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VG COMMANDS lsvg Display all VGs lsvg -o Display all active VGs lsvg rootvg Display info about rootvg lsvg -l rootvg Display info about all LVs in rootvg lsvg -o |lsvg -il Display info about all LVs in all VGs lsvg -p rootvg Display info about all PVs in rootvg mkvg -s 8 hdisk1 Create VG with name vgxx on hdisk1 with partition size 8MB mkvg -s 8 -y sivg hdisk1 Create VG with name sivg on hdisk1 with partition size 8MB mkvg -s 4 -t 2 -y sivg hdisk1 Create sivg on hdisk1 with PP size 4 and no of partions 2 * 1016 chvg -a y newvg To cuase VG newvg automatically activated at startup chvg -a n newvg To deactivate the automatic activation at startup chvg -t 2 newvg To change maximum no. of PP to 2032 on vg newvg chvg -Q n newvg To disable quorum on VG newvg reorgvg newvg Reorganises PP allocation of VG newvg extendvg newvg hdisk3 hdisk4 Add PV hdisk3 and hdisk4 to VG newvg exportvg newvg Exports the VG newvg importvg -V 44 -y newvg hdisk2 Import the hdisk2 with name newvg, and assign major number 44 redcucevg newvg hdisk3 Remove PV hdisk3 from VG newvg varyoffvg newvg To deactviate VG newvg varyonvg newvg To activate VG newvg syncvg -v sivg To sync the mirrored LV in the VG sivg mirrorvg -S -m sivg hdisk2 To mirror LVs of sivg with hdisk2 (-m for exact mirror, -S forbackground mirror) unmirrorvg sivg hdisk2 To remove the mirrored PV from the set.

FS COMMANDS lsfs Lists all filesystems in the /etc/filesystems entry lsfs -q List all filesystems with detailed info lsfs -a To list all filesystems (default) lsfs -l Specify the output in list format lsfs -c Specify the output in column format lsfs -v jfs Lists all jfs filesystems chfs -a size=24576 /si Change size of FS /si to 24576 x 512 bytes blocks (12 MB) chfs -a size=+24576 /si Add 24576 x 512 byte blocks to FS /si chfs -m /si /bi Change the mount point from /si to /bi chfs -A /si To auto mount the filesystem si chfs -d account /si Remove account attribute of /si. ( from /etc/filesystems file) chfs -a splitcopy=/backup -a copy=2 /oracle This will mount the 2nd copy of mirrored filesystem oracle to /backup in read-only mode crfs -v jfs -g testvg -a size=64465 -m /siju Creates FS /siju of type jfs in VG testvg of blocksize 64465

crfs -v jfs -d /dev/lv00 -m /siju Create FS /siju of type jfs on device /dev/lv00 rmfs /siju Deletes FS /siju and associated LV rmfs -r /siju Deletes FS /siju its mount point and associated LV defragfs /sifs To defragment the file system /sifs defragfs -q /sifs Display the current defrag status of the file system fsck -y n /dev/lv00 To fsck the filesystem associated to /dev/lv00 assuming response "yes" fsck -p /dev/lv00 To restore superblock from backup superblock

PV COMMANDS lspv hdisk0 Display status and characteristics of the PV lspv -p hdisk0 Display PP usage of hdisk0 lspv -l hdisk0 To list all logical volumes on PV hdisk0 chpv -v r hdisk1 Close the PV (Used while removing PV without varyon) chpv -v a hdisk1 Open the PV chpv -c hdisk0 Clear the master boot record on PV hdisk0 migratepv hdisk1 hdisk2 To move PPs from PV hdisk1 to hdisk2 migratepv -l silv hdisk1 hdisk2 To migrate LV silv from PV hdisk1 to hdisk2

LV COMMANDS lslv -l lv00 Display info about LV by PV lslv -p hdisk1 Display LV allocation map for hdisk1 chlv -t copy lv00 To change the lv00 to copy type chlv n silv lv00 To rename lv00 to silv chlv -p r lv00 To change the lv00 to readonly mode rmlv silv To remove silv rmlv -f silv To remove silv without user intervention mklv -s n -c 3 silv hdisk1 To make LV silv with three copies on hdisk1 extendlv silv 5 To extend the LV silv with 5 LPs mklvcopy -s n lvsi 2 hdisk1 To mirror LV lvsi on same PV with 2 copies mklvcopy lvsi 3 hdisk1 hdisk2 To mirror LV lvsi on PV hdisk1 and hdisk2 with 3 copies rmlvcopy lvsi 2 hdisk1 Will remove one copy of LV lsvi from hdisk1 mklv -t jfslog -y log00 newvg 2 To create a jfslog with name log00 on VG newvg with 2LPs logform /dev/log00 To format jfslog volume log00 BLV COMMANDS bootlist -m normal -o To see the boot sequence in normal mode bootlist -m service -o To see the boot sequence in service mode bootlist -m normal cd0 hdisk0 To change boot sequence to cd0,hdisk0 in normal mode bootlist -m service cd0 rmt0 hdisk0 To change boot sequence to cd0,rmt0,hdisk0 in service mode bosboot -ad /dev/hdisk1 To create boot image on PV hdisk1

mkboot -cd /dev/hdisk1 To clear the boot image bootinfo -b Specifies the bootable disk bootinfo - t Specifies the type of boot bootinfo -e Check the machine can boot from tape bootinfo -T To see the machine hardware type bootinfo -s hdisk0 To see the size of hdisk0 bootinfo -r To see the size of memory bootinfo k To see the key position bootinfo m To see the machine model code bootinfo o hdisk0 To list the location code of hdisk0 bootinfo z To see the machine is multiprocessor capable bootinfo p To see the machine PAGE SPACE COMMANDS lsps -a To list out all paging spaces lsps hd6 To display the details of the paging space h6 chps -a y paging00 To turn on the paging space paging00 chps -a n paging00 To turn off the paging space paging00 chps -s4 paging00 To increase the size of the paging space in 4 LP blocks mkps -a -n -s4 sivg To create a paging space on VG sivg of 4 LP size (-s4) and activate it immediately (-n) and activate it at every restarts rmps paging00 To remove the paging space paging00 swapon -a To invoke all entries in /etc/swapspaces file swapon /dev/paging00 To make available swap space paging00 SYSTEM DUMP COMMANDS sysdumpdev -l To list the current dump destination sysdumpdev -L List the details of the previous dump sysdumpstart -p Starts dump in the primary dump device sysdumpstart -s Starts dump in the secondary dump device sysdumpdev -p /dev/lv00 To make lv00 as primary dump device sysdumpdev -P -p /dev/lv00 To make lv00 as primary dump device permanently sysdumpdev -s /dev/rmt0 To make rmt0 as secondary dump device sysdumpdev -z To determine a new system dump occurred

Device related commands cfgmgr To configure devices and installs device software in system cfgmgr -l vscsi0 To configure the components connected to the vscsi0 interface lscfg To display config, diagnostics and vital product definition info lscfg -l mem0 Display info about device mem0 lscfg -l ent* Display info about all Ethernet cards lscfg -v Display vpd lscfg -v -l hdisk0 Display vpd of hdisk0 mkdev -l rmt0 To change device rmt0 from defined state to available state lsdev -P To lists all supported devices

lsdev -P -c disk To list all supported disks lsdev -P -r class To display supported class lsdev -P -r subclass To display all sub class lsdev -C To lists all configured devices lsdev -C -l mem0 To display the properties of mem0 chdev -l sys0 -a maxproc=100 To change default maxproc value to 100 chdev -l rmt0 -a blocksize=512 To change the block size to 512 chdev -l rmt0 -a ret=no To avoid tape retension rmdev -l rmt0 To remove the device rmt0 rmdev -d -l rmt0 To remove the device totally from database rmdev -l rmt0 -S To change the state of the device stopped lsparent -C -k rs232 To display possible parent devices which accept rs232 devices lsparent -C -l hdisk0 To display parent devices which accept child device hdisk0 lsattr -Dl rmt0 To see the default values of the device rmt0 lsattr -El rmt0 To see the current values of the device rmt0 lsattr -El tty0 -a login -R To see all possible values of the login attribute of tty0 lsconn -p scsi0 To list all possible connection scsi0 can accept lvlstmajor To list the available major numbers mknod /dev/null c 2 2 Create null device with major (2) and minor (2) nos. (c - char device) Console emulation commands lscons To list the current console lscons -b To list the console at next boot chcons /dev/tty3 To change the console to tty3 chcons -a login=enable /dev/tty3 Redirect console to tty3 and provide login prompt swcons /dev/tty3 To change system console to tty3 temporarily alog -L t console To see the current attributes of log type console alog t console o To see the console messages alog t boot o To see the boot time messages Installation specific commands lslpp -l To see the details of installed file sets lslpp -ha* To list the installation history of all file set in packages lslpp -f bos.rte To list the files in the bos.rte package lslpp -w /etc/hosts To list the file set which contain /etc/hosts file lslpp -p To list the pre requisites for file set installp -L -d /dev/rmt0.1 To list the installable products on the device rmt0 installp -aX -d /dev/rmt0.1 To install all filesets within and expands file system if it requires installp -u To remove installp -r To reject the applied software installp -c -f To commit the installp -C To cleanup an incomplete installation lppchk -c To check the instfix -k IX9999 -d /dev/rmt0.1 To install the file set associated with fix IX9999 from rmt0 instfix -ik IX9999 To verify fix IX9999 installed

Network related commands host Resolves ip to host name (from /etc/hosts file) host ibm Resolve ibm to ip address (from /etc/hosts file) hostname ibm To change the host name to ibm entstat en0 To the status of ethernet device en0 entstat -d en0 To list the detailed status of device en0 no -a To list all net configurable attributes and their values no -d thewall To change thewall parameter to its default value no -o ipforwarding=1 To make the machine as router in tcpip networks traceroute ibm To trace the route to ibm ping ibm To tcp ping to the machine ibm ifconfig -a To show the status of all network interfaces ifconfig en0 To show the status of en0 ifconfig en0 up Turns on network card en0 ifconfig en0 down Turns off network card en0 ifconfig en0 detach Removes en0 card from the network interface list ifconfig en0 inet netmask up Configure en0 starts immediately ifconfig en0 alias Create alias ip address for en0 route add 0 To make as default gateway for entire network route add To make 13.7 as gateway for 12.0 network route -f To clear the gateway table chdev -l inet0 -a hostname=si To change the host name to si permanently netstat -a To show the state of all sockets netstat -c To show the network buffers cache netstat -D To show the net drops of packets netstat -i To display interface statistics netstat -r To show the routing table netstat -rn To show routing table (ip will be given instead of host names) netstat -s To show the statistics of the protocols netstat -s -p < tcp/udp/ipv6> To show the statistics of respective protocols Space usage commands du -k To list number of bytes in 1k blocks du -l To list number of bytes in 512 bytes blocks du -s To list only the total disk usage in the current directory df -i To display no of free and used inodes df -k To display diskspace in 1024 bytes format

Backup commands mksysb -i -X /dev/rmt0 Creates and system backup (-X expands /tmp if required) mksysb -m /dev/rmt0 Creates file with map file and system backup mksysb -e /dev/rmt0 Creates system data but excludes the files listed in

/etc/exclude.rootvg mkszfile Creates / file mkcd -d /dev/cd1 Creates system boot backup to the CD-R device /dev/cd1 mkcd -d /dev/cd1 -v vg00 Creates backup of vg vg00 to CD-R device /dev/cd1 mkcd -d /dev/cd1 -G Creates generic boot backup savevg -i -f /dev/rmt0 vg00 Creates image file and backup vg vg00 savevg -ef /dev/rmt0 vg00 Creates vg00 backup but excludes files listed in the /etc/exclude.vg00 find / -print | backup -ivf /dev/rmt0 Backup entire system to rmt0 backup -0vf /dev/rmt0 /home Backup /home directory to rmt0 with backup level 0 restore -Tvf /dev/rmt0 List the archive in rmt0 restore -xvf /dev/rmt0 /home Restore /home from archive in device rmt0 find ./home -print |cpio -ocvumB > /dev/rmt0 Archives /home directory cpio -icvdumB < /dev/rmt0 Restores cpio archive from rmt0 cpio -ivt < /dev/rmt0 List the contents of cpio archive from rmt0 cpio -icvd < /dev/rmt0 /home Restores /home directory from rmt0 tar -cvf /dev/rmt0 /home Archives /home to rmt0 device tar -tvf /dev/rmt0 List the archives in rmt0 tar -xvf /dev/rmt0 /home Extract /home from rmt0 dd if=si of=si1 conv=ebcdic Convert and copy ascii file si to ebcdic si1 dd if=/dev/rmt0 ibs=512 obs=1024 of=/dev/rmt1 To copy blocks from rmt0 with 512 blocks to rmt1 with 1024 blocks tctl -f /dev/rmt0 rewind To rewind the tape tctl -f /dev/rmt0 offline To eject the tape tctl -f /dev/rmt0 status To show the status of tape chdev -l rmt0 -a block_size=512 To change the block size of the tape to 512 Print commands qchk -q To display the default q qchk -P lp0 To display the status of the printer lp0 qchk -# 123 To display the status of job number 123 qchk -A To display the status of all queues qcan -x 123 To cancel the print job 123 qcan -X -P lp0 To cancel all jobs submitted to lp0 qpri -#570 -a 25 To change the priority of the job to 25 qhld # 569 To hold the job 569 qhld -r -#569 To remove holding from 569 qmov -m lpa -#11 To move the job 11 to queue lpa enable psq To enable queue psq disable psq To disable queue psq cancel -#111 To cancel job 111 lpstat To display the status all queues lpstat -p lp0 To display the status of print queue lp0 lpstat -u root To display the jobs submitted by user root lpq -P lp0 To display the status of queue lp0 last To list all the records in the /var/adm/wtmp file last |grep shutdown To show the shutdown sessions

uptime (w -u ) To show how long the system has been up Licensing commands oslevel To list the operating system level lslicense To see the number of license chlicense -u30 To change the fixed user license to 30 chlicense -f on To enable floating user license User commands id To list all system identifications for current user id -gn To list the default group for current user id -Gn To list all system groups for current user lsuser root To list the attribute of user root lsuser ALL To list the attributes of all users lsuser -a HOME ALL To list the home directory of all users lsuser -a ALL To list all usernames lsuser -a auth1 auth2 ALL To list the authentication method for all users lsuser -a expires ALL To list expiry date lsuser -a account_locked ALL To check account lock status of all users chuser -a login=true san To enable the user san chuser -a rlogin=true san Enable san to login remotely mkuser si Creates user si with default values in /usr/lib/security/mkuser.defalault mkuser su=false si Create user si without su facility rmuser si To remove user si rmuser -p si To remove user si and his all attributes who List users with tty nos and ip numbers who /var/adm/wtmp Lists history of login logout system startup and shutdowns who -r To list the run level who am i /who -m To list the current user mkgroup dcm To create the group dcm chgroup users=u1,u2,u3 dcm To add users u1 u2 and u3 to dcm group rmgroup dcm To delete the group dcm chauthent To change the authentication methods Subsystem Commands lssrc -a To list the status of all subsystems lssrc -h node1 -a To list the status of all subsystems on foreign host node1 lssrc -s kadmind To list the status of the subsystem kadmind lssrc -g tcpip To get the status of the subsystem group tcpip mkssys To add a subsystem rmssys -s kerberos To remove the subsystem kerberos chssys -s kerb -s kad To rename the subsystem kerb to kad startsrc -s kadmin To start the subsystem kadmin startsrc -g tcpip To start the subsystem group tcpip stopsrc -s kadmin To stop the subsystem kadmin

stopsrc -g tcpip To stop the subsystem group tcpip refresh -s nfsd To refresh nfsd subsystem refresh -g tcpip To refresh tcpip subsystem group Scheduling commands crontab -l To list the crontab entries crontab -e To edit the crontab entries crontab -l > /si To copies the entries of crontab to /si file crontab -r To remove all crontab entries crontab -v To list the submission time /var/adm/cron/cron.allow File containing users who allowed cron service /var/adm/cron/cron.deny File containing users denied cron service at -l To list the jobs scheduled via at command at -r root.dfjdhjdh.21 To remove the scheduled job root.dfjdhjdh.21 /var/adm/cron/at.allow File containing users who allowed at service /var/adm/cron/at.deny File containing users denied at service batch To run the command when the system load permits atq joe To list all the jobs submitted by user joe ODM Commands odmget sm_menu_opt To get the objects from class sm_menu_opt odmget -q "id=licenses" sm_menu_opt To list objects that matches query id=licenses from object sm_menu_opt odmdelete -o sm_menu_opt -q "id=licenses" To delete the entries from class sm_menu_opt which agrees the query id=licenses odmshow sm_menu_opt To show the object class definition odmdrop -o sm_menu_opt To drop sm_menu_opt object class odmchange -o sm_menu_opt -q "id=licenses" file1 To change the attributes from file1

errpt To display complete summary of report errpt -a To list complete detailed report errpt -d H To list all hardware related errors errpt -d S To list all software related errors errpt -a -j 34564423 To list detailed error report of error id 34564423 chitab tty002:23:respawn:/usr/sbin/getty /dev/tty To enter the entry tty002:23:respawn:/usr/sbin/getty /dev/tty in inittab lssrc -g portmap To start tcpip

Daemons of NIS

Server Slave Server Client ypserv ypserv ypbind yppasswd ypupdated NIS maps created by default (if file available on master server) MAP FILE NICK NAME passwd.byname passwd.byaddr /etc/passwd passwd group.byname group.byaddr /etc/group Group hosts.byname hosts.byaddr /etc/hosts Hosts ethers.byname ethers.byaddr /etc/ethers Ethers networks.byname networks.byaddr /etc/networks Networks rpc.bynumber /etc/rpc services.byname /etc/services protocols.byname protocols.bynumber /etc/protocols protocols netgroup.byhost netgroup.byuser /etc/netgroup bootparams /etc/bootparams mail.aliases mail.byaddr /etc/aliases aliases publickey.byname /etc/publickey netid.byname /etc/passwd /etc/group /etc/hosts /etc/netid netmasks.byaddr /etc/netmasks chypdom I mca Modifies nis domain name entry in /etc/rc.nfs chypdom B mca Changes nis domain and modifies /etc/rc.nfs file chypdom N mca Changes nis domain name to mca domainname mca Changes nis domain name to mca until next reboot mkmaster To make the machine NIS master (Options -O Overwrites existing maps -o prevents overwriting existing maps -E Exit on errors -e No exit on errors -P Starts yppasswdd daemon -p Dont start yppasswdd daemon -U Starts ypupdated daemon -u Dont start ypupdated daemon -C Starts ypbind daemon

-c Dont start ypbind daemon -B Executes ypinit command and modifies rc.nfs mkclient B S mca Makes the machine as a client of mca server and starts ypbind daemon ypcat passwd To cat the password map file passwd.byname ypcat x To display map nickname translation table ypcat d pci passwd To display the passwd file in the domain pci yppasswd To change the password of nis user lsmaster Display characteristics for the configuration of NIS master mrgpwd >/var/yp/passwd To merge /etc/passwd and /etc/security/passwd file to /var/yp/passwd ypxfr -h mca passwd.byname To transfer password map file from host mca Procedure for NIS Master Server Change the nis domain name in the master server chypdom B mca or smit chypdom Verify tcpip is running by executing lssrc s inetd Verify portmap is running by executing lssrc s portmap (For security reason it is better to locate all nis files to /var/yp directory and change the DIR=/etc entry to DIR=/var/yp in the /var/yp/MakeFile. For merging the existing passwords execute mrgpwd > /var/yp/passwd) Execute mkmaster O E P U C B -O Overwrites existing maps for this domain -E Exist on errors when creating master server -P Starts yppasswdd daemon -U Starts ypupdated daemon -C Starts ypbind daemon -B Executes ypinit command, uncomment entries in rc.nfs and starts daemons Check the yp daemons with lssrc g yp Slave Server Change the nis domain name chypdom B mca Edit hosts file, keep entries for loopback, this machine and of server Execute mkslave O B C mca Client machine Change the nis domain name chypdom B mca Edit hosts file, and keep entries for loopback , this machine and of server Execute mkclient B mca Check for ypbind with lssrc s ypbind

HACMP Commands logs /tmp/hacmp.out Detailed event script output logged in 7 day rolling history /var/adm/cluster.log High level view of cluster events (No clean up on this file) /usr/sbin/cluster/history/cluster.mmdd Day by day view of cluster events. (one file / day of month) /tmp/cm.log Clstrmgr messages /tmp/cspoc.log Output from C-SPOC commands (similar to smit.log) /tmp/emuhacmp.out Output from event emulation rdist -b -f /etc/disfile1 To distribute the files in disfile1 to all nodes in disfile1 in binary mode Sample entry for disfile1 HOSTS = ( root@node1 root@node3 ) FILES = ( /etc/passwd /etc/security/passwd) ${FILES} -> ${HOSTS} clstart -m -s -b -i -l To start cluster daemons (m-clstrmgr, s-clsmuxpd, b-broadcast message, -i-clinfo, -l cllockd) clstop -f -N To force shutdown cluster immediately without releasing resources clstop -g -N To do graceful shutdown immediately with no takeover clstop -gr -N To do graceful shutdown immediately with takeover cldare -t To sync the cluster toplogy cldare -t -f To do the mock sync of topology cldare -r To sync the cluster resources cldare -r -f To do the mock sync of resources clverify cluster verification utility cllscf To list clustur topology information cllsclstr To list the name and security level of the cluster cllsnode To list the info about the cluster nodes cllsnode -i node1 To list info about node1 cllsdisk -g shrg To list the PVID of the shared hard disk for resource group shrg cllsnw To list all cluster networks cllsnw -n ether1 To list the details of network ether1 cllsif To list the details by network adapter cllsif -n node1_service To list the details of network adapter node1_service cllsvg To list the shared vgs which can be accessed by all nodes cllsvg -g sh1 To list the shared vgs in resource group sh1 cllslv To list the shared lvs cllslv -g sh1 To list the shared lvs in the resource group sh1 cllsdisk -g sh1 To list the PVID of disks in the resource group sh1 cllsfs To list the shared file systems

cllsfs -g sh1 To list the shared file systems in the resource group sh1 cllsnim Show info about all network modules cllsnim -n ether Show info about ether network module cllsparam -n node1 To list the runtime parameters for the node node1 cllsserv To list all the application servers claddclstr -i 3 -n dcm To add a cluster definition with name dcm and id 3 claddnode To add an adapter claddnim To add network interface module claddgrp -g sh1 -r cascading -n n1 n2 To create resource group sh1 with nodes n1,n2 in cascade claddserv -s ser1 -b /usr/start -e /usr/stop Creates an application server ser1 with startscript as /usr/start and stop script as /usr/stop

clchclstr -i 2 -n dcmds To change cluster definitions name to dcmds and id to 2 clchclstr -s enhanced To change the clustur security to enhanced clchnode To change the adapter parameters clchgrp To change the resource group name or node relationship clchparam To change the run time parameters (like verbose logging) clchserv To change the name of app. server or change the start/end scripts clrmclstr To remove the cluster definition clrmgrp -g sh1 To delete the resource group sh1 and related resources clrmnim ether To remove the network interface module ether clrmnode -n node1 To remove the node node1 clrmnode -a node1_svc To remove the adapter named node1_svc clrmres -g sh1 To remove all resources from resource group sh1 clrmserv app1 To remove the application server app1 clrmserv ALL To remove all applicaion servers clgetactivenodes -n node1 To list the nodes with active cluster manager processes from cluster manager on node node1 clgetaddr node1 returns a pingable address from node node1 clgetgrp -g sh1 To list the info about resource group sh1 clgetgrp -g sh1 -f nodes To list the participating nodes in the resource group sh1 clgetif To list interface name/interface device name/netmask associated with a specified ip label / ip address of a specific node clgetip sh1 To get the ip label associated to the resource group clgetnet To list the network for ip, netmask clgetvg -l nodelv To list the VG of LV nodelv cllistlogs To list the logs clnodename -a node5 To add node5 to the cluster clnodename -o node5 -n node3 To change the cluster node name node5 to node3

clshowres Lists resources defined for all resource group clfindres To find the resource group within a cluster xclconfig X utility for cluster configuration xhacmpm X utility for hacmp management xclstat X utility for cluster status

SP Commands Daemons hats Topology services hatsd ( /usr/sbin/rsct/bin/hatsctrl script) hags Group services hagsd (/usr/sbin/rsct/bin/hagsctrl script) haem Event management haemd (/usr/sbin/rsct/bin/haemctrl script) hr Host responds hrd (/usr/sbin/rsct/bin/hrctrl script) pman Problem management pmand,pmanrmd (/usr/sbin/rsct/bin/pmanctrl script) fault_service_Worm_RTG_SP (WORM) Switch daemon on nodes (/usr/lpp/ssp/rc.switch called by css_restart_node) kadmind The authentication database daemon for password changing and administration tools Listens port 751. It checks acl files admin.acl.(get,mod,add) in /var/kerberos/database /.k file for master key and /var/kerberos/databse/pricipal.pag, pricipal.dir for authentication database. kerberos Daemon that provides authentication services & ticket granting ticket for clients. kpropd Daemon to receive update for a secondary database server hardmon Daemon that monitors and controls the state of SP hardware It checks acl file /spdata/sys1/spmon/hmacls

install_cw To complete PSSP installation on cws (Installs PSSP programs for SMIT panels Starts and configures SDR Sets node number 0 for cws in ODM Creates hmacls file with rood.admin entry in Starts and configure PSSP daemons Configures default partition) setup_authent To setup workstation as SP authentication server (Creates /etc/krb.conf, /etc/krb.realms files Creates authentication database using kdb_edit command Create master key file /.k using kstash command Adds kadmin and kerberos to inittab file and starts them

Define initial auth. admin (eg:- root.admin) using kdb_edit command Creates Kerberos ACLS (admin_acl.get,mod,add files) Execute kinit for root.admin and creates local service principals (hardmon.cws, rcmd.cws) Creates /.klogin file and add admin principal to it Creates /etc/krb-srvtab file using ext_srvtab command) setup_server To setup CWS as BIS splst_versions -G -t To check the PSSP versions in all nodes spmon_ctest To verify system monitor configured properly spmon_itest To verify system monitor installed properly & operational SYSMAN_test To verify the system management component CSS_test To verify communication subsystem SDR_test -l si To verify SDR and logs the errors in file si SDRListClasses To list the class name in the SDR SDRArchive si To backup SDR in the directory /spdata/sys1/sdr/archives with name sprestore_config To restore SDR and partion sensitive subsystems SDRGetObjects Syspar To get the system partition info SDRGetObjects syspar_map To get the system partition map (with node info) SDRGetObjects Adapter node_number netaddr To get the node number and net address in the Adapter class SDRDeleteObjects Adapter netaddr== To delete class Adapter with netaddr value SDRChangeAttrValues Node node_number==9 bootp_response==install To change the boot response as install on node with node number 9 SDRWhoHasLock Returns the transaction ID of a lock on a specified class SDRClearLock To unlock an SDR class syspar_ctrl -G -A To add and restart all system partition sub systems syspar_ctrl -G -D To stop and delete all system partition sub systems syspar_ctrl -R To restore all system partition sub systems in current partition syspar_ctrl -E To list all system partition sub systems syspar_ctrl -s To start all system partition sub systems in current partition syspar_ctrl -k To stop all system partition sub systems in current partition syspar_ctrl -r To refresh all system partition sub systems in current partition ngcreate -s 1:1 si To create node group si with 1st node in 1st frame ngcreate -n 1 2 3 si To create node group si with 1st 2nd and 3rd nodes ngcreate -N ng1,ng2 si To create node group si with node groups ng1 and ng2 ngcreate -w n1,n2 si To create node group si with host name n1 and n2 ngcreate -ae n1,n2 si To create node group si with all nodes in the current partition excluding hosts n1 and n2 nglist To list node groups in current partition nglist -G To list node groups globally

ngfind si To find all node groups which contain node group si ngnew si1 si2 si3 To create 3 node groups with names si1 si2 and si3 ngnew -G si1 si2 si3 To create 3 node groups globally with names si1 si2 and si3 ngresolve -G -n si To resolve the nodes in the node group si as node numbers with global option ngresolve -w si To resolve the nodes in the node group si as fully qualified host name ngresolve -d si To resolve the nodes in the node group si as fully qualified ip address ngdelete si si1 To remove node groups si and si1 ngdelete -u si To remove node group si but leave entries in other node groups which is having the entries in it ngclean -Ga To clean up all node groups ngaddto si 1 2 To add nodes 1 and 2 to the existing node group si ngaddto si 1 2 ng1 To add nodes 1,2 and node group ng1 to node group si ngdelfrom si 1 2 To remove nodes 1 and 2 from node group si ngdelfrom si 1 2 ng1 To remove nodes 1, 2 and node group ng1 from node group si spled -G To display leds of nodes in a multi partition system spled or spmon -L To display leds of nodes in the current partion spmon -p off frame2/node3 To power off node3 in frame 2 spmon -p on frame2/node3 To power on node 3 in frame 2 spmon -G -p on frame2/node3 To power on node3/frame 2 if it is outside current partition spmon -k service /frame2/node3 To change the key settings to service spmon -p off frame1 To power off frame1 spmon -K frame1/node1 To see the key settings of frame1/node1 spmon -reset frame1/node1 To reset spmon -open frame1/node1 To open a tty on frame1/node1==(s1term -w 1 1) spmon -d To run the diag in the current partition spmon -G -d To run the diag globally hmmon -V 1:1 Displays a descriptive list of symbolic variable names hmmon -Q -s 1:1 Displays the state of node1 in frame 1 and exists hmmon -q -s 1:1 Displays and monitors continuously hmreinit To stop and restart hardmon hmcmds -G off all To power off all hardware hmcmds -G off 1:3 To power off slot 3 in frame 1 hmcmds -G on 1:3 To power on slot 3 in frame 1 hmcmds -v -G boot_supervisor 1:1 To reset the power of node_supervisor card on slot 1 frame 1 (Use full to close the opened ttys on nodes) hmcmds secure l 1-3:2 To change the key in secure mode for slot 2 in frame 1 2 and 3 hmcmds -v synch_reset Perform sync reset. To clear the switch errors hmcmds -v power_on_reset Perform sync reset and do self test of switch chips cstartup -G all To startup all nodes globally

cstartup -N 1 2 4-8 To startup nodes 1,2 and 4 to 8 cstartup -g si To startup node group si cstartup -GZ all To startup all nodes. With Z it will restart the nodes which are already running (otherwise command will exit) cstartup -k all To verify the startup with sequence file (StartSeq) cstartup -E all To startup all nodes ignoring the sequence file cshutdown -F node1 To shutdown node1 immediately cshutdown -h node1 To halt the node node1 cshutdown -g si To shutdown the nodes in the node group si cshutdown -G -N 1 3 4-7 To shutdown nodes 1 3 and 4 to 7 regardless partition cshutdown -X -N 1 2 3 To shutdown nodes 1 2 and 3 ignoring sequence file hostlist -av To list sp host name which is active hostlist -avd To list the hosts in ipaddress which are active hostlist -dw node1 Returns the ip of the node node1 hostlist -N si List the host names in the node group si hostlist -s 1-4:4 List the hostname of the node in 4th slot in frames 1-4 nodecond -n 1 1 To get the ehternet address of the node 1 in frame 1 nodecond 1 1 To network boot the node 1 in frame 1 splstdata -h To list the hardware info (equivalent to lscfg ) splstdata -i To list the network adapter data (equivalent to netstat -in) splstdata -v To list VG info on nodes splstdata -t To list extension node config splstdata -b To list boot install info splstdata -n To list node information splstdata -s To list node switch information splstdata -d To list file system info (equivalent to df) splstdata -p To list SP partition info splstdata -e To list the sp environment variables like ntp_config, amd_config Efence To display all nodes fenced Efence To fence nodes with ips and 3 Efence node1 node3 To fence nodes node1 and node3 Efence -autojoin node1 To fence out but will unfence it after reboot Eunfence To unfence nodes with ips and 3 Eunfence node1 node3 To unfence nodes node1 and node3 Estart To start sp switch Estart -autounfence -0 To start sp switch and turn off autounfence feature (1 for autounfence enabled) Eunpartition To prepare a system partition for repartitioning delnimclient -l 1 2 3 To delete nim client definition for nodes 1 2 and 3 from NIM master

mknimclient -l 1 2 3 To make node 1 2 and 3 as NIM clients delnimmast -l 1 17 33 To unconfigure nodes 1 17 and 33 as NIM masters and remove filesets mknimmast -l 1 17 33 To make nodes 1 17 and 33 as NIM masters lshacws To list the status of the CWS ntpdate Sets date and time by enquiring ntp server spbootlist -l 1 2 To set the bootlist on nodes 1 and 2 nodecond 1 4 To network boot the node 4 in frame 1 nodecond -n 1 4 To fetch the ethernet address of node 4 in frame 1 sphrdwrad 1 3 2 To fetch mac address for node 3 and 4 in frame 1 setup_authent To setup a cws to use kerberos authentication kdb_destroy To destroy the kerberos database create_krb_files Searches for nodes in install/Customise mode and create krb-srvtab file for those nodes. (Creates in tftpboot directory of CWS.) ext_srvtab -n node1 To extract service key files from the database for instance node1 ext_srvtab -n SPbgAdm To extract service key files from the database for instance SPbgAdm (Creates in the present directory with name -new-srvtab) spsetauth -d k4 std To set the authentication methods as k4 and standard chauthpar k4 std To change the authentication methods as k4 and std kpasswd To change the kerberos principals password lsauthent To list the authentication table k4init siju To get the kerberos ticket for principal siju k4init -v siju To get the same as above but give verbose output k4init -i siju To get the same but the machine will ask for the instance k4init -r siju To get the same for a different realm (U can specify realm) k4init -l siju To get the same for the life time in minutes which u specify rcmdtgt To obtain a maximum life time ticket for rcmd services on local node k4list To list the ticket cache and principals name k4list -srvtab To list the contents of the server key file chkp -l 6 siju To change the life time of the principal siju to 30 minutes (6 x 5) chkp -e 2001-5-23 siju To change the expiry date of principal siju to 2001 may 23 lskp -p To list the predefined kerberos principals lskp -s To list the kerberos service principals lskp -c To list the kerberos client principals

lskp siju abc To list the principals of siju and abc rmkp siju To remove the principal siju rmkp -n siju To remove the principal siju without prompting for confirmation rmkp -v siju To remove the principal with verbose output kdb_edit To change the attributes of the kerberos principals kdb_edit -n To avoid asking master key and get it from .k file kdb_util dump /si.bak To backup the kerberos database to si.bak file kdb_util load /si.bak To restore the kerberos database from file si.bak. kdb_util new_master_key To change the master key kadmin To add,delete,see,change password,change admin passwd of kerberose kadmin ank To add a new kerberos principal kadmin cpw To change the password of a principal kadmin cap To change admin password kadmin get To get the details of a principal kadmin dest To destroy admin ticket kstash To save the master key in the .k file kdb_init To initialize the kerberos system ksrvutil list To list the principals and version number in the server key file ksrvutil -f /etc/srvtab.bak list To list the principals in the file /etc/srvtab.bak ksrvutil change To change the key version in the default srvtab file ksrvutil delete To delete the keys in the /etc/krb-srvtab file ksrvutil -f /etc/srvtab.bak delete To delete the keys in the /etc/srvtab.bak file spacs_cntrl block user1 To block user1 on the node spacs_cntrl unblock user1 To unblock user1 spacs_cntrl deny user1 To deny user1 spacs_cntrl allow user1 To allow user1 spacs_cntrl -f /tmp/si deny To deny the list of the users in the file /tmp/si cw_allowed List of users to be allowed to login to CWS cw_restrict_login Script which will deny user to login to cws and allow them to change the passwd (files are /usr/lpp/ssp/config/admin directory and entry for second file will be in /etc/profile file) spmkuser id=1234 pgrp=system groups=system,bin home=node1:/home/siju siju To create SP user siju with id 1234, primary groups system, secondary groups system,bin and home directory home/siju of node1 sprmuser -ipr siju To remove the SP user siju (I for interactive, p for removing info from passwd file and r for removing the home directory) splsuser -c siju To list the attributes of sp user siju in column format splsuser -f siju To list the attributes of sp user siju in stanza format spchuser groups=dev,system sh=/bin/ksh siju To change the shell to ksh and secondary groups to dev, system of SP user siju

supper -v To go to the supper prompt in verbose mode supper update To update all file collections supper status To see the status of the file collections supper when To list when last updation occured supper where To show current servers for updation supper log To show summary of last or current updation supper rlog To show the details of last of current updation supper file user.admin To list the files in the file collection user.admin supper install siju To install the file collection siju supper remove siju To remove file collection siju supper update user.admin To update file collection user.admin supper diskinfo To show the diskspace and current VG Procedure to Build a file collection with name siju for files in /home/siju 1) go to /var/sysman/sup 2) create dir siju 3) change ownership and group of siju to bin 4) copy contents of /var/sysman/sup/user.admin to siju 5) edit list file for including and omitting files in /home/siju directory It should contains entry like the following symlinkall upgrade ./home/siju omit ./home/siju/abc omitany ./home/siju/s* 6) Add a symbolic link to siju file in lists directory to list in siju directory ie ln -s /var/sysman/sup/siju/list /var/sysman/sup/lists/siju 7) Update /var/sysman/file.collections file with following entry primary siju - / - / EDO power no 8) Update sup.admin file collection to reflect the changes made to file.collections dsh -av supper update sup.admin 9) Install file collection siju in the nodes dsh -av supper install siju

sysctld Sysctl server daemon /etc/sysctl.conf Sysctl configuration file setauth -cmd svcconnect NONE To allow non kerberos users to execute sysctl commands (Entry in sysctl.conf file) setauth -cmd pdf {ACL /etc/si.acl} To change the acl file for pdf command to /etc/si.acl (Entry in sysctl.conf file) /etc/sysctl.acl Default acl file for sysctl

sysctl -h node1 Opens a sysctl command interface for node node1 sysctl -h node1 aclcheck siju To check entry for siju in the default acl file (sysctl.acl) sysctl -h node1 -f /etc/si.acl siju To check entry for siju in the acl file /etc/si.acl sysctl -h node1 info commands To list the authorized commands for the current principal sysctl -h node1 acladd -p siju To add the principal siju to the default ACL file sysctl -h node1 -f /etc/si.acl acladd -p siju To add the principal siju to /etc/si.acl ACL file sysctl -h node1 acldelete -p siju To delete the principal siju to the default ACL file sysctl -h node1 -f /etc/si.acl acldelete -p siju To delete the principal siju to /etc/si.acl ACL file sysctl -h node1 acllist To list the entries in the default acl file sysctl -h node1 -f /etc/si.acl acllist To list the entries in /etc/si.acl file sysctl -h node1 aclcreate -p root.admin -p siju -f /etc/si.acl To create acl file /etc/si.acl with the entries root.admin and siju sysctl -h node1 checkauth -cmd pdf To check authorization for command pdf for the current user sysctl -h node1 confadd include /etc/si.acl To include the acl file si.acl in the sysctl.conf file sysctl -h node1 confdelete include /etc/si.acl To remove the acl file si.acl from sysctl.conf file sysctl -h node1 svcrestart To restart the sysctld daemon on node node1

Steps to create a Syctl application Task :- User siju (kerberos principal siju.adm) should get the permission to start a subsystem by executing the command substart. Permission should not be given to other users. 1) Create the client application substart in /usr/bin directory of cws with following contents if [ $# -gt 2 ] then echo "Arguments exceed the limit" exit 1 fi /usr/lpp/ssp/bin/hostlist -n $1 | /usr/bin/sysctl -c - substart_proc $2 In the above script if condition will check for the number of arguments and execute procedure on corresponding host 2) Change the mode to executable chmod 755 /usr/bin/substart

3) Create server application substart.tcl with a procedure substart_proc with following contents create proc substart_proc {SubSystem} AUTH { global SCUSER if [ aclcheck -f /etc/substart.acl $SCUSER ] { exec /etc/substart.srv $SubSystem return } } if condition in the above example checks for kerberos user in the acl file /etc/substart.acl If the condition is true it execute the command /etc/substart.srv with arguments passed by substart command 4) Create the script substart.srv with following contents startsrc -s $2 This script execute the command startsrc with the argument passed by the substart command

5) Change the mode to executable chmod 755 /etc/substart.srv 6) Create acl file substart.acl with the entry for user siju #acl# _PRINCIPAL siju.adm@CWS 7) Add the application to the sysctl by adding following line to sysctl.conf file include /etc/substart.tcl 8) Distribute the files to all nodes pcp -av /usr/bin/substart pcp -av /etc/substart.tcl pcp -av /etc/substart.srv pcp -av /etc/substart.acl pcp -av /etc/sysctl.conf 9) Restart the sysctld daemon to get the new information on cws and on all nodes 10) Get the kerberos ticket for user siju and execute following command substart 3 lpd This should start the lpd daemon on node 3

11) Try the above command with any other kerberos ticket. Result should be negative

NIM Commands nimconfig -a pif_name=en0 -a netname=net1 To initialise the NIM master with network name net1 nimconfig -r To rebuild /etc/niminfo file which contains the variables for NIM nim -o define -t lpp_source -a source=/dev/cd0 -a server=master -a location=/export/lpp_source/lpp_source1 lpp_source1 To define lpp_source1 image in /export/lpp_source/lpp_source directory from source cd0 nim -o define -t mksysb -a server=master -a location=/resources/mksysb.image mksysb1 To define mksysb resource mksysb1, from source /resources/mksysb.image on master nim -o remove inst_resource To remove the resource inst_resource nim -o check lpp_source1 To check the status of lpp_source lpp_source1 nim -o allocate -a spot=spot1 -a lpp_source=lpp_source1 node1 To allocate the resources spot1 and lpp_source1 to the the client node1 nim -o bos_inst node1 To initialise NIM for the BOS installation on node1 with the allocated resources nim -o dkls_init dcmds To initialize the machine dcmds as diskless operation nim -o dtls_init dcmds To initialize the machine dcmds for dataless operation nim -o cust dcmds To initialize the machine dcmds for customize operation nim -o diag dcmds To initialize the machine dcmds for diag operation nim -o maint dcmds To initialize the machine dcmds for maintenance operation nim -o define -t standalone -a platform=rspc -a if1="net1 dcmds xxxxx" -a cable_type1=bnc dcmds To define the machine dcmds as standalone with platform as rspc and network as net1 with cable type bnc and mac address xxxxx nim -o unconfig master To unconfigure nim master master nim -o allocate -a spot=spot1 dcmds To allocate the resource spot1 from machine dcmds nim -o deallocate -a spot=spot1 dcmds To de allocate the resource spot1 from machine dcmds

nim -o remove dcmds To remove machine dcmds after removing all resources associated to it nim -o reboot dcmds To reboot ther client dcmds nim -o define -t lpp_source -a location=/software/lpp1 -a server=master -a source=/dev/cd0 lpp1 To define lppsource lpp1 on master at /software/lpp1 directory from source device /dev/cd0 lsnim To list the nim resources lsnim -l dcmds To list the detailed info about the object dcmds lsnim -O dcmds To list the operation dcmds object can support lsnim -c resources dcmds To list the resources allocated to the machine dcmds nimclient The client version of nim command (User can obtain same results of nim in server ) Labels: AIX Commands

AIX Commands
Posted by Elumalai M at 10:04 AM 0 comments System installation and maintenance management oslevel Reports the latest installed maintenance level of the system. oslevel -r : determines the highest recommended maintenance level reached for the current version of AIX. oslevel -lr 5100-04: lists which fileset updates are missing if after installing ML 04 on 5100-03 the command oslevel -r still shows 5100-03. alog Creates and maintains fixed-size log files. alog -o -t boot : view the boot log (the log that holds boot information). alog -L : lists the logs defined in the alog database. errpt Generates a report of logged errors in the system error log. errpt -a : displays a complete detailed report. errpt -c > /dev/console : formats and displays each of the errors at logtime (concurrent error logging) on /dev/console. errdemon Starts the error logging daemon errdemon that reads error records from the /dev/error file and creates error log entries in the default system error log /var/adm/ras/errlog. /usr/lib/errdemon : starts the error logging daemon. /usr/lib/errdemon -l : displays the path to the system error log file and error log size. /usr/lib/errdemon -s 2000000 : changes the maximum size of the error log file to 2 MB.

syslogd The syslogd daemon logs messages from kernel, daemons and system applications using /etc/syslog.conf. *.debug errlog (add this line to to syslog.conf to redirect all syslog messages to the system error log). stopsrc -s syslogd : stops the syslogd daemon. startsrc -s syslogd : starts the syslogd daemon. refresh -s syslogd : refreshes the syslogd daemon. errlogger Logs an operator message. errlogger new disk added on scsi1 adapter : logs "new disk added on scsi1 adapter" in the system error log. errclear Deletes entries from the system error log. Software and operator errors (older than 30 days) and hardware errors (older than 90 days) are removed using crontab. errinstall Installs or replaces messages in the error logging message sets of the error log message catalog. errupdate Updates the Error Record Template Repository (default file /var/adm/ras/errtmplt). diag Menu driven program to run a wide choice of tasks and service aids (diagnostics, hardware error report, format, microcode and bootlist management, ...). Diagnostics modes: Concurrent mode: diag is used during normal operation (only devices not in use can be tested). Single-user mode: run diag after shutdown -m. Stand-alone mode: boot from Diagnostics CD (press F5 when acoustic beep is heard) or boot and press F6 when acoustic beep is heard to load diag from hard disk. if diag returns "diag is not supported on this model" use: SMS mode: boot and press F1 when acoustic beep is heard, select "test the computer". Some older models use a SMS diskette. alt_disk_install Installs an alternate disk with a mksysb install image or clones the currently running system to an alternate disk. Note: install bos.alt_disk_install fileset to use alt_disk_install. alt_disk_install -C hdisk2 : Clones the current rootvg to hdisk2.

alt_disk_install -C -b update_all -l /dev/cd0 hdisk4 : Creates clone of the current rootvg on hdisk4, installs a ML on the clone and changes the bootlist to hdisk4. alt_disk_install -X old_rootvg : Removes the original rootvg from the ODM, after booting from the new alternate disk (you can still reboot from old_rootvg). nimadm Performs Alternate Disk Migration (to a new version or release) of AIX using NIM resources. nimadm -c aix1 -s spot2 -l lpp2 -d "hdisk1 hdisk2" -Y : migrates totarget NIM client aix1, using NIM SPOT resource spot2, the NIM lpp_source lpp2, and hdisk1 and hdisk2 target disks, and agreeing to all required software license agreements for the software being installed (-Y). nim -o alt_disk_install -a source=rootvg -a disk='hdisk2' -a phase=12 holland : clones a rootvg on client holland to hdisk1, but only run phase1 and phase2 (leaving the /alt_inst file systems mounted). Problem determination sysdumpdev Changes the primary or secondary dump device designation in a running system. The default primary dump device is LV /dev/hd6 and the default secondary dump device is /dev/sysdumpnull. A dedicated primary dump device LV /dev/lg_dumplv is created (if sufficient disk space is available) in systems with at least 4 Gigabytes of real memory. sysdumpdev -l : displays current dump device settings. sysdumpdev -P -p /dev/hd7 : changes the primary dump device permanently from the default to LV /dev/hd7. sysdumpdev -e : estimates the dump size (in bytes) for the current running system. sysdumpdev -L : displays statistical information about the last dump. chdev -l sys0 -a autostart=true : automatically reboot after a crash (default is false). dumpcheck Checks the disk resources used by the system dump and logs in the system error log. Run default by cron at 3:00 pm local time each day. /usr/lib/ras/dumpcheck -p : requests a dumpcheck. The result is printed to stdout (-p). /usr/lib/ras/dumpcheck -r : discontinues running dumpcheck (removes the crontab entry). kdb Displays system images for examining a dump. kdb /var/adm/ras/vmcore.0 /unix : starts kdb using the uncompressed dump file /var/adm/ras/vmcore.0 and kernel file /unix. snap Gathers system configuration information and compresses the information into a pax file. snap -a -o /dev/rmt0 : gathers all system configuration information (needs approximately 8 MB space in directory /tmp/ibmsupt) and creates a compressed pax image (snap.pax.Z)

of directory /tmp/ibmsupt. snapcore Gathers the core file, program, and libraries used by a program to directory /tmp/snapcore (default) and compresses the information into a pax image. The collected information allows debugging and resolving problems within an application. snapcore -d /tmp/snapcore2 core.xx : gathers all needed information for core dump file core.xx and writes it to directory /tmp/snapcore2/snapcore_32811.pax.Z, where 32811 is the process id ($pid) of the snapcore command. uncompress -c snapcore_32811.pax.Z | pax : displays the contents of the pax archive. check_core Used by snapcore to gather all information about a core dump. The bos.rte.serv_aid fileset must be installed. /usr/lib/ras/check_core core.xx : displays a list containing the program that caused core dump core.xx and the used libraries. shconf Manages the system hang detection parameters for the system hang daemon shdaemon. shconf -d : displays if priority problem detection and lost I/O detection are enabled or not. shconf -E -l prio -H : displays the current shdaemon settings. System initialization and boot management The numeric 1 key (F1 on graphical display), when pressed during POST (double beep), starts the SMS interface. The numeric 5 key (F5 on graphical display), when pressed during POST, initiates a system boot in service mode using the default service mode boot list. Sequence: 1. diskette (if installed), 2. CD-ROM (if installed), 3. hard disk, 4. tape drive (if installed), 5. network (a. Token ring, b. Ethernet). The numeric 6 key (F6 on graphical display) works like the numeric 5 key, but uses the customized service mode bootlist. This is the preferred method of loading AIX diagnostics from the boot hard disk. ipl_varyon * Used to vary on the root volume group during system boot processing. ipl_varyon -i : Inquiry mode - skips ipl device processing. Checks which disks are already bootable. bosboot Creates boot image. It does not update the bootlist in the NVRAM. bosboot -a -d /dev/hdisk0 : Re-create boot image on hdisk0. bosboot -a -d /dev/ipldevice -D : creates a boot image with the KDB debugger enabled.

mklv Creates a logical volume. mklv -y hd5 -t boot rootvg 1 : re-create boot LV (BLV) hd5. lslv Displays information about a logical volume. lslv -l hd5 : determines the boot disk. mkboot Creates the boot image, the boot record, and the service record. mkboot -c -d /dev/hdisk0 : clears the boot record of PV hdisk0. chpv Changes the characteristics of a physical volume in a volume group. chpv -c hdisk1 : clears the boot record of PV hdisk1. bootinfo Determines and displays various boot information, including boot device type and boot device name (NOT supported in AIX 4.2 or later). bootinfo -b : returns the last boot device. bootinfo -B hdisk0 : returns 1 if disk is bootable, 0 if not. bootlist Displays or alters the list or ordering of boot devices available to the system. Normal boot list: possible boot devices for normal mode. Service boot list: possible boot devices for service mode. Previous boot device: last device from which the system booted. Support of these boot lists is model dependent. bootlist -m normal -o : displays the normal boot list. bootlist -m service -o : displays the service boot list (if available). bootlist -m normal cd0 hdisk0 hdisk1 : makes changes to the normal boot list. bootlist -m prevboot : invalidates the last device from which the system booted. halt or fasthalt Writes data to disk (sync) and then stops the system. The system does not restart. Do not use this command if other users are logged into the system. reboot or fastboot Restarts the system. Can be used if no other users are logged into the system. shutdown Halts the operating system. Checks the existence of the executable /etc/rc.shutdown file (added by the administrator) that specifies all the applications and other user processes to close down. By default the shutdown command powers down the system (if supported and issued). shutdown -Fr : fast system shutdown and restart.

shutdown -m +1 : brings the system down to maintenance (single user) mode after waiting one minute. shutdown -l : logs the output during the shutdown to /etc/shutdown.log. last Displays information about previous logins using the /var/adm/wtmp file. last reboot : displays the time between reboots. last shutdown : lists last shutdowns of the system. uptime Shows how long the system has been up. uptime : displays the current time, the length of time the system has been up, the number of users online, and the load average. sync Updates the i-node table and writes buffered files to the hard disk. sync;sync;sync;reboot : writes everything from the buffer to the hard disk and reboots the system. lsfont Lists the fonts available for use by the display. chfont Changes the default font selected at boot time. mkfont Adds the font code associated with a display to the system. mkfontdir Creates a fonts.dir file from a directory of font files. chlang Sets LANG environment variable in the /etc/environment file for next login. chtz Changes the system time zone information in the /etc/environment file. chhwkbd Changes the low-function terminal (LFT) keyboard attributes stored in the Object Data Manager (ODM) database.

lskbd Lists the keyboard maps currently available to the low-function terminal (LFT) subsystem. chkbd Changes the default keyboard map used by the low-function terminal (LFT) at system startup. chkey Changes your encryption key. lslicense Displays the number of fixed licenses and the status of floating licensing. There are two types of user licensing, fixed and floating. Fixed licensing is always enabled. Floating licensing can be enabled or disabled. lslicense -A : displays the number of available fixed licences on the system. chlicense Changes the number of fixed licenses and the status of the floating licensing (updates login.cfg). chlicense -I -u 50I -u 50 : changes the fixed license number immediately to 50 (without rebooting). chlicense -f on : enables the floating licensing. lsitab Lists records in the /etc/inittab file. chitab Changes records in the /etc/inittab file. mkitab Adds records to the /etc/inittab file. rmitab Removes records from the /etc/inittab file. telinit or init Initializes and controls processes. 0-9 Tells the init process to put the system in one of the run levels 0-9. S,s,M,m Tells the init process to enter the maintenance mode. a,b,c Tells the init process to examine only those records in the /etc/inittab file with a, b, or c in the run-level field. Q,q Tells the init

process to re-examine the entire /etc/inittab file. N Sends a signal that stops processes from being respawned. telinit q : requests the init command to re-examine the /etc/inittab file. who Identifies the users currently logged in. who -r : displays the runlevel. who /var/adm/wtmp : displays a history of logins, logouts, system startups, and system shutdowns. restbase Restores customized information from the boot image. Attention: The command is executed only during system boot phase 1. Do not execute it in a run-time environment. savebase Saves base customized device data in the ODM onto the boot device. savebase -d /dev/hdisk0 : save the ODM to the boot logical volume. Hardware installation and configuration management Available hardware platforms: MCA-based uni-processor models (rs6k), MCA-based symmetric multiprocessor models (rs6ksmp), ISA-bus models (rspc), PCI-bus models (CHRP). AIX V5.2 is not supported on MCA and PReP architecture hardware. The "AIX Statement of Direction" gives a complete list of unsupported models. lscfg Displays configuration, diagnostic and VPD information about the system. lscfg -vp : Displays the system model, machine serial, processor type, number of processors, processor clock speed, cpu type, total memory size, network information, filesystem information, paging space information, and devices information. lscfg | grep proc | wc -l : lists the # of processors. prtconf or lsconf Displays system configuration information. prtconf -s : displays the processor clock speed. prtconf -k : displays the kernel type in use. prtconf -m : displays memory. snap Gathers system configuration information. snap -a : gathers system configuration information. The output is written to the /tmp/ibmsupt directory. uname Displays the name of the current operating system.

uname -a : displays the machine ID and version banner. uname -x : displays the operating system in use, the host name, the machine ID number of the hardware, the release number of the operating system, the operating system version and the system model name. mach Displays the processor architecture of the machine. getconf Displays system configuration variable values. getconf HARDWARE_BITMODE : displays hardware bit mode (64 or 32 bit). getconf KERNEL_BITMODE : displays kernel bit mode (64 or 32 bit). getconf DISK_SIZE /dev/hdisk2 : displays disk size in MB. getconf REAL_MEMORY : displays real memory size in MB. cfg2html A system configuration to HTML converter (Open Source) file Determines the file type. file prog : displays user process bit mode of program prog. Returns: executable (RISC System/6000) or object module not stripped (32 bit program), or 64-bit XCOFF executable or object module not stripped (64 bit program). file /unix : the returned link shows which kernel is running: unix_up = 32-bit uniprocessor kernel, unix_mp = 32-bit multiprocesssor kernel, unix_64 = 64-bit multiprocessor kernel. cfgmgr Configures devices by running the programs in /etc/methods directory and optionally installs device software. cfgmgr : runs the Phase 2 configuration rules (second boot phase for normal boot) (same as using the -s flag). cfgmgr -v : makes devices available that where not powered on when the system started. cfgmgr -l scsi1 : configures detected devices attached to the scsi1 adapter. cfgmgr -i /usr/sys/inst.images : installs device software (using the directory /usr/sys/inst.images) automatically during configuration. chcons Redirects the system console to device or file, effective next startup. chcons -a login=enable /dev/tty0 : changes the system console to device /dev/tty0. Use /dev/lft0 for the default LFT display. chcons /tmp/console.out : redirects the system console to file /tmp/console.out. lsdisp

Lists the displays and the default display currently available on the system. chdisp Changes the display used by the LFT subsystem. chdisp -p gda1 : changes the default display permanently to gda1. lsattr Displays attribute characteristics and possible values of attributes for devices in the system. lsattr -EHl sys0l sys0 : displays system attributes (realmem ...) lsattr -EHl proc0 : displays the state, type and frequency of processor proc0. lsattr -El rmt0 : lists the current attribute values for the tape device rmt0. lsattr -El tty0 -a speed : lists the current value of the speed attribute for serial port tty0. lsdev Displays devices in the system and their characteristics. Examples: lsdev -P -H : lists the Predefined (supported) Devices (in the PdDv object class). lsdev -C -H : lists the Customized (configured/defined) Devices (in the CuDv object class). lsdev -C -c disk : lists all the PVs (class disk) in the system along with the status and location code. listdgrp Displays devices in a device class. listdgrp disk : list the devices in the disk class. getdev Lists devices that match the specified criteria. getdev type=proc_rspc : lists all devices of type proc_rspc. getdgrp Lists device classes that match the specified criteria. getdgrp : display all device classes. chdev Changes a device's characteristics. chdev -l hdisk2 -a pv=yes : assigns a PVID to hdisk2. mkdev Adds a device to the system. mkdev -l hdisk2 : make the already defined disk device hdisk2 available to use. mkdev -l hdisk1 -a pv=yes : makes an available disk a PV (assigning a PVID), if it does

not already have one. mkdev -c tty -t tty -s rs232 -p sa0 -w s1 -a login=enable -a term=ibm3151 : adds an ibm3151 RS232 terminal using adapter sa0 port s1 with login enabled. rmdev Removes a device from the system. rmdev -l tty0 -d : removes the tty0 device definition from the CuDv object class (ODM). rmdev -l hdisk1 : unconfigures PV hdisk1 and changes its state from available to defined (definition is not removed from the CuDv object class (ODM). Physical Volume Management See also lsdev, chdev, mkdev and rmdev. lspv Displays information about a physical volume (PV) within a volume group. lspv : lists the name, PVID and VG for each configured PV. lspv hdisk2 : lists the characteristics of PV hdisk2. lspv -M hdisk3 : lists the mapping and stale PPs for hdisk3. lspv -l hdisk0 : lists LV allocation within PV hdisk0. lspv -p hdisk1 : lists PP intra-allocation by PV region and PP state (free, used, stale, vgda) on hdisk1. lquerypv * Queries the attributes of a physical volume. chpv Changes the characteristics of a physical volume in a volume group. chpv -a n hdisk1 : turn off the allocation permission of free PPs for PV hdisk1. chpv -a y hdisk1 : turn the allocation permission for hdisk1 back on. chpv -v r hdisk3 : set the state of PV hdisk3 to unavailable (use when PV is to be removed from the system or is lost due to failure). chpv -v a hdisk4 : make PV hdisk4 available to the system (from state removed to active). chpv -h y hdisk2 : marks hdisk2 (with no allocated LPs) as a hot spare disk in a VG with mirrored LVs. migratepv Moves allocated PP's from one PV to one or more other PP's in the same VG. The command is not allowed if the VG is varied on in concurrent mode. migratepv hdisk1 hdisk3 hdisk5 : moves all PPs from hdisk1 to hdisk3 and hdisk5. migratepv -l lv02 hdisk2 hdisk4 : moves all PPs in LV lv02 from hdisk2 to hdisk4. File System Management AIX supported file system types: standard Journaled File System (JFS) max. file size 2 GB, max. file system size 1 TB

large file enabled JFS max. file size 64 GB, max. file system size 1 TB Enhanced Journaled File System (JFS2) max. file size tested 1 TB (AIX currently supports up to 16 TB using the 64-bit kernel, 1 TB using the 32-bit kernel), max. file system size tested 1 TB, architectural max. file system size 4 PB. The JFS2 outline log can be up to 1 GB (32-bit kernel) and up to 64 GB (64-bit kernel).The JFS2 inline log size can be from 256 KB up to 16 GB. General Parallel File System (GPFS) Provides a cluster-wide file system allowing users shared access to files spanning multiple disk drives. RAM File System Up to 8 RAM disks can be created (2 GB size limitation is removed in AIX V5.2). Size cannot be changed afterwards. Network File System (NFS) NFS allows programs on one system to access files on another system transparently by mounting the remote directory. CD-ROM File System (CDRFS) A read-only local file system implementation under the logical file system (LFS) layer. Supported are ISO 9660:1988(E) standard, the High Sierra Group Specification, the Rock Ridge Group Protocol, the CD-ROM eXtended Architecture File Format (in Mode 2 Form 1 sector format only). CDs are automatically mounted by default. DVD-ROM File System (UDFS) A read-only file system stored on DVD-ROM media. UDFS format versions 1.50, 2.00, and 2.01 are supported. DVDs are automatically mounted by default. Cache File System (CacheFS) CacheFS is used to enhance read performance of remote file systems (NFS) or slow devices such as CD-ROM. CacheFS handles files larger than 2 GB. Default AIX file systems: fs lv description / hd4 The / (root) file system contains files and directories critical for system operation. /usr hd2 Files that can be shared by machines of the same hardware architecture are located in the /usr file system. Architecture-independent, shareable text files, such as manual pages, are located in the /usr/share directory. /var hd9var Variable per-client files, such as spool and mail files, are located in the /var file system. /home hd1 The /home file system is the mount point for user home directories. /tmp hd3 The /tmp file system contains system-generated temporary files. /opt hd10opt The /opt file system is reserved for the installation of add-on application software packages. /proc - The /proc pseudo file system provides access to the state of each active process and thread in the system by mappping processes and kernel data structures to corresponding files. df Reports information about space on file systems. df -m /usr : displays information about file system /usr in MB (-m) blocks (use -g for GB). quot Summarizes file system ownership. quot -f /home : displays the number of files and bytes owned by each user in the /home file system.

du Summarizes disk usage. du -sg /home : displays the total disk usage in GB (-g) for all files in directory tree /home. find Recursively searches the directory tree with a matching expression. find . -type f -exec grep "unix" {} \; -print : looks for string "unix" and prints the names of the files in which it is found. fileplace Displays the placement of file blocks within logical or physical volumes. fileplace -v data3 : displays the placement of a file in its LV, including statistics on how widely the file is spread across the volume and the degree of fragmentation in the volume (-v). lsfs Displays the characteristics of file systems. Uses /etc/filesystems (system file with stanzas of the known file systems and their characteristics). lsfs : shows all file systems in the /etc/filesystems file. lsfs -q /usr : shows the LV size, file system size, the fragment size, the compression algorithm and the number of bytes per i-node (nbpi) of the /usr file system. lsfs -v jfs2 : shows all file systems of vfs type jfs2. crfs Adds a file system. The smallest file system is equal to one PP. crfs -v jfs -g datavg -a size=32M -m /user : creates a JFS of 32 MB with /user as the mount point in VG datavg. crfs -v jfs2 -g rootvg -a size=128M -m /data -A yes -p rw -a agblksize=2048 : creates a JFS2 of 128 MB with /data as the mount point, automatically mounted at system restart (A), with 4K as the smallest file system block size that can be allocated to a file. mkfs Makes a new file system on a specified existing device (LV). mkfs -s 64M /data /dev/lvdata : creates an empty 64 MB file system on LV lvdata. mkfs -o name=/user /dev/lvuser : creates an empty file system on the /dev/lvuser device, with mount point /user. The new file system occupies the entire device and has the default fragment size (4096 bytes) and the default nbpi ratio (4096). chfs Changes attributes of a file system. chfs -a size=+16M /data : increases the size of the /data file system by 16 MB. chfs -a size=64M /data : changes the size of the /data file system to 64 MB (provided it

was previously no larger than this). chfs -A yes /data : sets the mount=true attribute in /etc/filesystems for file system with mount point /data. rmfs Removes a file system. rmfs -r /data : removes file system /data, it's mount point (-r) and it's LV. reduce fs Official procedure 1: 1. Make a backup of the file system. 2. Remove the file system. 3. Create a new file system using the same name and reduced size. 4. Restore the backup of the file system into the new file system. Official procedure 2: 1. Make a mksysb (VG rootvg) or savevg (other VGs). 2. Restore the VG using the shrink file systems option. mount Makes a file system available for use. mount : lists the mounted file systems. mount all or mount -a : mounts all file systems in /etc/filesystems marked by the mount=true attribute (file systems marked by the mount=automatic attribute are not mounted - they are mounted by the boot process). mount /dev/lvdata : mounts the file system (in LV lvdata) using the default mount point from /etc/filesystems. mount -v cdrfs -o ro /dev/cd0 /mnt : mounts the CDROM on /mnt. umount or unmount Unmounts a previously mounted file system, directory, or file. umount all : unmounts all file systems in /etc/filesystems marked by the mount=true attribute (file systems marked by the mount=automatic attribute are not unmounted). umount -f /mnt : forces the unmount of the /mnt NFS file system. cdmount Makes a file system available for use on a device managed by the cdromd daemon (automatically mounts a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM when it is inserted in a device, and provides the server function for all cd/dvd related commands). cdmount cd0 : mounts a file system on cd0. startsrc -s cdromd : starts the cdromd daemon which reads the /etc/cdromd.conf configuration file. cdcheck Asks cdromd daemon information about a device. cdcheck -m cd0 : asks cdromd if a CD is mounted on cd0. cdeject

Ejects a media from a CD drive managed by cdromd. cdeject cd0 : ejects a CD from cd0. cdumount Unmounts a previously mounted file system on a device managed by cdromd. cdumount cd0 : unmount a file system on cd0. fuser Identifies processes using a file or file structure. fuser -u /data : lists the process numbers and user login names of processes using the /data file system. defragfs Increases a file system's contiguous free space by reorganizing scattered allocations. defragfs /home : defragments the /home file system. defragfs -s /data : generates a report on the fragmentation in the /data file system. lmktemp lmktemp largefile 1073741824 : Create a 1GB file named largefile. fsck Checks file system consistency and interactively repairs the file system. By default, the /, /usr, /var, and /tmp file systems have a check=false attribute in their /etc/filesystem stanzas. fsck -p /dev/lv00 : fixes minor problems with the /dev/lv00 file system automatically and if the primary superblock is corrupt, the secondary superblock is verified and copied to the primary superblock. dd count=1 bs=4k skip=31 seek=1 if=/dev/lvdata of=/dev/lvdata : copies the backup superblock of the /dev/lvdata file system over the primary superblock. fsck -V jfs2 /data : checks JFS2 with mount point /data for consistency and repairs problems found. dd Converts and copies a file. dd count=1 bs=4k skip=31 seek=1 if=/dev/lvdata of=/dev/lvdata : restores the backup of the superblock over the primary superblock (use when the superblock of the JFS on /dev/lvdata is corrupted (or dirty). logform Rebuild the JFS log. logform /dev/hd8 : rebuilds the jfslog of rootvg, after booting the machine into maintenance mode (attention: The logform command should only be run on closed LVs). logform -V jfs2 /dev/jfs2log : rebuilds the jfs2log /dev/jfs2log. snapshot

Modifies, creates or queries properties a JFS2 snapshot (a consistent block level image of a file system). The bos.rte.file fileset must be installed. snapshot -o snapfrom=/data /dev/snapsb : creates a snapshot for the /data file system on the exisiting /dev/snapsb LV. snapshot -d /dev/snapsb : deletes the snapshot and the LV containing the snapshot. backsnap Creates and backs up a JFS2 snapshot. backsnap -m /tmp/snapshot/data -s size=16M -i -f /dev/rmt0 /data : creates a 16 MB LV, creates a snapshot for the /data file system on the created LV, mounts the snapshot on /tmp/snapshot/data and backups the files and directories in that file system by name to /dev/rmt0. fsdb Examines and modifies snapshot superblock, snapshot map, block xtree copy, and segment headers. Mounted file systems cannot be modified. fsdb /data : debugs file system /data. dumpfs Dumps file system information (superblock, i-node map, and disk map) for debugging. dumpfs /dev/hd2 : prints the information for /dev/hd2. lsvfs Lists entries in the /etc/vfs file. crvfs Creates entries in the /etc/vfs file. chvfs Changes entries in the /etc/vfs file. rmvfs Removes entries in the /etc/vfs file. mkramdisk Creates a RAM disk using a portion of RAM (pinned by default). Use only for data that can be lost. Setup procedure creating a 8 MB RAM disk: mkramdisk 8m ls -l /dev | grep ram mkfs -V jfs /dev/ramdiskx mkdir /ramdiskx mount -V jfs -o nointegrity /dev/ramdiskx /ramdiskx where x is the logical RAM disk number.

To remove the RAM filesystem: unmount /ramdiskx rmramdisk /dev/ramdiskx cfsadmin Administers disk space used for CacheFS. cfsadmin -c /cache1 : creates a cache directory named cache1. mount -V cachefs -o backfstype=nfs,cachedir=/cache1 server2:/data /ldata : CacheFSmounts the file system /data from remote host server2 on mount point /ldata of the client using cachedir /cache1. cfsadmin -l /cache1 : lists file systems and statistics for cache1. cfsadmin -d all /cache1 : removes all cached file systems from the /cache1 directory. mkcfsmnt Mounts a CacheFS directory. mkcfsmnt -d /mnt -t nfs -h server2 -p /home -c /cache1 -N : mounts the /home file system of server2 locally on the /mnt directory using /cache1 as CacheFS. cachefslog Controls the logging of a cache file system. cachefslog -f /cache1/cachelog /mnt : sets up the file /cache1/cachelog to log CacheFS statistics. cachefswssize Displays the work space size for a cache file system. cachefswssize /cache1/cachelog : displays the work space size of the cache filesystems being logged in the file /cache1/cachelog.. fsck_cachefs Checks the integrity of data cached with CacheFS. fsck_cachefs -o noclean /cache1 : forces a check on the cache directory. File Management procfiles procfiles -n `ls /proc` : lists all the process and files they have open. find find / -xdev -type f -mtime -1 -ls | sort +6nr | head -n 20 : lists the top-20 largest files in / that where used within the last 24 hours.

Logical Volume Management LVs automatically created at system installation are:

hd5 boot LV (boot image). Available only at startup. hd6 Default paging space. hd8 Default logging space (jfslog) for the journaled file systems. hd4 / (root) file system. hd2 /usr file system. hd9var /var file system. hd10opt /opt file system. hd3 /tmp file system. hd1 /home file system. Users' home directories. Note: hd7 was used in earlier AIX versions as dump device. Maximum LV size is 1 TB (32-bit kernel) or 128 TB (64-bit kernel). A dedicated dump device lg_dumplv is created in systems with at least 4 Gigabytes of real memory. lslv Displays information about a logical volume (LV). Total LVsize=PPsize * LPs assigned to LV * Number of LV copies. lslv lvdata : lists all the attributes related to LV lvdata. lslv -m lvdata : lists the LP to PP/PV mapping of LV lvdata. mklv Creates a logical volume. The smallest LV is equal to one PP. mklv -y lvdata -c 3 datavg 10 : creates LV lvdata in VG datavg with ten LPs and a total of three copies of the data. mklv -y lvdb datavg 50M : creates LV lvdb with a minimum size of 50MB (b/B=512B, k/K=KB, m/M=MB, g/G=GB). Rounded to whole LVs to make up 50 MB. mklv -a c datavg 2 : creates LV lv00 with a size of two LPs and intra-physical volume allocation policy center (e=[outer] edge, m=[outer] middle, c=center, im=inner middle, ie=inner edge). chlv Changes the characteristics of a logical volume. chlv -w p lvdata : turns on passive MWC for LV lvdata (big VG only). rmlv Removes logical volumes from a volume group. rmlv -f lvdata : remove LV lvdata without requiring user confirmation (attention: all data on this LV is destroyed). extendlv Increases the size of a logical volume by adding unallocated physical partitions. extendlv lvdata 12 : adds twelve more LPs to LV lvdata. extendlv lvraw 64M : adds 64 MB to LV lvraw. Rounded to whole LVs needed to make up 64 MB. lquerylv * Queries the attributes of a logical volume.

lreducelv *! Reduces the number of allocated logical partitions of a logical volume (attention: if not used with care, data is lost). Official procedure to reduce a LV: 1. Back up all data in the logical volume. 2. Remove the logical volume. 3. Recreate the logical volume with the reduced logical partition allocation. 4. Restore the data. cplv Copies the contents of a logical volume to a new logical volume. cplv -v datavg -y lvnew lvold : copies the contents of lvold to new LV lvnew in VG datavg. cplv -e lvtest -f lvdata : copies the contents of LV lvdata to a smaller, existing LV lvtest within the same VG, without requiring user confirmation (attention: if lvtest is smaller than lvdata, then data will be lost, probably resulting in corruption). mklvcopy Adds copies to a logical volume. mklvcopy lvdata 3 : increases the number of copies in each LP in LV lvdata to three. rmlvcopy Removes copies from a logical volume. rmlvcopy lvuser 2 : decreases the number of copies in each LP in LV lvuser to two. migratelp Moves an allocated LP from one PP to another PP on a different PV in the same VG. migratelp datalv/23 hdisk3/105 : moves the 23th LP of LV datalv to the 105th PP of PV hdisk3. See lspv -p to display the free PPs of PV hdisk3. splitlvcopy Splits copies from one logical volume and creates a new logical volume from them. splitlvcopy -y newlv oldlv 2 : splits one copy of each LP belonging to the LV oldlv which currently has 3 copies of each LP, and creates the LV newlv. getlvcb * Displays a formatted output of the data in the LVCB of a LV. getlvcb -TA hd3 : displays the information held in the LVCB of LV hd3. putlvcb *! Writes the control block information (only the specified fields) into block 0 of a logical volume (LVCB).

putlvcb -t jfs lvdata : writes the LV type jfs to the LVCB of LV lvdata. Volume Group Management Each disk (PV) belongs to a Volume group (VG). A standard VG is a collection of 1 to 32 PVs (1 to 128 for a big VG). A PV can belong to only one VG. A maximum of 255 VGs can be defined per system. When a VG is created, the PVs within the VG are partitioned into contiguous, equal-sized PPs (units of disk space). PPs are the smallest unit of allocatable storage space in a VG. The PP size is determined at VG creation (can't be changed dynamically afterwards), and all PVs that are placed in the VG inherit this size. The PP size can range from 1 MB to 1024 MB, but must be a power of two. If not specified at creation time, the default PP size for a VG is 4 MB for disks up to 4 GB (the minimum PP size needed is determined by the OS), but it must be larger for PVs greater than 4 GB due to the fact that the LVM, by default, will only track up to 1016 PPs/PV. The number of PPs/PV (1016) can be increased with a factor 1-16 (or 1-64 for a big VG) at creation time or later (which will reduce the number of PVs in the VG) and/or the number of PVs/VG can be increased from 32 to 128 at creation time or later (big or gigantic VG). Importing a VG involves copying the VGDA data for the imported volume group into the ODM. When a volume group is exported, the data held in the ODM about that volume group is removed from the ODM database. lsvg Displays information about VGs. lsvg : lists all VGs. lsvg rootvg : lists the characteristics of VG rootvg. lsvg -o : lists only the active VGs (those that are varied on). lsvg -p rootvg : lists the PVs in VG rootvg (state, size, distribution). lsvg -l rootvg : lists the LVs in VG rootvg (type, size, state). lsvg -M rootvg : displays a map of all LVs. lqueryvg ! Queries the attributes of a VG using VG id, or PV name of a PV that is part of a VG. lqueryvg -At -p hdisk0 : returns all attributes for the VG (static attributes, LV details and PV details). mkvg Creates a VG. mkvg -y datavg -s 32 hdisk2 hdisk4 : creates the VG datavg that contains PVs hdisk2 and hdisk4, with PP size set to 32 MB. mkvg -B -y uservg : create a big VG uservg (supports 128 PVs and 512 LVs). chvg Sets the characteristics of a VG. chvg -a{y|n} datavg : VG datavg is automatically activated (y=varyonvg) or not (n=varyoffvg) during system startup. chvg -u datavg : unlock the VG datavg. chvg -B datavg : changes the VG to big VG format (supports 128 PVs and 512 LVs).

Mapping size is 4*original size. chvg -t 2 datavg : changes the limit of the number of PPs/PV by factor=2 (1016*2=2032 PPs/PV). Which decreases the number of disks (#PVs/factor=16 PVs/VG). chvg -sy datavg : attempts to automatically synchronize (AUTO SYNC) stale partitions in VG datavg (default this not done for a VG). chvg -L256 uservg : changes the LTG size to 256KB of VG uservg for better disk I/O performance. LTG size should be less than or equal to the maximum transfer size of all disks in the VG. Check each disk in the VG with: lquerypv -M hdiskx : checks the maximum supported LTG size of hdiskx. chvg -b n datavg : turns off the bad block relocation policy of VG datavg (default is yes for a VG). chvg -h y -s y uservg : sets policy in VG uservg to automatically (-h y) migrate PPs from one failing disk to one spare disk with automatic synchronization of stale PPs (-s y). syncvg Synchronizes LV copies that are not current (stale). syncvg -v datavg : synchronizes the copies on VG datavg. syncvg -p hdisk3 : synchronizes the copies on physical volumes hdisk3. synclvodm Resynchronize the ODM. The VG must be active. synclvodm rootvg : synchronizes the device configuration database with the LVM information for rootvg (use when the device configuration database is not consistent with the LVM information in the LVCBs and the VGDAs). rvgrecover Repairs the ODM. mirrorvg Mirrors all the LVs that exist on a given VG. mirrorvg -S -c 3 rootvg : triply mirrors VG rootvg, returns the mirrorvg command immediately and starts a background syncvg (-S). mirrorvg -m datavg hdisk3 : creates an exact mapped mirror of the LVs in VG datavg. unmirrorvg Removes the mirrors that exist on VGs or specified disks. unmirrorvg rootvg : default unmirroring of rootvg (rootvg now has only 1 copy). importvg Imports a new VG definition from a set of PVs. It is highly recommended that you run the fsck command before you mount the file systems. importvg -y datavg hdisk9 : imports VG datavg from PV hdisk9. importvg -y uservg 0009898xy2727d4f : imports VG uservg from PV with PVID 0009898xy2727d4f. importvg -L datavg : imports VG datavg and learns about possible changes. Use if the VG was not exported and used on another machine.

exportvg Exports the definition of a VG from a set of PVs. exportvg datavg : removes VG datavg from the system. redefinevg Redefines the set of PVs of the given VG in the device configuration database. extendvg Adds PVs to a VG. extendvg datavg hdisk2 : adds PV hdisk2 to VG datavg. reducevg Removes PVs from a VG. When all PVs are removed from the VG, the VG is deleted. reducevg datavg hdisk3 : removes PV hdisk3 from VG datavg. reducevg datavg 000005265ac63976 : removes PV using it's PVID 000005265ac63976 from VG datavg (use when a disk was removed without first running reducevg). reorgvg Reorganizes the PP allocation for a VG. Using the reorgvg command with the VG name and no other arguments reorganizes only the first LV in the VG. reorgvg datavg lvdata1 lvdata3 : reorganizes LVs lvdata1 and lvdata3 on VG datavg. recreatevg Recreates a VG (with unique IDs, names, and mount points) on a set of disks that are mirrored from another set of disks. Imports and varies on the VG. Procedure after the real duplication of the PV (like mirroring): chdev -l hdisk5 -a pv=clear : to avoid potential collisions of LVM component names (PVID, VGname, ...) of hdisk5. recreatevg -y newvg -L /newfs -Y newlv hdisk5 : newvg is the newly assigned VG name, /newfs and newlv are used for prefixes of the newly assigned file systems and LVs, and hdisk5 is the duplicated target PV name. splitvg Splits a single mirror copy of a fully mirrored VG. splitvg -y snapvg -c 2 datavg : splits second mirror copy of the VG datavg and creates snapshot VG snapvg. joinvg joinvg datavg : joins the the original VG datavg with the snapshot VG snapvg. varyoffvg Deactivates a VG.

varyoffvg uservg : deactivates the VG uservg. varyonvg Activates a VG. varyonvg -f datavg : used to force a varyon on VG datavg even when inconsistencies are detected (between the configuration data for each VG held in the ODM database and VGDA. varyonvg -r uservg : varies on VG uservg in read-only mode. System Paging Space Management lsps Lists paging space and attributes. Configuration file: /etc/swapspaces (contains a list of swap devices). lsps : chps Changes attributes of a paging space. chps -a {y|n} paging00 : specifies that the paging space paging00 is active (y) or inactive (n) at subsequent system restarts. chps -s 10 paging02 : adds ten LPs to paging02 without rebooting. chps -d 5 paging01 : removes five LPs from paging01 without rebooting. chps -d 50 hd6 : removes fifty LPs from hd6 without rebooting. mkps Adds an additional paging space to the system. mkps -a -n -s20 datavg : creates a permanent paging space pagingxx in VG datavg of 20 LPs and activates it immediately. rmps Removes a paging space from the system (exept hd6). rmps paging00 : removes deactivated paging space paging00. swapoff Deactivates one or more paging space. swapoff paging01 : deactivates paging space paging01. swapon Activates a paging space. swapon paging01 : activate paging space paging01. swapon -a : activates all paging spaces defined in /etc/swapspaces. swap Displays paging characteristics and enables the allocation and deallocation of paging devices. swap -l : displays device, major and minor numbers, and total and free space.

swap -a /dev/paging01 : activates paging space paging01 (like swapon). swap -d /dev/paging01 : deactivates paging space paging01 (like swapoff). migratepv migratepv -l hd6 hdisk0 hdisk2 : moves hd6 from hdisk0 to PV hdisk2 within the same VG (always use VG rootvg for hd6 performance). Communications Management rc.tcpip Script that initializes selected TCP/IP daemons using SRC at each system restart: inetd, lpd, portmap, sendmail, syslogd (started by default) and gated or routed, named, timed, xntpd, rwhod, snmpd, dhcpcd, mrouted, autoconf6 (not started by default unless they are uncommented). stopsrc -g tcpip : stops all running TCP/IP daemons. stopsrc -s named : stops the named daemon. /etc/rc.tcpip : starts all selected TCP/IP daemons. Don't use startsrc -g tcpip (would start all subsystems in the tcpip group). startsrc -s named : starts the named daemon. refresh -s inetd : refresh the inetd subsystem (re-reads /etc/inetd.conf). /etc/tcp.clean sh /etc/tcp.clean : stops all running TCP/IP daemons (not portmap and nfsd) and removes all /etc/locks/lpd TCP/IP lock files. inetd daemon Provides Internet service management for a network. Starts by default using the /etc/inetd.conf configuration file. Daemons controlled by the inetd daemon: ftpd, rlogind, rexecd, rshd, talkd, telnetd, and uucpd (started by default) and tftpd, fingerd, and comsat (not started by default unless they are uncommented). resfresh -s inetd : informs the inetd daemon of the changes to its configuration file. The ports inetd listens on are in /etc/services (unless they are commented). lsdev Displays devices in the system and their characteristics. lsdev -Cc if : lists IP interfaces. lscfg Displays configuration, diagnostic, and VPD. lscfg -l ent0 -v : displays the VPD for ent0. lsattr Displays attribute characteristics and possible attribute values for devices. lsattr -HEl en0 : displays effective values for interface en0. netstat Shows network status. netstat -in : shows status of IP interfaces with numeric addresses. netstat -rn : shows status of TCP/IP routes with numeric addresses. netstat -C : shows routing table, user-configured and current costs of each route. netstat -v : shows device driver statistics.

arp Displays and modifies address resolution. arp -a : displays local ARP cache (ip to mac address table). no Manages network tuning parameters. Changes are valid until the next reboot. no -a : displays kernel variable values. no -o ipforwarding : displays if ipforwarding is on (=1) or off (=0). no -o ipforwarding=1 : specifies the kernel should forward packets (acting as an IP router). ifconfig Configures or displays network interface parameters for TCP/IP. ifconfig -a : displays information about all interfaces in the system. ifconfig en0 : displays network interface parameters for en0. ifconfig en0 inet netmask up : assigns IP-address with network mask to interface en0 of address family inet and turns on the network card. ifconfig en0 down : turns off network card en0. route Makes manual entries into the network routing tables until next reboot. route -rn : displays route table. route add -inet -net : adds a network route to the routing table for destination host through gateway lsattr Displays attribute characteristics and possible values of attributes for devices. lsattr -El en0 : lists the current attribute values for en0. nslookup Queries Internet domain name servers. nslookup : enters interactive mode. nslookup nserver1 : returns the domain name and Internet address of nserver1. traceroute Displays the route that IP packets take to a network host. traceroute server2 : displays all the hops from local host to server2. iptrace daemon Provides interface-level packet tracing for Internet protocols. ipreport

Generates a trace report from the specified trace file created by the iptrace command. ping Sends an echo request to a network host. ping -c 6 server1 : checks the network connection to host server1 by sending 6 echo requests. ping -f server2 : invokes the flood-ping option to host server2. ping -R : displays the full round trip route of a packet. spray Sends a one-way stream of packets to a host and reports performance statistics using the RPC (default) or ICMP protocol (two-way stream). spray server1 -c 1000 -d 4 : sends 1000 packets at intervals of 4 microseconds to server1. host Resolves a host name into an Internet address or an Internet address into a host name. System files: /etc/hosts (local hosts table). host server1 : displays the Internet address and name aliases of host server1. host : displays the host whose address is hostid Sets or displays the identifier of the current local host. hostname Sets or displays the name of the current host system. hostname tulip : changes the hostname to tulip until the next reboot. chdev -l inet0 -a hostname=server1 : changes the hostname permanently to server1. mktcpip Sets the required values for starting TCP/IP on a host. rwho Displays which users are logged in to hosts (that run rwhod) on the local network. rwho -a : lists all users currently logged in to hosts on the local network. ruptime Displays the status of each host (that runs rwhod) that is on the local network. ruptime -al : lists a status report of each host on the local network sorted by load average. lsnamsv Shows name service information stored in the database /etc/resolv.conf (name resolver). chnamsv Changes TCP/IP-based name service configuration on a host.

mknamsv Configures TCP/IP-based name service on a host for a client. rmnamsv Unconfigures TCP/IP-based name service on a host. User/Group Management dispuid Displays all valid user IDs on the system. logins Displays user and system login information. logins -p : lists all the logins with no passwords. lsuser Displays attributes of user accounts. lsuser ALL : displays all the attributes of all the users. mkuser Creates a new user account. System files: /etc/passwd (contains basic user attributes) and /etc/group (contains basic group attributes). The default attributes are in the /usr/lib/security/mkuser.default file. mkuser erik : creates the erik user account. passwd Changes a user's password. System files: /etc/security/passwd (contains password information). passwd hans : changes the password of user hans. pwdadm Administers users' passwords (by root or a member of the security group). chsec Changes the attributes in the security stanza files. chsec -f /etc/security/login.cfg -s default -a pwdprompt="Password:" : changes the system-wide password (echo's user name) prompt to Password (doesn't echo user name. chsec -f /etc/security/login.cfg -s default -a usernameecho=false : hides the user name from login and system messages. mkuser.sys Customizes a new user account.

chuser Changes attributes for the specified user. rmuser Removes a user account. rmuser -p erik : removes user erik. rm -r /home/erik : removes erik's home directory. dispgid Displays all valid groups on the system. lsgroup Displays the attributes of groups. lsgroup ALL : lists all groups. chgroup Changes attributes for groups (don't use in combination with NIS). chgrpmem Changes the administrators or members of a group. mkgroup Creates a new group. rmgroup Removes a group. usrck Verifies the correctness of a user definition. grpck Verifies the correctness of a group definition. pwdck Verifies the correctness of local authentication information. last Displays information about previous logins using the /var/adm/wtmp file.

last root : display all logins and logoffs by user root. last -t 31081125 : displays all users still logged in at 11.25 am on August 31th. who Identifies the users currently logged in. who /var/adm/wtmp : displays a history of logins and logouts, system startups and shutdowns. wall Writes a message to all users or users of a specific group that are logged in. wall -g staff : broadcasts to group staff. repquota Summarizes quotas for a file system. repquota -u /home : prints a summary of user quotas in the /home file system. repquota -a : prints quotas for all file systems enabled with quotas in the /etc/filesystems file edquota Edits user and group quotas. quota Displays disk usage and quotas. quota : displays the quotas of the current user. quota -u erik : displays quotas as the root user for user erik. quotacheck Checks file system quota consistency. quotacheck /home : checks the user and group quotas in the /home file system. quotaon or quotaoff Turns on and off file system quotas. quotaon -u /home : turns on user quotas for the /home file system. quotaoff -v -a : turns off user and group quotas for all file systems (-a) in the /etc/filesystems file. Print Management The AIX print subsystem (default), a combination of the System V and Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) printing standard, and the System V R4 print subsystem are available. Both print subsystems cannot be set to the active state at the same time using the normal procedures. System file /etc/qconfig (stanzas that describe the printqueues and devices). Spooling uses the /var/spool/qdaemon directory. Daemon: qdaemon. switch.prt Displays the current active print subsystem, or switch between the active and inactive print subsystem. Read also AIX System V Printing. switch.prt -d : displays the current print subsystem that is active.

AIX print subsystem qprt Starts a print job. lpr Enqueues print jobs. lp Sends requests to a line printer. enq Enqueues a file. chprtsv Changes a print service configuration on a client or server machine. lsque Displays the queue stanza name. lsque -q ps : displays the name of queue stanza ps. mkque Adds a printer queue to the system. mkquedev Adds a printer queue device to the system. rmque Removes a printer queue from the system. rmquedev Removes a printer or plotter queue device from the system. chque Changes the queue name. chvirprt Changes the attribute values of a virtual printer. lsallq

Lists the names of all configured queues. lsallqdev Lists all configured printer and plotter queue device names within a specified queue. lsprtsv Shows print service information stored in the database. lsquedev Displays the device stanza name. chquedev Changes the printer or plotter queue device names. mkvirprt Makes a virtual printer. rmvirprt Removes a virtual printer. mkprtsv Configures TCP/IP-based print service on a host. rmprtsv Unconfigures a print service on a client or server machine. System V R4 print subsystem lp Sends print requests. cancel Cancels print requests previously sent with the lp command. lpstat Displays the status of all print requests made by the user. accept Allows the queuing of print requests. reject

Prevents queuing of print requests. enable Activates the named printers, enabling them to print requests. disable Deactivates the named printers, disabling them to print requests. lpadmin Configures the lp print service by defining printers and devices. lpfilter Administers filters used. lpforms Administers the use of preprinted forms. lpmove Moves print requests between destinations. lpsched Starts the print service. lpshut Stuts down the print service. lpsystem Registers remote systems with the print service. lpusers Set printing queue priorities. Software Management A fileset is the smallest installable base unit for the AIX operating system (example: bos.perf.pefstat). A package is a group of separately installable filesets that provide a set of related functions (example: bos.perf). A Licensed Program Product (LPP) is a complete software product including all packages associated with that licensed program (example: bos). A bundle is a list of software that can contain filesets, packages, and LPPs that are suited for a particular use (examples: CDE, KDE, GNOME). Each fileset in a product can be divided into three parts: usr, root, and share. Parceling of

a software product is used for diskless and dataless clients. Thus it can be installed on one machine (the server) and then be used remotely by other machines on a network (the clients). The usr part of a software product can be shared by machines with the same hardware architecture (stored in /usr). The root part (optional) of a software product cannot be shared by machines. In a client/server environment, these are the files for which there must be a unique copy for each client of a server. Most of the root software is associated with the configuration of the machine or product (stored in the root (/) file tree. The /etc/objrepos directory contains the root part of an installable software product's VPD). The share part (optional) can be shared among machines, even if they have different hardware architectures.The share part of a product is always packaged in a separately installable package (stored in /usr/share). The format for a software product level in AIX 5.2 is as follows: versionnumber.releasenumber.modificationlevel.fixlevel configassist Displays the Configuration Assistant wizard (graphics display). install_assist Starts the Installation Assistant application (ASCII display). geninstall A generic software product installer for installp, InstallShield Multi-Platform (ISMP), the Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) installer and Uniform Device Interface (UDI). geninstall Ld /dev/cd0 : lists the contents of the CD media. geninstall -d /tmp/RPM * : installs all RPM packages in the /tmp/RPM directory. geninstall -d /dev/cd0 R:cdrecord : installs the cdrecord RPM package. install_wizard Invokes the Web-based System Manager Install Wizard or the SMIT install menu. install_wizard -d /dev/cd0 : invokes the Web-based System Manager Install Wizard using an install CD in /dev/cd0. gencopy Allows software products of various packaging formats (installp, RPM, ISMP, UDI) to be copied. Wraps to the bffcreate command. gencopy Ld /dev/cd0 : lists the contents of the CD media. gencopy d /dev/cd0 I:bos.perf R:cdrecord : copies bos.perf and cdrecord images from CD media to the default directory (/usr/sys/inst.images). installp Install, update, and perform maintenance tasks on software. installp -aXYd /dev/cd0 bos.perf : installs (automatically committed) all filesets within bos.perf from /dev/cd0, expands file systems if necessary (-X), and accepts software

licenses (-Y). installp -pad /dev/cd0 X11.Dt : previews installation of X11.Dt from /dev/cd0. installp -u -V2 X11.Dt : removes fileset X11.Dt with a verbose display of successes, warnings and failures. installp -ld /dev/cd0 : lists all software products and their separately installable options on /dev/cd0. installp -cgX all : commits all applied updates and removes the filesets for the previous version. installp -C : cleans up after a failed installation. mkinstallp Creates software packages in installp format. rpm Installs, upgrades, queries, and deletes Linux RPM packages and maintains the RPM package database (located in /var/opt/freeware/lib/rpm). rpm -qa : queries installed RPM packages. rpm -Uvh * : installs the RPM packages in the current directory. lslpp Displays information about installed filesets/fileset updates. lslpp -l : displays the maintenance level and state. lslpp -L all : lists all installed software. lslpp -L bos.dosutils : check if software installed. lslpp -f bos.perf : displays the names of all the files of fileset bos.perf. lslpp -ha : lists installation history of filesets. lslpp -w /usr/sbin/nfsd : lists the fileset that the file belongs to. lslpp -E bos.rte : displays the license agreements of the installed filesets. lslpp -v :shows only the filesets that do not have the required prerequisites or are not completely installed. inulag Manages license agreements (front end). inulag -l : lists all available software license agreements. epkg Creates emergency fix (efix) packages that can be installed by the efix manager, emgr. epkg perf : runs the epkg command in interactive mode and creates efix package perf. emgr Starts the emergency fix (efix) manager, which installs, removes, lists, and checks system efixes. The efix manager installs packages created with the epkg command and maintains a database containing efix information. Databases are in the /usr/emgrdata/DBS directory. emgr -l : lists all efixes on the system. emgr -X -e perf.040503.epkg.Z : installs efix package perf.040603.epkg.Z and automatically expand file systems if needed. lppmgr

Manages an existing installp image source. lppmgr -d /images -u : lists all duplicate and conflicting updates in image source directory /images. lppmgr -d /images -u -r : removes all duplicate and conflicting updates in image source directory /images. lppchk Verifies that files of an installable software product (fileset) match the SWVPD database information for file sizes, checksum values, or symbolic links. lppchk -v : verifies that all filesets have all required requisites and are completely installed. lppchk -c X11.Dt : checks that file checksums and sizes of X11.Dt are consistent with SWVPD. lppchk -l 'bos*' : verifies the symbolic links of all 'bos*' software products. compare_report Compares fileset levels to those available and generates a report of filesets needed. compare_report -s -r /tmp/LatestFixData52 -l : compares the software installed on a system (-s) to the report of available updates (-r) LatestFixData52, available from the support Web site at IBM. oslevel Reports the latest installed maintenance level of the system. oslevel -r : determines the highest recommended maintenance level reached for the current version of AIX. oslevel -lr 5100-04: lists which fileset updates are missing if after installing ML 04 on 5100-03 the command oslevel -r still shows 5100-03 (so, preferrably no output!). instfix Installs filesets associated with keywords or fixes. instfix -i | grep ML : displays all ML's installed. instfix -ik "IY39231 IY38794" : checks if fixes IY39231 and IY38794 are installed. instfix -k IY42424 -d /dev/fd0 : installs fix IY42424 from diskette. install_all_ updates Updates installed system software to the latest level that is on the media and verifies the current recommended maintenance level. install_all_updates -d /dev/cd0 : installs all installp updates on /dev/cd0 and verifies the current recommended maintenance level. install_all_updates -d /images -rc : commit installs all installp updates and installs any installable rpm updates in directory /images. whence Displays the absolute path name. whence nfsd : displays the full path of the nfsd program. what

Displays identifying information in files. which_fileset Displays which fileset owns a command. The bos.content_list fileset must be installed. which_fileset topas : displays which fileset owns the topas command. inutoc Creates a .toc file. inutoc : creates the .toc file for the /usr/sys/inst.images directory. Backup and Restore Management lsmksysb Lists or restores the contents of a system backup. lsmksysb : lists the contents of a system backup located on default device /dev/rmt0. lsmksysb -f /dev/cd0 -s : lists the contents of a non-rootvg VG backup (-s). lsmksysb -B : displays the volume group backup log. lsmksysb -f /dev/cd0 : lists the contents of the system backup located on device /dev/cd0. lsmksysb -f /dev/cd0 -r ./etc/inittab : restores /etc/inittab from the system backup on device /dev/cd0. lsmksysb -r -d /tmp/etc ./etc : restores all files in the /etc directory of the rootvg backup on /dev/rmt0 and write the restored files to /tmp/etc. mksysb Creates a bootable system backup of the rootvg volume group. Uses / (contains information on VGs, LVs, file systems, paging space, and PVs for an mksysb backup) and / (specifies requirements at the target system for an mksysb backup (INSTALL_METHODPROMPT, CONSOLE, DESKTOP, RECOVER_DEVICES, HDISKNAME, etc.). mksysb -i -e /dev/rmt0 2>/tmp/mksysb.err : creates a system backup (-i generates the / file) while excluding from the mksysb backup the user specified files and directories in /etc/exclude.rootvg. Procedure to restore /etc/inittab: Find out the blocksize of the fourth image if not default: cd /tmp tctl -f /dev/rmt0 rewind chdev -l rmt0 -a block_size=512 restore -s2 -xqdvf /dev/rmt0.1 ./tapeblksz cat ./tapeblksz chdev -l rmt0 -a block_size=[number in the ./tapeblksz file] Restore /etc/inittab: cd / tctl -f /dev/rmt0 rewind restore -s4 -xqdvf /dev/rmt0.1 ./etc/inittab mkszfile

Saves the system state for reinstallation on the current system or on another system in the / file. mkszfile : creates or overwrites / mkcd Creates a multi-volume CD (or CDs) or DVD from a mksysb or savevg backup image. Supported are: bootable and non-bootable CDs in Rock Ridge (ISO9660) or UDF (Universal Disk Format) format. Only CHRP platform supports booting from DVD. mkcd -d /dev/cd0 : creates a bootable system backup on CD-R /dev/cd0. mkcd -U -d /dev/cd1 -V rootvg : creates a mksysb image (UDF format) on DVD-RAM. savevg Finds and backs up all files belonging to a specified volume group. savevg -i uservg : backs up VG uservg to the default tape drive (dev/rmt0) and creates a new /tmp/vgdata/uservg/ file (-i). mkvgdata Creates a /tmp/vgdata/vgname/ file containing information about a volume group for use by savevg and restvg. mkvgdata uservg : creates a new /tmp/vgdata/uservg/ file. restvg Restores the user volume group and all its containers a nd files. restvg -l -f /dev/rmt0 : displays VG information about the VG backed up on the tape in /dev/rmt0. restvg -s -f /dev/rmt0 hdisk1: restores the VG image from /dev/rmt0 onto PV hdisk1 with the LVs created at the minimum size possible to accommodate the file systems (-s: shrink file systems). listvgbackup Lists or restores the contents of a volume group backup. listvgbackup -r and restorevgfiles are interchangeable (perform identical operations). listvgbackup -f /dev/cd0 : lists the contents of the system backup on device /dev/cd0. listvgbackup -r -s ./data/mydata : restores the /data/mydata file from a non-rootvg backup on device /dev/rmt0. restorevgfiles Restores files from a backup source. restorevgfiles -f /dev/cd0 -s -d /tmp ./data/mydata : restores the /data/mydata file from a non-rootvg backup on /dev/cd0 to the /tmp directory. backup

Backs up files and file systems including extended permissions (ACLs). find . -print | backup -i -q -f /dev/rmt0 : backs up all the files and subdirectories in the current directory to /dev/rmt0 using relative path names, without prompting to prepare the backup medium (-q). backup -0 -u -f /dev/rmt0 /home : backs up all the files (level 0) in the /home file system to /dev/rmt0 and updates /etc/dumpdates (-u). restore Extracts files from archives created with the backup command. restore -Pa -vf /dev/rmt0 : restores only the permissions of the files on the tape archive. restore -s4 -Tdvqf /dev/rmt0.1 : lists contents of a mksysb tape. restore -s4 -xdvqf /dev/rmt0.1 ./etc/inittab : restores the inittab file from tape. pax Extracts, writes, and lists members of archive files; copies files and directory hierarchies. tar Manipulates archives. Use /opt/freeware/bin/tar for the Linux tar. tar -cvf /dev/rmt0 * : backs up the current directory to /dev/rmt0. tar -xvf /dev/rmt0 /etc/passwd : extracts the file /etc/passwd form tape. tcopy Copies a magnetic tape. tcopy /dev/rmt0 /dev/rmt1 : duplicates tape from tape device /dev/rmt0 to /dev/rmt1. tcopy /dev/rmt0 : shows the block size in bytes for each tape file. cpio Copies files into and out of archive storage and directories. find /home -print | cpio -ocvB > /dev/rmt0 : backs up /home to /dev/rmt0 using absolute path names. cpio -idmv cpio -i "ma*" "myfile" dd Converts and copies a file. dd if=/dev/rmt0 bs=128k count=1 | wc -c : reads a single block from /dev/rmt0 and finds out used block size. chdev -l rmt0 -a block_size=512 : changes the block size of /dev/rmt0 to 512 bytes. dd if=/dev/fd0 of=/tmp/fdcopy : copies the contents of the diskette into /tmp/fdcopy. tctl Gives subcommands to a streaming tape device. Default device is /dev/rmt0. tctl fsf 3 : moves forward three file marks. tctl -f /dev/rmt1 rewind : rewinds the rmt1 tape device. tctl rewoffl : rewinds the tape and takes the tape drive offline.

ODM Management ODM information is stored in the directories /etc/objrepos (default ODM directory, $ODMDIR env variable), /usr/lib/objrepos and /usr/share/lib/objrepos. odmadd Adds objects to created object classes. odmchange Changes the contents of a selected object in the specified object class. odmcreate Produces the .c (source) and .h (include) files necessary for ODM application development and creates empty object classes. odmdelete Deletes selected objects from a specified object class. odmdrop Removes an object class. odmget Retrieves objects from the specified object classes and places them into an odmadd input file. odmshow Displays an object class definition. odmshow CuDv : displays the object class definition for the Customized Device Database. System Resource Controller (SRC) lssrc Gets the status of a subsystem, a group of subsystems, or a subserver. lssrc -a : displays the status of all subsystems. lssrc -g tcpip : display the status of the tcpip subsystem group. startsrc Starts a subsystem, a group of subsystems, or a subserver. stopsrc Stops a subsystem, a group of subsystems, or a subserver.

refresh Requests a refresh of a subsystem or group of subsystems. refresh -g tcpip : refresh the group tcpip. refresh -s inetd : refresh the inetd subsystem (re-reads /etc/inetd.conf). chssys Changes a subsystem definition in the subsystem object class. mkssys Adds a subsystem definition to the subsystem object class. rmssys Removes a subsystem definition from the subsystem object class. mkserver Adds a subserver definition to the subserver object class. rmserver Removes a subserver definition from the subserver object class. Process Management utmpd The utmpd daemon monitors /etc/utmp for validity of the user process entries every 300 seconds (default). Default there is no entry in /etc/inittab for utmpd. utmpd 500 : runs utmpd every 500 seconds. whodo Reports the list of processes and their child processes belonging to users. who -l : summarises the current activity on the system. procwdx Prints the current working directory of a process. procwdx 21318 : displays the current working directory of process 21318. truss Traces system calls executed by a process as, records the received signals and the occurrence of machine faults. The output of truss can become very large. truss -e -o truss.out whoo : runs the who command under truss including the environment content (-e) and redirects the output to truss.out.

Scheduling crontab Submits, edits, lists, or removes cron jobs for the cron daemon. The cron daemon logs its activities in /var/adm/cron/log. Each crontab file entry contains six fields: minute hour day_of_month month weekday command crontab -l : lists the user's crontab file. crontab -e : edit the crontab file using an intermediate copy. at Runs commands at a later time. at -l : reports the current user's scheduled jobs. batch Runs jobs when the system load level permits. skulker Cleans up file systems by removing unwanted files. Remove the comment from the skulker entry of the root crontab to enable operation. Performance Management The base priority of a thread is 40. The nice value defaults to 20 for foreground processes and 24 for background processes. The CPUs on a system are shared among all of the threads by giving each thread a time slice of one clock tick (10 ms). Install the (base tools), bos.sysmgt.trace, bos.perf.perfstat and filesets. Commands no longer supported: bf (bigfoot), bfrpt, lockstat, stem, and syscalls. topas Reports selected local system statistics. schedo Manages CPU scheduler tunable parameters. schedo -o 15 : changes the time slice of one clock tick to 15 ms. bindprocessor Binds or unbinds the kernel threads of a process to a processor. bindprocessor 22358 2 : binds the threads in process 22358 to processor 2. perfpmr

A set of tools and instructions for collecting the data needed to analyze a AIX performance problem. fdpr A performance tuning utility for improving execution time and real memory utilization of user-level application programs. iostat Reports CPU statistics and input/output statistics for the entire system, adapters, tty devices, disks and CD-ROMs. iostat -s 2 4 : displays four reports at two second intervals starting with the sum of all activities (-s). iostat -a : generates an adapter throughput report for all of the disk adapters. lsattr -E -l sys0 -a iostat : displays the current iostat settings. chdev -l sys0 -a iostat=false : disable the collection of iostat data. lvmstat Reports input/output statistics for LPs, LVs and VGs for hot-spot management. lvmstat -v rootvg -e : enables statistics collection for all the LVs in VG rootvg. lvmstat -v rootvg : reports statistics for all the LVs in VG rootvg. lvmstat -v rootvg -C : clears the counter for VG rootvg. lvmstat -l hd6 : reports statistics for LV hd6 (paging). See migratelp to move LPs from one PP to another on a different PV. DOS files Management Install the bos.dosutils fileset for the DOS-commands or install mtools (AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications). dosdir Lists the directory for DOS files (default device is /dev/fd0). dosread Copies DOS files to AIX files. dosread -a yourfile.txt yourfile : copies a text file from a DOS diskette and replaces each carriage return, line-feed sequence with a new-line character and interprets a Ctrl-Z as the end-of-line character. dosdir | awk '!/There are/ {print $1}'|xargs -t -i dosread {} {} : copies every DOS file from a DOS diskette. doswrite Copies AIX files to DOS files. doswrite -a myfile myfile.txt : copies file myfile to a DOS diskette and replaces new-line characters with carriage return, line-feed sequences (-a). Ctrl-Z is added at the end of file. for i in *;do;doswrite $i $i;done : copies every file in the current directory to a DOS

diskette. dosdel Deletes DOS files. dosformat Formats a DOS diskette. Mtools is a public domain collection of tools to allow Unix systems to manipulate MSDOS files Documentation: Mtools (HTML) or Mtools (PDF). floppyd floppy daemon to run on your X server box floppyd_installtest small utility to check for the presence of floppyd mattrib change MS-DOS file attribute flags mbadblocks tests a floppy disk, and marks the bad blocks in the FAT mcat same as cat. Only usefull with floppyd. mcd change MS-DOS directory mcopy copy MS-DOS files to/from Unix mdel delete an MS-DOS file mdeltree recursively delete an MS-DOS directory mdir display an MS-DOS directory mdu list space occupied by directory and its contents mformat add an MS-DOS filesystem to a low-level formatted floppy disk minfo get information about an MS-DOS filesystem. mlabel make an MS-DOS volume label mkmanifest makes a list of short name equivalents mmd make an MS-DOS subdirectory mmount mount an MS-DOS disk mpartition create an MS-DOS as a partition mrd remove an MS-DOS subdirectory mmove move or rename an MS-DOS file or subdirectory mren rename an existing MS-DOS file mshowfat shows the FAT map of a file mtoolstest tests and displays the configuration mtype display contents of an MS-DOS file mzip zip disk specific commands CDE dtconfig /usr/dt/bin/dtconfig -d : disables desktop logins (-e enables desktop logins). dtlogin /usr/dt/bin/dtlogin -daemon : starts the desktop login manager manually. xinit Initializes the X Window System. xinit /etc/dt/Xsession : starts the CDE desktop from command line interface (customized version, if present). xinit /usr/dt/bin/Xsession : starts the CDE desktop from command line interface (default

version). Miscellaneus Abbreviations and Acronyms APAR Authorized Program Analysis Report CDE Common Desktop Environment CHRP Common Hardware Reference Platform CuDv Customized Devices object class (ODM) DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol ISA Instrumentation Systems and Automation Society ISMP InstallShield Multi-Platform JFS Journaled File System JFS2 Enhanced Journaled File System LFT Low Function Terminal LTG Logical Track Group LPP Licensed Program Product LV Logical Volume LVCB Logical Volume Control Block MCA Micro Channel Bus Architecture ML Maintenance Level MWC Mirror Write Consistency NIS Network Information Service NVRAM NonVolatile Random Access Memory ODM Object Data Manager Database PB PetaBytes (1 PB is equal to 1024 TB) PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association PdDv Predefined Devices object class (ODM) PV Physical Volume PVID Physical Volume IDentifier PP Physical Partition PTF Program Temporary Fix RPC Remote Procedure Call PReP POWERPC Reference Platform RPM Red Hat Package Manager SRC System Resource Controler SWVPD Software Vital Product Data TB TeraBytes (1 TB is equal to 1024 GB) UDI Uniform Device Interface VG Volume Group VGDA Volume Group Description Area VGSA Volume Group Status Area VPD Vital Product Data