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UNIT 5: LINEAR DC POWER SUPPLY 5.

1 WHY WE NEED LINEAR DC POWER SUPPLY IN ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT


Electronic equipment use active devices such as diode, transistor and

others. This active devices need dc voltage to operate. Batteries supply constant dc voltage, easy and easy to carry.Besides that, the batteries power getting weak after longer using. Electronic devices which use high current will make these batteries (hayat semakin pendek). Electronic devices need higher dc voltage, so we have to use more batteries and make using batteries not too economy. Electrical Power Supply which supply to public through output socket for building and public home are in ac voltage and the value is high(1= 240V, 3 = 415V). 5.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DC POWER SUPPLY The present chapter introduces the operationn of power supply circuits built using transformer, rectifier and filter. Besides that, extra part is voltage regulator and voltage divider. Figure 5.2.1 shows the block diagram of Dc Power supply.

TRANSFORMER AC VOLTAGE

RECTIFIER

FILTER

REGULATOR
DC VOLTAGE

VOLTAGE DIVIDER

Figure 5.2.1 : Block Diagram Of Dc Power Supply

As simplify, transformer will step down AC input voltage to suitable AC value .The output transformer will change to dc using rectifier circuit. Then the rectifier will change the AC input to pulsating dc voltage. Filter smooth out the pulsating dc voltage. Regulator is use to got a constant dc output voltage. Before distribute, regulator circuit will stabilize the output voltage. 5.3 TRANSFORMER(PENGUBAH)

Dc power supply block diagram have 5 steps .Every stage have their own function .The 1st block is the transformer .Normally used is the step down transformer. Beside of that, transformer was build from two winding called the primary and the output is taken from secondary. Transformer has the primary winding and secondary winding .Transformer ratio is known as turn ratio of the component.The turn ratio of a transformer is equal to the voltage ratio of the component given as following. Ns = V2 ,where N2 =number of turn in secondary. Np V1

Np : Ns
Vp Vs

Figure 5.3.1 : Transformer When the number of secondary turn is less than primary turn, secondary voltage is less than primary voltage, secondary voltage can be determine by: Vs = Ns x Vp Np

Np : Ns
Vs

Vp Vs Figure 5.3.2 : Center-tap transformer

Vs

Example 5.3 : A transformer has the turn ratio 4:1 which supply by 240V, 50 Hz .Determine the secondary voltage.

4:1
SOLUTION:
240V 50Hz

4:1
240V 50Hz

Vs = Ns Np

x Vp

= X 240 V = 60V 5.4 RECTIFIER Most of the devices in electronic systems need the dc power supply to operate. Source of the power supply that supplied to our home is the alternating current (AC voltage).To get the DC voltage, we use the rectifier circuit. Rectifier is the circuit that used one or more than one diode to convert the AC voltage to the pulsating voltage . There is 3 type of rectifier: i) ii)
iii)

Half wave rectifier Full wave rectifier Bridge rectifier

5.4.1 Half Wave Rectifier Half wave rectifier is made up of a diode and a resistor it has the ability to conduct current in one direction and block current in the other direction.
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Vm V m t D RL

Vk Vm t

Figure 5.4.1 : Half wave rectifier Operation When positive circle of input signal, diode D is in forward biased act as close switch. So the can flow through it. Voltage drop at the RL is same with magnitude to the circle of input signal(if we ignored the voltage drop at the diode). When negative circle of the input signal, diode is reverse bias .D act as the open switch, so the current cant flow through diode. When we connect the oscilloscope across the RL ,we can get the output wave as shown in figure 5.4.1. Output voltage The output voltage of half wave rectifier circuit produce only when positive circle. Because of current flow through diode and voltage drop at the diode is 0.7V (assume silicon diode) so the output voltage is Vk=Vm.0.7V The output signal frequency is similar to the input frequency. Example 5.4.1 A half wave rectifier have input voltage 20Vp-p, 50Hz.We assume there is voltage drop at the diode. Calculate the i) Output signal voltage rectifier ii)Output signal frequency

SOLUTION : i) Vm = 20Vp-p = 10Vp-p ii) So , Vk = 10Vp The output signal frequency = Input signal frequency = 50Hz

5.4.2 Full wave rectifier


M G C D2 N D1 Vm t

VM G A RL B Vk VNG

Figure 5.4.2 : Full Wave Rectifier Operation When ac voltage supply to the circuit, M and N at the secondary transformer will become +ve and ve(exchange).When the circle of input voltage in terminal become +ve ,G become a potential (ground) and N become ve .D1 diode will forward biased while D2 will reverse biased.Current will flow along M, D1, C, A, B, G.A +ve cycle wave will produce at the RL load.When the ve cycle ,input voltage supply ,M terminal become ve ,G will zero potential(grounded) and N become +ve.D2 diode will forward biased while D1 will reverse biased.Current will flow along N, D2, C, A, B, G.Current flow through RL during the +ve cycle is similar when ve cycle,we will got the similar shape of wave too. The direction of current flow through RL during +ve cycle = the direction of current flow through RL when ve cycle.When we connect the oscilloscope across RL,we will know the shape of the output voltage is similar as figure 5.4.2.
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Output Voltage The output voltage for full wave rectifier circuit are produced at the both cycle.For one cycle ,current flow through a diode and voltage drop at the diode . Vk =Vm-G - 0.7V Frequency The output signal frequency = 2 X input frequency Example 5.4.2 A full wave rectifier have 20Vp-p,50 Hz input voltage.The transformer that used turn ratio 2:1.Assume there is no voltage drop at the diode,calculate: i) Rectifier output signal voltage ii) Output signal frequency Solution Refer to figure 5.4.2
Vm = = = = = = VMG maka Vk = = = = 20 Vp-p 10 Vp

V MN Vm
VMN

N s N p
N s xV m N p

1 x10V p 2
5 Vp VMN 2.5 Vp VMG 2.5 Vp

Output signal frequency

= 2X input signal frequency = 100Hz

5.4.3 Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier


M E D1 C D3 N F B D4 D2 A RL Vm t Vk t

Figure 5.4.3 : Bridge Rectifier Operationn When AC voltage supply to the circuit,M and N at the secondary transformer will become +ve and ve as take turns.When the input cycle is +ve ,M terminal will be +ve and N become ve .D1 and D3 are forward biased meanwhile D2 and D4 become reverse biased .Current will flow along M, E, A, B, C, F N.A +ve circle wave will produce at the load RL. When the input is ve ,M terminal become ve and N become +ve .Diode D2 and D4 are forward biased where as D1 and D3 are reverse biased .Current will flow along , F, A, B, C, E, M. We will get the same wave for the +ve and ve cycle because of the current direction for both current direction flow through load ,RL.When we connected oscilloscope across RL ,we will got the same shape of output wave as shown in figure 5.4.3. Output Voltage The output voltage of full wave bridge rectifier circuit was produced at both cycle (+ve and ve).Current flow through 2 diode and voltage drop at the diode is about 1.4V(assume silicon diode),so the output voltage is VK = VM-N - 1.4V The output signal frequency is equal to 2 x input frequency.
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Exampe 5.4.3 A full wave rectifier circuit have the input voltage 20 Vp-p 50 Hz.The transformer have the ratio 2:1. Assume there is no voltage drop at the diode,calculate;i) Rectifier input signal voltage ii) Output signal Frequency

Solution : i) Refer figure 5.4.3


Vm V MN Vm VMN = = = = = = Vk = = = = 20 Vp-p 10 Vp
N s N p
N s xV m N p

1 x10V p 2

5 Vp VMN 5 Vp 2 x input signal frequency 100 Hz

Output signal frequency

ii) 5.5 FILTER

The output of rectifier circuit is the pulsating DC voltage .The resulting pulsating dc signal smooth the output voltage, we used filter circuit. Figure 5.5.1 shows the output wave before and after the filter circuit.

V t

V t DC pulsating voltage

V t DC Ripple Voltage

Rectifier Circuit

Filter Circuit

Figure 5.5.1: The output wave before and after filter The main function of filter is to convert pulsating DC voltage to the ripple DC voltage or as good as pure DC voltage(Figure 5.5.2) and free from pulse which is similar to the value obtain by battery. However, not all the filter can produce pure DC voltage .The output voltage from filter normally is not really stable. This voltage is the mixture of DC voltage with the AC voltage (ripple voltage) as shown in figure 5.5.3.
V V

Va.t. Va.t. t Figure 5.5.3:Ripple DC voltage

( Vr )p-p

t Figure 5.5.2 : Pure DC voltage

The best filter circuit is the filter that can decrease as much as the value of Vr p-p produce by ripple DC voltage .The other type of filter are i) Capacitor filter ii) RC filter iii) LC filter iv) - Type Filter

5.5.1 Capacitor Filter The capacitor filter is the most basic filter and commonly used .The filter is simply a capacitor connected in parallel with the load resistance (RL) as shown in Figure 5.5.
ID

Rectifier Circuit

C1

RL

Vk

Figure 5.5.4 : Capacitor Filter

The operation of the circuit is based on repeated charging and discharging of capacitor. Among function of capacitor is to store charge and to discharge .It can accept charge when there is potential voltage across it. Then it will store the charge as long as it can. The capacitor will discharge when there is complete cycle for current flow between both the ends of capacitor. Refer to the above circuit, ID is the current from rectifier circuit that produce voltage drop across RL . ID also will give charge to the capacitor C1 because it is connected parallel to the RL .The shape of voltage signal across RL is the pulsating DC voltage from half-wave rectifier and the shape of wave as shown in figure 5.5.5.The dashed line is the current direction when C1 V discharge. m
20 15 10 5 0 20 15 10 5 0 A 2 4 C 6 8 R 10 t V k 2 B 4 Q 6 8 10 t

Angkatap Masa RLC1 Figure 5.5.5 : Output wave of capacitor filter

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When 20 Vp drop across RL ,the early input for one half cycle ,C1 also can get 20Vp for charge as shown at the output wave from A to B.Then when VFL decrease to 0,C1 start to discharge.The time that C1 need to discharge more than constant time as shown in figure 5.5.5 from B to C about 4ms and there is not decrease the input voltage quickly. The input voltage to 0 is about 1ms.Before C1 finished discharge ,when reach the P point there is input pulsating voltage for second half cycle across RL which cause C1 get 20 Vp charge .(to Q point). 5.6 REGULATOR

The power supply means the output changes when the input supply or the load resistance also changes .The main purpose of voltage regulator is to decrease the changes to zero(0) or at least to the minima value. REGULATOR PERCENT % REGULATION % REGULATION= = Vmax-Vmin X 100 Vmax X 100

VNL - VFL VFL

Where , VNL = No Load Voltage VFL = Full Load Voltage There are three(3) voltage regulator circuit normally used :a. Zener diode voltage regulator b. Series transistor voltage regulator c. IC voltage regulator (series 78xx)

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5.6.1 Zener diode voltage regulator Zener diode will functions as voltage regulator when reversed biased.Zener diode has their own advantages, can be regulate their voltage when it is operate at the zener region. To operate, the input voltage must higher than zener voltage and the load resistance not effect the zener diode is zero.
R

Rectifier Circuit

Dz Filter

RL

Figure 5.6.1 :

Zener diode voltage regulator

5.6.2 Series Transistor Voltage Regulator Connect the transistor serial with load and it will control the input voltage value to output .Refer to figure 5.6.2 ,if the output voltage decreases ,the increases VBE will cause the transistor to produce more current value will make the output voltage increases and make the output voltage constant. Zener diode as a refer voltage .It is same process if the output voltage increases. Transistor will decrease the current value , cause the output voltage decrease and the output voltage become constant.
Q1 R Rectifier Circuit Filter Dz RL

Figure 5.6.2: Series Transistor Voltage Regulator

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5.6.3 IC Voltage Regulator The serial LM 78XX(where XX= 05,06,08,10,12,15,18 or 24).It is 3 terminal voltage regulator .IC LM 7805 will produce the output voltage +5V .LM 7806 will produce the 6V output voltage and so on. LM 7824 will produce +24V output voltage. Figure 5.6.3 shows IC Voltage Regulator.

1 LM7805 3 Litar Penerus Penapis C1

Vk

C2

. Figure 5.6.3 : IC Voltage Regulator.

5.7

VOLTAGE DIVIDER CIRCUIT

In electronic devices system,especially big or complicated .It is contains several circuit level,sometime use DC voltage which are different value.For example TV system have more than 10 circuit level ,different function and some of the need DC voltage,100V,48V,12V and so on.

R1
Voltage Regulator

80V 40V 20V R1


Voltage Regulator circuit

80V

R2 R3

VR
1

Circuit

0 - 40V

Figure 5.71 : Constant Voltage Divider Circuit

Figure 5.72 Variable Voltage Divider Circuit

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5.8

POWER SUPPLY COMPLETE CIRCUIT Figure 5.8 shows a power supply complete circuit.From left to right,we found the center tap transformer will decrease the AC supply voltage .Then full rectifier waveform change AC voltage to DC voltage. filter are used to straighten pulse at the voltage and it will stabilize by zener diode voltage divider.
M D1

G C D2 N

R RL

C1

C2

D z

Output Voltage

Transformer

Rectifier circuit

Filter Circuit

Voltage Regulator Circuit

Voltage divider circuit

Figure 5.8: Power Supply Complete Circuit

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