shape…).

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• Demo:
– Resume pipe.db (if needed)
– Define SHELL63 element type
– Specify real constant thickness = 1/8 in
– Use the Material Model GUI to define Material 1:
• Structural, Linear, Elastic, Isotropic
• Young’s modulus EX = 30e6
• Poisson’s ratio PRXY = .3
– Save as pipe.db, then mesh the model using SMRT,4
– Save as pipemesh.db

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• Preprocessing
! Geometry
! Meshing

• Solution
– Loading
– Solve

• Postprocessing
– Review results
– Check validity of solution

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D. Loading

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• The solution step is where we apply loads on the object and
let the solver calculate the finite element solution.
• Loads are available both in the Solution and Preprocessor
menus.

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• There are five categories of loads:
DOF Constraints Specified DOF values, such as
displacements in a stress analysis or
temperatures in a thermal analysis.
Concentrated Loads Point loads, such as forces or heat flow
rates.
Surface Loads Loads distributed over a surface, such as
pressures or convections.
Body Loads Volumetric or field loads, such as
temperatures (causing thermal expansion)
or internal heat generation.
Inertia Loads Loads due to structural mass or inertia,
such as gravity and angular velocity.

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• You can apply loads either on the solid model or directly on
the FEA model (nodes and elements).
– Solid model loads are easier to apply because there are fewer
entities to pick.
– Moreover, solid model loads are independent of the mesh. You
don’t need to reapply the loads if you change the mesh.

Pressure on line Pressures on element faces

Constraint Constraints
on line at nodes

Solid model FEA model

Force at keypoint Force at node


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• Regardless of how you apply the loads, the solver expects all
loads to be in terms of the finite element model. Therefore,
solid model loads are automatically transferred to the
underlying nodes and elements during solution.
• We will now discuss how to apply the following types of
structural loads:
– Displacement constraints
– Forces
– Pressures
– Gravity
– Angular Velocity

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Displacement Constraints
• Used to specify where the model is fixed (zero displacement locations).
• Interpreted in nodal coordinate system (defined later).
• Can also be non-zero, to simulate a known deflection.

• To apply displacement constraints :


– Solution > -Loads- Apply > Displacement
• Choose where you want to apply
the constraint.
• Pick the desired entities in the
graphics window.
• Then choose the constraint
direction. Value defaults to zero.
– Or use the D family of commands:
DK, DL, DA, D.

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• Displacement constraints are also used to enforce symmetry
or antisymmetry boundary conditions.
– Symmetry BC: Out-of-plane displacements and in-plane
rotations are fixed.
– Antisymmetry BC: In-plane displacements and out-of-plane
rotations are fixed.

Symmetry Boundary Antisymmetry Boundary


UX=0 UY=UZ=0
ROTY=ROTZ=0 ROTX=0
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• A force is a concentrated load (or
“point load”) that you can apply at a
node or keypoint.
• Point loads such as forces are
appropriate for line element models
such as beams, spars, and springs.
• When applied to solid and shell
models, point loads can cause stress
singularities. This effectively means
that stresses are unreliable in the
vicinity of the load (discussed later).

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Note that for axisymmetric models:
• Input values of forces are based on the full 360°.
• Output values (reaction forces) are also based on the full 360°.
• For example, suppose a cylindrical shell of radius r has an edge
load of P lb/in. To apply this load on a 2-D axisymmetric shell model
(SHELL51 elements, for example), you would specify a force of 2π πrP.
P lb/in 2πrP lb

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• To apply a force, the following information is needed:
– node or keypoint number (which you can identify by picking)
– force magnitude (which should be consistent with the system of
units you are using)
– direction of the force — FX, FY, or FZ

Use:
– Solution > -Loads- Apply > Force/Moment
– Or the commands FK or F

• The direction of the force, FX, FY, or FZ, is interpreted in the


nodal coordinate system (discussed later).

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Pressures
• To apply a pressure:
– Solution > -Loads- Apply > Pressure
• Choose where you want to apply the
pressure -- usually on lines for 2-D
models, on areas for 3-D models.
• Pick the desired entities in the
graphics window.
• Then enter the pressure value. A
positive value indicates a
compressive pressure (acting
towards the centroid of the
element).
– Or use the SF family of commands:
SFL, SFA, SFE, SF.
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• For a 2-D model, where
pressures are usually applied 500 500
on a line, you can specify a L3
tapered pressure by entering a VALI = 500
value for both the I and J ends
of the line. 1000
• I and J are determined by the 500
L3
line direction. If you see the VALI = 500
taper going in the wrong VALJ = 1000
direction, simply reapply the
pressure with the values 1000
reversed. 500
L3
VALI = 1000
VALJ = 500

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Gravity
• To apply gravitational acceleration:
– Solution > -Loads- Apply > Gravity
– Or use the ACEL command.

• Notes:
– X, Y, Z Components are interpreted in the Global Cartesian
coordinate system.
– A positive value causes deflection in the negative direction. If Y
is pointing upwards, for example, a positive ACELY value will
cause the structure to move downwards. This is because we are
actually applying and inertia load not an acceleration.
– Density (or mass in some form) must be defined for gravity and
other inertia loads.

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Angular Velocity
• To apply angular (rotational) velocity:
– Solution > -Loads- Apply > Other > Angular Velocity
– Or use the OMEGA command.

Notes:
• Angular Velocity units are Radians/Time.
• Velocity vector components are interpreted about
the Global Cartesian coordinate system axes.
• Density (or mass in some form) must be defined for
gravity and other inertia loads to be effective.
• The DOMEGA command can be used to specify
angular acceleration.

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Verifying applied loads
• Plot them by activating load symbols:
– Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols
– Commands -- /PBC, /PSF, /PBF

• Or list them:
– Utility Menu > List > Loads >

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Modifying and Deleting Loads
• To modify a load value, simply reapply the load
with the new value.
• To delete loads:
– Solution > -Loads- Delete >
– When you delete solid model loads, ANSYS also
automatically deletes all corresponding finite
element loads.

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...Loading

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• Preprocessing
! Geometry
! Meshing

• Solution
! Loading
– Solve

• Postprocessing
– Review results
– Check validity of solution

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E. Solve

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• The solve step is where you let the solver calculate the finite
element solution.
• First, it is a good idea to review and check your analysis data,
e.g:
– Consistent units
– Element types, options, and real constants
– Material properties
• Density if inertia loading
• Coefficient of thermal expansion if thermal stress
– Mesh density, especially in stress concentration regions
– Load values and directions
– Reference temperature for thermal expansions

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…Solve

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• To initiate the solve:
– First save the database!
– Then:
• Solution > -Solve- Current LS
• Or issue the SOLVE command.

• The solver writes results data to the in-memory


database and to the results file, jobname.rst (or
.rth for thermal).

Input
Data

Database Solver
Results Results
Data Results File

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…Solve

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• During solution, ANSYS provides a lot of useful information in the
Output Window, such as:
– Mass properties of the model
• The mass calculation is quite accurate; centroid and mass moment
calculations are rough approximations
– Range of element matrix coefficients
• May indicate a problem with material properties or real constants if
maximum/minimum ratio > 1.0E8
– Model size and solver statistics
– Summary of files written and their sizes:
• jobname.emat - element matrix file
• jobname.esav - element saved data file
• jobname.tri - triangularized matrix file
• jobname.rst - results file

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…Solve

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Preprocessing
! Geometry
! Meshing

• Solution
! Loading
! Solve

• Postprocessing
– Review results
– Check validity of solution

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F. Reviewing Results

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Postprocessing is without doubt the most important step in
an analysis. You may be required to make design decisions
based on the results, so it is a good idea not only to review
the results carefully, but also to check the validity of the
solution.
• ANSYS has two postprocessors:
– POST1, the General Postprocessor, to review a single set of
results over the entire model.
– POST26, the Time-History Postprocessor, to review results at
selected points in the model over time. Mainly used for transient
and nonlinear analyses. (Not discussed in this course.)

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• Reviewing results of a stress analysis generally involves:
– Deformed shape
– Stresses
– Reaction forces

Deformed Shape
• Gives a quick indication of whether the loads were applied in
the correct direction.
• Legend column shows the maximum displacement, DMX.
• You can also animate the deformation.

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• To plot the deformed
shape:
– General Postproc > Plot
Results > Deformed Shape
– Or use the PLDISP
command.

• For animation:
– Utility Menu > PlotCtrls >
Animate > Deformed Shape
– Or use the ANDISP
command.

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Stresses
• The following stresses are typically available for a 3-D solid
model:
– Component stresses — SX, SY, SZ, SXY, SYZ, SXZ (global
Cartesian directions by default)
– Principal stresses — S1, S2, S3, SEQV (von Mises), SINT (stress
intensity)

• Best viewed as contour plots, which allow you to quickly


locate “hot spots” or trouble regions.
– Nodal solution: Stresses are averaged at the nodes, showing
smooth, continuous contours.
– Element solution: No averaging, resulting in discontinuous
contours.

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• To plot stress contours:
– General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solu… or PLNSOL command
– General Postproc > Plot Results > Element Solu… or PLESOL command

• You can also animate stress contours:


– Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Results... or ANCNTR
command

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A Note on PowerGraphics
• It is the default graphics setting (/GRAPH,POWER).
• Plots only the visible surfaces and ignores
everything “underneath.”
• Advantages:
– Faster replot, crisp graphics.
– Smooth, almost photo-realistic displays.
– Prevents stress averaging across material and real
constant boundaries.

• To deactivate PowerGraphics (or activate “full


graphics”):
– Required to be off for Error Calculations
– Toolbar > POWERGRPH
– Or issue /GRAPH,FULL.

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Reaction Forces
• The sum of the reaction forces in each direction must equal
the sum of applied loads in that direction.
• Best viewed as a listing:
– General Postprocessor > List Results > Reaction Solution… or
PRRSOL command

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• Preprocessing
! Geometry
! Meshing

• Solution
! Loading
! Solve

• Postprocessing
! Review results
– Check validity of solution

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G. Checking Validity of Solution

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• It is always a good idea to do a “sanity check” and make sure
that the solution is acceptable.
• What you need to check depends on the type of problem you
are solving, but here are some typical questions to ask:
Do the reaction forces balance the applied loads?
Where is the maximum stress located?
– If it is at a singularity, such as a point load or a re-entrant corner,
the value is generally meaningless. (We will discuss more about
this in Chapter 5.)

Are the stress values beyond the elastic limit?


– If so, the load magnitudes may be wrong, or you may need to do
a nonlinear analysis.

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Is the mesh adequate?
– This is always debatable, but you can gain confidence in the
mesh by using error estimation data (discussed in Chapter 12).
– Other ways to check mesh adequacy:
• Plot the element solution (unaveraged stresses) and look for
elements with high stress gradients. These regions are
candidates for mesh refinement.
• If there is a significant difference between the nodal
(averaged) and element (unaveraged) stress contours, the
mesh may be too coarse.
• Similarly, if there is a significant difference between
PowerGraphics and full graphics stresses, the mesh may be
too coarse.
• Re-mesh with twice as many elements, re-solve, and compare
the results. (But this may not always be practical.)

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• Preprocessing
! Geometry
! Meshing

• Solution
! Loading
! Solve

• Postprocessing
! Review results
! Check validity of solution

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H. Workshop

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Do the following exercises:
1A. Stress Analysis – Lathe Cutter
1B. Stress Analysis – 2D Corner Bracket

Refer to your Workshop Supplement for instructions.

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Modeling Decisions
Overview

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Before starting an analysis in ANSYS, you need to make a
few decisions, such as the analysis type needed and the type
of model you want to build.
• In this chapter, we will discuss some of the decision making
process. The purpose is to give you an idea of the amount of
planning generally needed before “jumping in” to do the
analysis.
• Topics covered:
– A. Which analysis type?
– B. What to model?
– C. Which element type?

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Modeling Decisions
A. Which analysis type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• The analysis type usually belongs to one of the following
disciplines:
Structural Motion of solid bodies, pressure on solid bodies,
or contact of solid bodies
Thermal Applied heat, high temperatures, or changes in
temperature
Fluid Motion of gases/fluids, or contained gases/fluids
Coupled-Field Combinations of any of the above

• We will focus on structural analyses in this discussion.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which analysis type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Once you choose a structural analysis, the next questions
are:
– Static or dynamic analysis?
– Linear or nonlinear analysis?

• To answer these, remember that whenever a body is


subjected to some excitation (loading), it responds with three
types of forces:
– static forces (due to stiffness)
– inertia forces (due to mass)
– damping forces

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...Which analysis type?

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Static vs. Dynamic Analysis
• A static analysis assumes that only stiffness forces are
significant.
• A dynamic analysis takes into account all 3 types of forces.

• For example, consider the analysis of a diving board.


– If the diver is standing still, a static analysis might be sufficient.
– But if the diver is jumping up and down, you will need to do a
dynamic analysis.

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...Which analysis type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Inertia and damping forces are usually significant if the
applied loads vary rapidly with time.
• Therefore you can use time-dependency of loads as a way to
choose between static and dynamic analysis.
– If the loading is constant over a relatively long period of time,
choose a static analysis.
– Otherwise, choose a dynamic analysis.

• In general, if the excitation frequency is less than 1/3 of the


structure’s lowest natural frequency, a static analysis may be
acceptable.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which analysis type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• The effect of load rate on deflection can be seen in this
response-spectra diagram for three different types of impulse
loading:

• Notice that if loads are applied very rapidly, the DLF < 1.
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Modeling Decisions
...Which analysis type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Linear vs. Nonlinear Analysis
• A linear analysis assumes that the loading causes negligible
changes to the stiffness of the structure. Typical
characteristics are:
– Small deflections
– Strains and stresses within the elastic limit
– No abrupt changes in stiffness such as two bodies coming into
and out of contact

Stress

Elastic modulus
(EX)

Strain
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5-8
Modeling Decisions
...Which analysis type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• A nonlinear analysis is needed if the loading causes
significant changes in the structure’s stiffness. There are
three main categories of nonlinear phenomena:
– Geometric - Large deflections, Large strains, stress stiffening
– Material – Plasticity, hyperelasticity, creep
– Changing Status - Contact between two bodies, thermostat

Stress
Yield Point

Proportional
Limit

Plastic Strain Strain

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Modeling Decisions
B. What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Many modeling decisions must be made before building an
analysis model:
– How much detail should be included?
– Does symmetry apply?
– Will the model contain stress singularities?

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Modeling Decisions
...What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Details
• Small details that are unimportant to the analysis should not be
included in the analysis model. You can suppress such features
before sending a model to ANSYS from a CAD system.
• For some structures, however, "small" details such as fillets or
holes can be locations of maximum stress and might be quite
important, depending on your analysis objectives.

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Modeling Decisions
...What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Symmetry
• Many structures are symmetric in some form and allow only a
representative portion or cross-section to be modeled.
• The main advantages of using a symmetric model are:
– It is generally easier to create the model.
– It allows you to make a finer, more detailed model and thereby
obtain better results than would have been possible with the full
model.

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Modeling Decisions
...What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• To take advantage of symmetry, all of the following must be
symmetric:
– Geometry
– Material properties
– Loading conditions

• There are different types of symmetry:


– Axisymmetry
– Planar or reflective
– Repetitive or translational
– Rotational

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Modeling Decisions
...What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Axisymmetry
• Symmetry about a central axis, such as in light bulbs, straight
pipes, cones, circular plates, and domes.
• Plane of symmetry is the cross-section anywhere around the
structure. Thus you are using a single 2-D “slice” to
represent 360° — a real savings in model size!

• Loading is also assumed to be


axisymmetric in most cases.
However, if it is not, and if the
analysis is linear, the loads can be
separated into harmonic
components for independent
solutions that can be superposed.

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Modeling Decisions
...What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Planar or reflective symmetry
• One half of the structure is a mirror image of the other half.
The mirror is the plane of symmetry.
• Loading may be symmetric or anti-symmetric about the plane
of symmetry.

This model illustrates


both reflective and
rotational symmetry

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Modeling Decisions
...What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Repetitive or translational symmetry
• Repeated segments arranged along a straight line, such as a
long pipe with evenly spaced cooling fins.
• Loading is also assumed to be “repeated” along the length of
the model.

This model illustrates both repetitive and reflective symmetry.

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Modeling Decisions
...What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


All nodes which lie on a PLANE OF SYMMETRY are allowed to rotate
and translate within that plane only. In other words, the translational
DOF normal to the symmetry plane and out of plane rotational DOF’s
(if present) are fixed for all nodes on the plane of symmetry.

All nodes which lie on a PLANE OF ANTISYMMETRY are constrained


from translation and rotation in that plane. In other words, the in
plane translational DOF’s and in plane rotational DOF (if present) are
fixed for all nodes on the antisymmetry plane.

Remember:
SYMMETRY + ANTISYMMETRY = TOTAL CONSTRAINT
Example: 2-D Beam with left end on sym/antisym plane (active DOF’s: UX,UY,RZ)

+ =
Symmetry (UX=RZ=0) Antisymmetry (UY=0) Total Constraint (UX=UY=RZ=0)

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Modeling Decisions
...What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Rotational symmetry
• Repeated segments arranged about a central axis, such as in
turbine rotors.
• Only one segment of the structure needs to be modeled.
• Loading is also assumed to be symmetric about the axis.

This structure has multiple


planes of mirror symmetry. By
simply applying the standard
rules for planes of symmetry,
we enforce rotational
symmetry. Would this be
acceptable if the loading did
not exhibit similar symmetry?
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Modeling Decisions
...What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Rotational (Cyclic) symmetry
• Sometimes the repeating sector does not have straight sides.
• Rotational symmetry is still evident, but it is not enforceable
simply by using constraints as before.
• We need to use coupled sets to
enforce rotational symmetry in
these situations.

Later we will learn how to use


coupled sets to enforce rotational
symmetry.

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Modeling Decisions
...What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• In some cases, only a few minor details will disrupt a
structure's symmetry. You may be able to ignore such
details (or treat them as being symmetric) in order to gain the
benefits of using a smaller model. How much accuracy is
lost as the result of such a compromise might be difficult to
estimate.

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Modeling Decisions
...What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Stress singularities
• A stress singularity is a location in a finite element model
where the stress value is unbounded (infinite). Examples:
– A point load, such as an applied force or moment
– An isolated constraint point, where the reaction force behaves
like a point load
– A sharp re-entrant corner (with zero fillet radius)

• As the mesh density is


refined at a stress
P σ = P/A
singularity, the stress As A Þ 0, σ Þ ∞
value increases and
never converges.

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Modeling Decisions
...What to Model?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Real structures do not contain stress singularities. They are
a fiction created by the simplifying assumptions of the model.
• So how do you deal with stress singularities?
– If they are located far away from the region of interest, you
can simply ignore them by deactivating the affected zone
while reviewing results.
– If they are located in the region of interest, you will need to
take corrective action, such as:
• adding a fillet at re-entrant corners and redoing the
analysis.
• replacing a point force with an equivalent pressure load.
• “spreading out” displacement constraints over a set of
nodes.

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Modeling Decisions
C. Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• This is an important decision you usually need to make
before beginning the analysis.
• Typical issues are:
– Which element category? Solid, shell, beam, etc.
– Which element shape function order? Linear or quadratic.
– How dense should mesh be? Usually determined by the
objectives of the analysis.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Element category
• ANSYS offers many different categories of elements. Some
of the commonly used ones are:
– Line elements
– Shells
– 2-D solids
– 3-D solids

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Line elements:
– Beam elements are used to model bolts, tubular members, C-
sections, angle irons, or any long, slender members where only
membrane and bending stresses are needed.
– Spar elements are used to model springs, bolts, preloaded bolts,
and truss members.
– Spring elements are used to model springs, bolts, or long
slender parts, or to replace complex parts by equivalent
stiffnesses.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Shell elements:
– Used to model thin panels or curved surfaces.
– The definition of “thin” depends on the application, but as a
general guideline, the major dimensions of the shell structure
(panel) should be at least 10 times its thickness.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• 2-D Solid elements:
– Used to model a cross-section of solid objects.
– Must be modeled in the global Cartesian X-Y plane.
– All loads are in the X-Y plane, and the response (displacements)
are also in the X-Y plane.
– Element behavior may be one of the following:
• plane stress
• plane strain
• axisymmetric
• axisymmetric harmonic Y

Z X

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Plane stress assumes zero stress
in the Z direction.
– Valid for components in which the
Y
Z dimension is smaller than the X
and Y dimensions.
Z X
– Z-strain is non-zero.
– Optional thickness (Z direction)
allowed.
– Used for structures such as flat
plates subjected to in-plane
loading, or thin disks under
pressure or centrifugal loading.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Plane strain assumes zero strain in the Z
direction.
– Valid for components in which the Z
dimension is much larger than the X and Y
dimensions.
– Z-stress is non-zero. Z
– Used for long, constant-cross-section
structures such as structural beams. Y
X

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Axisymmetry assumes that the 3-D model
and its loading can be generated by revolving
a 2-D section 360° about the Y axis.
– Axis of symmetry must coincide with the
global Y axis.
– Negative X coordinates are not permitted.
– Y direction is axial, X direction is radial, and Z
direction is circumferential (hoop) direction.
– Hoop displacement is zero; hoop strains and
stresses are usually very significant.
– Used for pressure vessels, straight pipes,
shafts, etc.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Axisymmetric harmonic is a special case of axisymmetry
where the loads can be non-axisymmetric.
– The non-axisymmetric loading decomposed into Fourier series
components, applied and solved separately, and then combined
later. No approximation is introduced by this simplification!
– Used for non-axisymmetric loads such as torque on a shaft.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• 3-D Solid elements:
– Used for structures which, because of geometry, materials,
loading, or detail of required results, cannot be modeled with
simpler elements.
– Also used when the model geometry is transferred from a 3-D
CAD system, and a large amount of time and effort is required to
convert it to a 2-D or shell form.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• In summary, the anticipated state of stress should dictate
which element type is required.
• For example, the likely alignment of stresses may be known
in advance:

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• In other situations, alignment of the stress field may be
arbitrary and difficult to anticipate:

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Element Order
• Element order refers to the polynomial order of the element’s
shape functions.
• What is a shape function?
– It is a mathematical function that gives the “shape” of the results
within the element. Since FEA solves for DOF values only at
nodes, we need the shape function to map the nodal DOF values
to points within the element.
– The shape function represents assumed behavior for a given
element.
– How well each assumed element shape function matches the
true behavior directly affects the accuracy of the solution, as
shown on the next slide.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• When you choose an element type, you are implicitly
choosing and accepting the element shape function assumed
for that element type. Therefore, check the shape function
information before you choose an element type.
• Typically, a linear element has only corner nodes, whereas a
quadratic element also has midside nodes.
• Quadratic elements exhibit faster convergence rates for
deflections and stresses than do linear elements. For planar
problems . . .

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Linear elements Quadratic elements
• Can support only a linear variation • Can support a quadratic variation
of displacement and therefore of displacement and therefore a
(mostly) only a constant state of linear variation of stress along
stress along element edges. element edges.
• Need to use a large number of • Fewer elements are needed to
elements to resolve high stress resolve high stress gradients.
gradients.
• Can represent curved edges and
• Models curved surfaces as surfaces more accurately than
faceted. linear elements.
• Preferred for elastic-plastic • Preferred for linear elastic analysis
analysis because of higher because of high convergence
integration point/DOF ratio. rates for deflections and stresses.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• ANSYS permits mixing of linear and quadratic element types.
• When doing so, try to maintain shape function agreement along
mating element edges/faces. If you do not, then stresses will not be
reliable at mating surfaces.

BAD BAD BAD GOOD

• When mixing linear and quadratic elements, always mesh the linear
portions first.
• ANSYS will automatically drop midside nodes from quadratic
elements when meshing in 2D. In 3D, we need to use transition
pyramid elements to insure shape function compatibility. The hex-
to-tet transition procedure will be presented later.
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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Notes:
– For in-plane behavior of shell models, the difference between
linear and quadratic elements is not as dramatic as for solid
models. Linear shells are therefore usually preferred.
– Besides linear and quadratic elements, a third kind is available,
known as p-elements. P-elements can support anywhere from a
quadratic to an 8th-order variation of displacement within a
single element and include automatic solution convergence
controls.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Mesh Density
• The fundamental premise of FEA is that as the number of
elements (mesh density) is increased, the solution gets
closer and closer to the true solution.
• However, solution time and computer resources required
also increase dramatically as you increase the number of
elements.
• The objectives of the analysis usually decide which way the
slider bar below should be moved.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• If you are interested in highly accurate stresses:
– A fine mesh will be needed, omitting no geometric details at any
location in the structure where such accuracy is needed.
– Stress convergence should be demonstrated.
– Any simplification anywhere in the model might introduce
significant error.

• If you are interested in deflections or nominal stresses:


– A relatively coarse mesh is sufficient.
– Small geometry details may be omitted.

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Modeling Decisions
...Which Element Type?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• If you are interested in mode shapes (modal analysis):
– Small details can usually be omitted, but symmetry may not be
appropriate
– Simple mode shapes can be captured using a relatively coarse
mesh.
– Complex mode shapes may require a uniform, moderately fine
mesh.

• Thermal Analyses:
– Small details can usually be omitted, but since many thermal
analyses are followed by a stress analysis, stress
considerations generally determine this.
– Mesh density is usually determined by expected thermal
gradients. A fine mesh is required for high thermal gradients,
whereas a coarse mesh may be sufficient for low gradients.

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Modeling Decisions
…What Element Shapes to Use?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• In general, linear quadrilateral/hexahedral elements are
preferable to linear triangle/tetrahedral elements.
– Linear tri/tet elements have only one integration point, so they
are called isostrain/isostress elements.
– Linear tri/tet elements exhibit excessive bending stiffness. Many
of these elements are needed to model even the simplest of
structures.
– Linear quad/hex elements have more integration points and, with
the use of extra shape functions, efficiently model linear stress
gradients.

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Modeling Decisions
…What Element Shapes to Use?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• In general, quadratic quadrilateral/hexahedral elements
perform similarly to quadratic triangle/tetrahedral elements:
– Quadratic quad/hex and quadratic tri/tet elements have multiple
integration points and accurately model linear stress gradients.
– Quadratic quad/hex elements exhibit similar convergence rates
as quadratic tri/tet elements.

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Modeling Decisions
…How Many Elements?

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• If you are interested in detailed stress
information, it is important that you are
able to anticipate where gradients are
likely to be highest:
– Around notches or fillets
– Where loads are changing rapidly
– Transition element size gradually from
areas of high mesh density.

• When modeling
curved surfaces,
you will need more
linear elements than
quadratic elements.
Here is a guideline:

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Modeling Decisions
…Aspect Ratio, Angles & Warping

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• The ideal element shape is a
square/cube. The more an
element deviates from the 1:1
aspect ratio and 90 degree
corners of the ideal element
shape, the more error is
introduced. Reasonable limits
will depend with the situation
(element type, bending vs. bulk
deformation, are accurate
stresses sought?.
• When modeling curved surfaces,
avoid excessive warping:

• ANSYS will warn you when aspect ratio, angle and warping limits
have been exceeded. ANSYS allows you to specify your own limits.

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Modeling decisions
Workshop

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


• Do the following exercise:
2. Modeling decisions

Refer to your Workshop Supplement for instructions.

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc


Solid Model Sources

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


There are 3 commonly used approaches to creating ANSYS finite element
models, as shown in the table below.
Optio n CAD Pac kag e ANS YS
1. Build s olid mode l.
• Option A, Building a solid
A 2. Me s h finite e le me nt model. model in ANSYS.
1. Build s olid mode l. 1. Import s olid mode l • Option B, Importing a solid
B 2. De fe ature as ne e de d.
3. Export s olid mode l.
2. Comple te or modify a s
ne e ded.
model into ANSYS. Translators
3. Mes h finite e le me nt mode l. are available to take model
geometry into ANSYS within
C 1. Build s olid mode l
2. De fe a ture a s nee de d.
Import finite e leme nt mode l the ANSYS program, as stand
3. Mes h finite ele ment alone programs, and from third
mode l.
4. Export finite ele ment party vendors.
mode l. • Option C, Importing a finite
element model into ANSYS.
Covered in this lesson.

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Importing Geometry
Overview
• If the geometry of the part you want to analyze has already

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


been created in a CAD package, it is usually more efficient to
import it into ANSYS than to re-create it.
• In this chapter, we will discuss the various import options
available in ANSYS:
A. IGES Imports — expands on IGES importing.
B. Connection Products — How to import UG and parasolid files.
C. F.E. Model Imports — How to import nodes and element files.
D. Workshop — a hands-on exercise on importing.

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Importing Geometry
A. IGES Imports
• The general procedure to import an IGES file has already

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


been discussed in Chapter 4. In this section, we will explore
some of the options available:
– the two methods, No Defeaturing and Defeaturing
– the Merge, Solid, and Small options

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Importing Geometry
...IGES Imports
• No Defeaturing Method — Imports and stores geometry in the

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


standard ANSYS database. [ioptn,iges,nodefeat]
+ Faster and more reliable than the Defeaturing method.
+ Allows the full set of solid model operations.
– No defeaturing tools are available.
+ This is the DEFAULT and recommended method.

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Importing Geometry
...IGES Imports
• Defeaturing Method — Imports and stores geometry

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


in a special database that allows you to repair and
defeature the model. [ioptn,iges,defeat]
+ Ability to defeature, i.e, to remove minor details such
as protrusions, cavities, and small holes.
– Because of the special database used to store
geometry, only a limited number of solid model
operations are available.
– Generally requires more memory and is somewhat
slower than the “No defeaturing” method.
+ This method is efficient for single solid models that
will be imported, loaded, meshed and solved.
– In general, it is NOT recommended when advanced
geometry capabilities are required.

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Importing Geometry
...IGES Imports
• Merge Option

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


– YES by default, to merge coincident entities so that adjacent
areas meet at a common line, and adjacent lines meet at a
common keypoint.
– Switch it to NO only if you are using the Defeaturing method and
your initial attempt runs out of memory.
– ioptn,merge,yes/no

merge

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Importing Geometry
...IGES Imports
• Solid Option

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


– YES default, to automatically create a volume (solid) after
importing and merging.
– Switch it to NO if you want to import surfaces only and create a
shell or 2-D plane model.
– ioptn,solid,yes/no

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6-8
Importing Geometry
...IGES Imports
• Small Option

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


– YES by default, to automatically delete small, sliver-like areas
that might be troublesome for meshing.
– Available only for the Defeature method.
– Switch it to NO if you find gaps or “holes” in the model.
– ioptn,small,yes/no

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6-9
Importing Geometry
B. Connection Products
• IGES importing involves a dual translation process:

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


CAD IGES ANSYS
• CAD packages support the IGES standard to varying degrees, so
IGES import does not always work well.
• ANSYS Connection products address this problem by directly
reading the “native” part files produced by the CAD package.
Consequently there is generally a much higher import success rate
as compared to IGES:
CAD ANSYS
– Connection for Unigraphics
– Connection for Parasolid
– Connection for Pro/ENGINEER (not discussed)
– Connection for CADDS (not discussed)
– Connection for SAT (not discussed)

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Importing Geometry
...Connection Products
• Connection for UG

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


– Reads .prt file produced by Unigraphics Geometry type options:
(from Electronic Data Systems Corp.). – Solids to volume
– Requires Unigraphics software. – Surfaces to areas
– Wireframes to lines
– Utility Menu > File > Import > UG...
– Or ~ugin

Option to read only


selected layers and
geometry types

Do NOT check Allow


Defeaturing. This has
same limitations as
Default IGES import.

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Importing Geometry
...Connection Products
• Connection for Parasolid

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


– Reads .x_t or .xmt_txt file produced by CAD packages that use the
Parasolid modeler.
– Does not require Parasolid software.
Option to read only
– Tends to be a little more robust than UG selected geometry types
connection product sometimes.
– May need to scale geometry after import.
Typically a scale factor of 0.0254 is used
when importing (inches to meters
conversion).
– Utility Menu > File > Import > PARA...
– Or ~parain
– Can Import Assemblies

Defeaturing option available


No Defeaturing is default

Option to scale geometry

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Importing Geometry
…Geometry Import Tips

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


Whether importing using IGES or a Connection product, here are
some tips to help you maximize your import success rate:
• Transfer only the portion of the geometry required for the
analysis.
• Defeature all details which are not needed for the analysis.
Thoughtful CAD model design is required so that features can
be suppressed individually without disturbing other parts of the
model.
• Set the part accuracy to the tightest allowed by the CAD
program (typically 1E-4) before exporting. In UG this must be
done before the part is created. Other CAD packages (e.g.,
ProE) permit changes during part creation.

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Importing Geometry
…Geometry Import Tips for UG Models
• Before exporting, use the Examine Geometry feature in UG to

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


identify any troublesome features (short lines, sharp corners,
poorly defined surfaces, etc.). This is found under:
INFO > ANALYSIS > EXAMINE GEOM > SET ALL CHECKS
Problems identified need to be resolved in UG before proceeding.
• Parts created in older versions of UG may need to be updated and
examined before exporting.
• Parts created in newer versions of UG may need to be imported via
Parasolid connection. ANSYS support for UG versions tends to lag
by a few months.
• Check UG-to-ANSYS Correspondence Table (partname.tbl) after
import for info about the attributes received by ANSYS.
• If parts fail to convert, check the ug.log file for warnings and errors
about the part file itself. Review the ans.log file for warnings and
errors regarding construction of the imported model in ANSYS.

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Importing Geometry
C. F.E. Model Imports
• In addition to solid model geometry, ANSYS can also import

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


finite element model data (nodes and elements) from certain
packages.
• The most common approach is for the software vendor to
“write out” the nodes and elements in a format that ANSYS
can read. This format is published in the ANSYS
Programmer’s Manual.
• Some software packages, such as FEMAP from Enterprise
Software Products Inc., provide an interface that allows you
to transfer more than just nodes and elements.

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001


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Importing Geometry
D. Workshop
• Refer to your Workshop Supplement and perform the

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS for GE


following exercise:
3. Blade Import, Modeling and Meshing – 3D Blade – Part A

n Computer Aided Engineering Associates, Inc June 2001


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