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Chapter 8: Transport in Mammals

Syllabus Objectives:
(a) Identify the main blood vessels to and from the heart, lungs, liver and
kidney
(b) State the functions of blood
1• red blood cells - haemoglobin and oxygen transport
2• white blood cells - phagocytosis, antibody formation and tissue
2 rejection
1• platelets - fibrinogen to fibrin, causing clotting
2• plasma - transport of blood cells, ions, soluble food substances,
hormones, carbon dioxide, urea, vitamins, plasma proteins
(c) List the different ABO blood groups and all possible combinations for the
donor and recipient in blood transfusions
(d) Relate the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries to their functions
(e) Describe the transfer of materials between capillaries and tissue fluid
(f) Describe the structure and function of the heart in terms of muscular
contraction and the working of valves
(g) Outline the cardiac cycle in terms of what happens during systole and
diastole (Histology of the heart muscle, names of nerves and transmitter
substances are not required)
(h) Describe coronary heart disease in terms of the occlusion of coronary
arteries and list the possible causes, such as diet, stress and smoking,
stating the possible preventative measures

8.1 Transport in living organisms

• How do useful materials reach all body cells / waste from the cells are
removed rapidly? Either by

Simple Organisms - Simple Complex Organisms – Diffusion


Diffusion is NOT effective as cells are far
• Body cells are close to away from body surface
their surroundings. Need a transport system 
Circulatory system in
mammals, for example
8.1.1Features of a circulatory system
Made up of

A circulating fluid to A pumping device to A system of branched


carry materials drive fluid around body tubes/ vessels connected to
the heart through which
fluid can circulate and reach 1
all body cells
Blood Heart

8.2 Blood
• Definition: A fluid tissue
• Average human adult has about 5.5 litres of blood
• Composition of blood:
Blood
Made up of

Plasma Blood cells Platelets

• Pale yellow
liquid • Cell fragments
• 90% water • Formed in
• Carry dissolved White Blood Red Blood bone marrow
substances • Cells (WBC)
Colourless Cells (RBC)
• Biconcave, Function:
Function: • Contains a flattened discs • Protective
• Transport of nucleus • No nucleus • Clotting of
dissolved • Can move about • Contain blood
substances
and change its haemoglobin
shape • Life-span: 3-4
• Lives for only a months
few days • Formed in bone
marrow
Lymphocytes Phagocytes • Function:in
Destroyed
• Produced in • Produced in • Transport
spleen and liver of
lymph glands bone marrow Oxygen
and lymph
8.2.1
nodes Transport of oxygen (RBC)

Protective FunctionsAir sac in lung


• Haemoglobin + Oxygen Oxyhaemoglobin
(Purplish red) Body cells (Bright red)

8.2.2 Protective functions of blood (WBC+platelets+some


plasma proteins)
Protective functions

Phagocytosis Antibody production Clotting of blood

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Phagocytes engulf Lymphocytes produce Platelets + damaged cells
and digest foreign antibodies (proteins) Ca2+ + Vit. K + thrombin
particles (eg.
Bacteria that enter
blood) Fibrinogen  fibrin threads network
Antibodies Antibodies kill (Soluble in (Insoluble)
Bacteria cause bacteria bacteria plasma)
clumps to clump + trapped
undergo together RBC
(agglutination) Antitoxins
neutralize Forms blood
toxins clot
produced by
bacteria

8.2.3 Blood Groups

• Surfaces of RBC contains antigens, which are the same in all your
RBCs
• Natural antibodies do not react with the antigens on your RBC
o However, it could react with antigens from another person
o When this happens, the antibodies will cause the RBC to clump
together (agglutination) – See Sect 8.2.2 above.
o Clumping of RBC leads to the blockage or small blood vessels 
prevent smooth flow of blood  death
• Your blood group is based on the types of antigens and antibodies
present in your blood

Blood Group Antigen on RBC Antibody in plasma


A Antigen A Antibody b
B Antigen B Antibody a
AB Antigens A and B No antibodies
O No Antigen Antibodies a and b
Note: Whenever
• Antibody a reacts with antigen A  clumping occurs
• Antibody b reacts with antigen B  clumping occurs
• No antibody reacting with antigen, or vice versa  no clumping occurs

Recipient Antibody Donor’s blood group


blood in A (antigen A) B (antigen B) AB O (no
group recipient’s (antigens A antigens:
plasma & B) universal
donor)

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A b - + + -
B a + - + -
AB No - - - -
(universal antibodies
acceptor)
O a and b + + + -

Legend : +  agglutination (clumping happens) (not compatible)


-  no agglutination (no clumping) (compatible)

8.3 Blood Circulation in humans

• Mammals possess a double circulation


• In double circulation, blood passes through the heart twice before it
completes one circuit of the body

Low-pressure circulation

Legend
A: Atrium
V: Ventricle

Median septum

High-pressure circulation

Body parts other than lungs

8.3.1 Pulmonary circulation/circuit


• Carries deoxygenated blood (low oxygen conc) from heart
to lungs at low pressure (flows slowly)
 Gives blood time to be well oxygenated
• Blood then becomes oxygenated (high oxygen conc)

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• Oxygenated blood then returns to the heart (to Left
Atrium)

8.3.2 Systemic circulation/circuit


• Distributes oxygenated blood from heart to all parts of
the body except the lungs
• Then returns the deoxygenated blood from these parts to
the heart again
• Blood leaves heart at high pressure  so that it can reach
all the body tissues at a faster rate, bringing oxygen to
them rapidly

8.4 The Heart

Bicuspid valves Ensures


blood
Semi lunar valves
flows in
one
direction

Tricuspid valves

• A muscular organ
• Contracts and relaxes regularly throughout life
• Consists of 4 chambers
 2 atria (upper chambers) (LA & RA)
 2 ventricles (lower chambers) (LV and RV)
• Median septum separates LA & LV from RA & RV
 Prevents mixing of oxygenated blood on left side of heart with
deoxygenated blood on right side
 Ensures
• All oxygenated blood is sent to all parts of body
• All deoxygenated blood goes to the lungs
• Structure of atria and ventricles
Chamber Structure Adaptation

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Atria Walls are thin Only needs to force blood into ventricles
Ventricles Walls are thick Needs to push blood out of the heart
• Walls of LV is thicker than RV  enables it to pump blood more forcefully
at high pressure to the rest of the body
• Presence of valves to prevent backflow of blood  ensure that blood flows
in one direction only

8.4.1Mode of action of the heart

Blood fills atria


from veins Atria contracts
Atria relax

Tricuspid/Bicuspid valves
Semi lunar valves close  “dub” sound open

Ventricles relax Blood enters relaxed ventricle

Atria begin to relax


Ventricle contracts

Tricuspid/Bicuspid valves
close  “lub” sound

Blood pumped into arteries Semi lunar valves open

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Ventricle relaxing Ventricle contracting

• 1 heart-beat = 1 contraction (systole) + 1 relaxation (diastole) of atria &


ventricles
• As ventricles contract  arteries dilate
o Each dilation cause elastic walls of arteries to recoil  force blood
along as a series of waves/pulses
o This pulse rate is
 High after exertion
 Low during rest

8.5 Blood vessels


Blood vessels

Arteries Capillaries Veins

Carry blood away from Carry blood towards


heart Take nutrients, oxygen
and useful substances heart
to the cells and remove
waste produced in
cells

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8.5.1 Comparison between blood vessels

Blood vessel Artery Capillary Vein


Wall and Lumen Wall is thick, Wall is one-cell Wall is thin,
muscular and thick, lumen less muscular
elastic size of a RBC and elastic
Diagram of
cross-section

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Valves Absent Absent Semi-lunar
valves to
prevent
backflow of
blood
Blood flow 1. Blood moves 1. Blood flows 1. Blood flows
along by smoothly smoothly and
contraction of slowly
the muscles of 2. Pressure at
its walls. arteriole end > 2. Blood moves
pressure at along vein by
2. Blood flows venule end. contractions of
under great the body
pressure, fast, muscles on the
in spurts. vein

Nature of blood Oxygenated Oxygenated at Deoxygenated


(except for arteriole end, (except for
pulmonary deoxygenated pulmonary
artery) at venule end vein)
(except lungs!)

8.5.2 Coronary arteries

• 2 Coronary arteries supply the heart muscles with nutrients and


oxygen
• Coronary heart disease (CHD)

Fat deposits Blood clots Heart muscles do not get


(atherosclerosis) (thrombosis) enough nutrients/oxygen

Partially block the lumen Heart muscles start to


of coronary arteries degenerate

Obstruct blood flow to the Severe heart pain 


9 heart
heart muscles attack
• Causes of CHD: High fat diet, smoking, being overweight, lack
of exercise, stress

8.6 Transfer of materials between capillaries, tissue fluids and


body cells

• Body cells are bathed in tissue fluid


o Tissue fluid = dilute plasma without plasma proteins

Some enters tissue fluid

• Role of tissue fluid:


o To allow nutrients and oxygen to diffuse out of the blood
in capillaries into the fluid, and then eventually to body
cells
o Waste products formed by the cells diffuse out of the
tissue fluid, and from there diffuse into the blood in the
capillaries

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