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TLE 111 BAKING BASICS To be successful in baking, one needs functional knowledge of the tools and equipment, baking

terms, processes, technique, and skills. Knowledge of the baking basics will enable you to produce good quality baked products. BAKING TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT The use of appropriate tool and utensils is one of the keys to successful baking. Measuring Utensils
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The liquid measuring cup is a transparent cup with marker lines to indicate the amount of liquid. The dry measuring cups are a set of marked cups used to measure dry ingredients such as flour and sugar.

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3. The measuring spoons are set of spoons used to measure small amounts of ingredients. Each spoon in the set measures a specific amount as indicated on its handle. Baking Utensils 1. Baking pan is a container where the batter or the cake mixture is poured and baked. There are different kinds off baking pans to suit the desired baked product. 2. The cookie or baking sheet is similar to a tray where the mixture for cookies is poured and arranged for baking. 3. The oven is a compartment or cooking vessel for baking, heating, or drying foods. Mixing, Blending and Cutting Tools 1. The dough cutter is a sharp-edged tool used to cut dough 2. The electric mixer is a motor-powered device used to stir and blend mixtures in baking 3. The flour sifter is a device that is used to separate coarse particles of ingredients from finer particles
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The grater reduces food into smaller bits by rubbing the food against its perforated surface.

5. The mixing bowl is a deep, hollow dish where ingredients for baking are mixed together. 6. The pastry blender is a device used in cutting fat into flour in pastry making.

7. The pastry brush is used for coating pans with grease or pastry. 8. The rolling pin is used to flatten out dough or pastry. 9. The rotary egg beater is a beater hand-held device used for beating eggs, cream, and other liquids. 10. The rubber scraper is used for scraping any mixture that sticks on the side of the mixing bowl. 11. The spatula is used to level dry ingredients being measured and scoop baked cookies out of a tray. 12. The wooden spoon is used when stirring flour mixture.

Baking Ingredients The use of quality ingredients contributes very much to successful baking. To be able to produce good, quality baked products, one must have sufficient knowledge of the baking ingredients and be familiar with their composition, properties, and functions. Major Ingredients in Baking Flour Flour is the base ingredient in baking, which provides structure and body in the baked products. Flour are classified into bread flour, all-purpose flour, and cake flour. Bread flour is made from hard wheat and is called hard or strong flour. It has a high gluten percentage, creamy color, and does form lumps. It is used in making breads, rolls, and yeast-raised products. All-purpose flour is also known as general flour. It is used for almost all cooking purposes. It has a lighter weight and lighter color than bread flour. Cake flour is also known as weak or soft flour because it is made from soft wheat. It is highly refined, velvety and ha a smooth feel and very silky to touch. It is used for making cakes, cookies, pastries and other products like noodles. Flour provides bulk and structure to baked products and contributes color, texture, and flavour to baked products.

Sugar Sugar is a sweet, soluble, crystalline and organic compound classified as carbohydrate. Sugar is classified into: *granulated sugar also known as refined sugar or table sugar, is processed from sugarcane or sugar beets syrup. It comes in fine, white granules and used to sweeten drinks and other foods. *confectioners sugar or powdered sugar is obtained from refined sugar by pulverization. It is considered the finest, smoothest and whitest sugar used for frosting, candies, or dusting for baked products. *brown sugar may be light, medium or dark brown in color. This sugar is partially purified. Sugar has many uses in baked products. *Sugar gives a richer crust color to bake products * It increases the volume of bread * It gives sweetness and flavour to baked products * It serves as creaming agent with fats, and foaming agent with eggs. Eggs Eggs are essential and costly ingredients of baked products. Eggs have various roles in baking. *Eggs act as leavening agent. The air bubbles produced by beating egg make the egg foam stable and set to a firm structure during baking. *Eggs give flavour and aroma to baked products. *Eggs provide additional fats and give sweet taste to baked products. *Eggs contribute a lot to the value of baked products because of its high nutritional value. *Eggs give yellow color to dough and other baked products because of its yolk. *Eggs help keep the freshness of baked products because of its moisture content. Shortening

Shortening is a single fat or oil or a combination of fats and oils, which enhances the tenderness of the product by preventing the cohesion of gluten strands during mixing. There are different forms of shortening used in baked products. Butter is made from fatty protein of milk. It has 80% fat and gives the product the best flavour and aroma. Vegetable oils are used in breads. Peanut, corn and soybean oil are the common sources . Lard provides pleasing flavour in pastries and pies because it makes them flaky and tender. Margarine is made from vegetable and animal fat. It is hard fat with a high melting point and is used in making pastry.

Cocoa butter is used for confectionary purposes. It is added to chocolates and icings to give a finer luster to the chocolates and increase the tenderness of the icing or chocolate.

Leavening Agent Leavening agent is a gas added or produced during the mixing and/or heating of a batter or dough making the mixture rise; and the product light and porous.
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leaveners give the least leavening effect but aid considerably in the improvement of texture and volume of batters and doughs. Air, water, vapor and carbon dioxide are physical leaveners. *Biological Leavening Agent Yeast is a single-called plant that is capable of converting sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide in a process known as fermentation. The carbon dioxide produced through fermentation causes the flour mixture to rise. Yeast lightens or raises the dough and contributes to the aroma and flavour of the bread. Yeast I commonly used in making bread. *Chemical Leavening Agents a. Baking soda is chemically known as sodium bicarbonate. Baking soda liberates carbon dioxide. In the process, a residue of washing soda remains in the cake,

which imparts a dark color and unpleasant taste to the cakes. To counteract this, an edible acid ingredient is added, which reacts with soda, thus producing an edible and pleasant tasting residue. b. Baking powder is produced by mixing soda and acid salt. Flour or starch is added to stabilize the mixture and to standardize it such that at least 12% carbon dioxide is released upon heating. c. Baking cream is produced by diluting baking powder with cornstarch. It leaves an unpleasant tasting residue in baked products if used in excess. d. Ammonium bicarbonate is used in small amount or quantity and is limited to some types of cookies and cream puffs. Slight excess in its use will result to a very disagreeable taste and odor. Baked products with leaveners are made light and can be easily chewed. Their grains are open and more porous. Leaveners make baked products more palatable and easily digested. Liquid Ingredients: *Water the cheapest ingredient in baking. It enhances longer shelf life because bread with the proper moisture will keep fresh longer. a. Soft water is distilled or rainwater that is relatively free from minerals. It soften gluten, leading to sticky dough that tends to flatten out. b. Hard water, which contains average amount of minerals salts, produces normal gas and retains good gases on dough. c. Alkaline water contains sodium bicarbonate. It dissolves or weakens the gluten and retards fermentation. *Milk is processed commercially in various ways: a. Homogenized milk has been forced through very small opening at high pressures to reduce the size of the fat particles. b. Pasteurized milk has been heated to 140 F for 30 minutes and then quickly cooled to 50 F or lower. c.Evaporated milk is heated until part of its moisture is evaporated. d.Condensed milk is heated to allow part of water to evaporate and 40% to 55 % of sugar may be added.

Milk increases dough strength, enables longer fermentation of dough, improves grain and texture of baked products, and supplies nutrients. It also improves the flavour and eating quality of baked products. Minor Ingredients Salt accentuates the flavour of other ingredients, removes the flatness or lack of flavour in other foods, controls the action of yeast and the rate of fermentation, prevents the formation and growth of undesirable bacteria in yeast-raised dough, and modify the crust of yeast-raised products. Spices and seeds are aromatic vegetable products available in a finely ground state. They contribute importantly to the taste and smell of the product and improve its quality. Flavor extracts base is extracted essential oil of the fruit or bean. Cocoa and chocolate are used very widely in the production and finishing of cakes, pastries, pies and cookies. They supply bulk and body to the cake mix or icing.

Working with Most of the Ingredients Read the procedures to the end Check whether you have all the ingredients and equipment at hand. Think of substitute ingredients if needed Assemble all ingredients and utensils needed and arrange them within your reach. Measuring Ingredients Correctly Measuring Dry Ingredients *Dry ingredients are heaped to overflowing amounts in measuring cups or spoons, then levelled off with a straight-edge knife or spatula. *Do not tap cup of sifted flour. It will pack the ingredients back again. *Sift dry ingredients before measuring. *Pack brown sugar firmly into measuring cup and level off with spatula or straight-edge knife. *Crack down lumps of sugar by running or rolling pin over and sift them before measuring. Measuring Liquid Ingredients *Use standard graduated measuring equipment . Put cup on a level surface and read at eye level to obtain accurate liquid measure. Measuring Fats

Press firmly into spoons or cups to overflowing amounts. Level off. In case of refrigerated butter or margarine, remember that 1 bar of 220 grams is exactly 1 cup.

Techniques in Mixing Batter and Dough Mixing the ingredients affects the character of the final product. The method of mixing, mixing time, temperature of ingredients and other factors all affect the finished product. 1. Creaming rubbing one or two ingredients against a bowl using wooden spoon or electric mixer to make a soft, fluffy mixture. 2. Cutting in mixing fat and flour with the use of a pastry blender or two knives in a scissorlike manner 3. Folding repeated overturning of mixture without stirring or beating until all ingredients are combined but still light. 4. Cutting and folding cutting vertically through the mixture and turning over and over by gliding the spoon or rubber scraper across the bottom of the mixing bowl at each turn. 5. Beating incorporating air in a mixture by mechanical agitation. It could be done with the aid of egg beaters, wire whips or with a fork. 6. Stirring rotating the wooden spoon through a mixture until the ingredients are combined. 7. Whipping beating eggs and cream to fill them with air and make them thick and fluffy. 8. Sifting separating coarse particles in the ingredients by passing it through a sifter or strainer. 9. Kneading folding, rolling and stretching flour mixture. 10. Blending mixing two or more ingredients together until they are well combined. Classifications of Baked Products Pies and Pastries Pastries are one of the most popular desserts and snack food. Many fruits go well with piecrust. Pie is a dish baked with biscuit or pastry crust and various fillings. Pastry is a sweet baked goods made of dough or having a crust made of enriched dough. Crust is the pastry over of a pie or the outside of a loaf bread. The secret of a delightful pastry is the piecrust. A good piecrust is characterized by flakiness and tenderness. In order to restrict gluten development 1. Mixing lard for shortening 2. Mixing ingredients as quickly as possible 3. Using as little liquid as possible and 4. having all ingredients at room temperature