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Dawes Severalty Act (1887): provided for the gradual elimination of most tribal ownership of land and the

allotment of tracts to individual owners: 160 acres to the head of a family, 80 acres to a single adult or orphan, 40 acres to each dependent child. Adult owners were given United States citizenship, but unlike other citizens, they could not gain full title to their property for twenty-five years. The Dawes Severalty act was significant because it was one example of many instances in which white, Anglo-Saxon Americans attempted to stimulate the assimilation of different races into American society, particularly Indians in this case. Plessey v. Ferguson (1896): Separate but equal, Case involving a Lousiana law that required segregation seating on railroads, the Court held that separate accommodations did not deprive blacks of equal rights if the accommodations were equal. The case helped establish Jim Crow laws which mandated segregation in society between whites and blacks in a separate but equal manner. This is significant because it gave whites economic, educational, and social advantages over the black race. Homestead Strike of 1892: Carnegie and Henry Clay Frick decided that the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel, the most powerful trade union in the country, had to go so they repeatedly cut wages at the Homestead plant for two years. This led to a violent strike in 1892 that killed 10 strikers and 3 guards. The guards surrendered, but this led to the governor of Pennsylvania sending 8,000 troops to Homestead to protect the guards. This is significant because it led to increased labor violence in America due to the rise of industrialization. Workers demanded that they be given fair wages, a regular work day, and safe working conditions, and they were not going to accept being treated unfairly. Also significant because it shows the power of government intervention and how large corporations had support of local, state, and federal governments over the working class. The Saloon: Was a symbol of political/ moral wrongs that Progressives wanted to eradicate. Men would go to the saloons and drink, spend money, and not take care of their family by doing so. Political machines would go to saloons and try to influence views of immigrants and get their vote. This is significant because Progressives wanted to eliminate the saloons because it represented big business, corruption in politics, domestic violence, and bad morals. Pullman Strike of 1894: George Pullman created a town in which he housed his employees and in 189394, the Pullman Company reduced wages by 25% due to declining revenues of the depression. Workers went on strike and persuaded the American Railroad Union to support them by refusing to handle Pullman cars and equipment. Transportation was paralyzed from Chicago to Pacific Coast. Grover Cleveland sent 2,000 troops to Chicago and federal court issued an injunction forbidding the union to continue the strike. This is significant because it is an example of labor weakness in the 19 th century and how large corporations were able to use government intervention to dominate the working class. Meat Inspection Act (1906): In 1906, Upton Sinclairs novel The Jungle exposed the dangers and unsafe practices of the meat packing industry. Teddy Roosevelt pushed for the Meat Inspection Act which helped eliminate many diseases of impure meat. This is significant because it was one of many Progressive movements that sought to improve society through human effort and the cooperation of the federal government. American Federation of Labor: Started as the Federation of Organized Trade and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada in 1881, it was an association of independent craft unions that represented

skilled workers. Focused on wages, hours, and working conditions. They led many radical movements such as prolonged strikes that often led to violence, such as the Haymarket Bombing. To middle class Americans, the ideas and actions organized by the AFL represented anarchy and chaos, which acted as a political barrier for the AFL for many years. This is significant because it was the first real organized attempt at reform against the vast powers of industry and big business. Vertical Integration: A company takes over all different businesses on which it relies on for it primary function, for example Carnegie Steel, which came to control not only steel mills but mines, railroads, and other enterprises. Vertical integration was the gateway to start huge profits for big business entrepreneurs such as Carnegie. In owning all steps of the production processes of mass consumption items, it increased profit margins by sharply cutting costs incurred. These owners, because of huge profit were able to gain political power through trusts for these products which lead to social power and economic power that was unimaginable. These ideals of big business and centralized power and such bills as the Sherman Antitrust Act were enacted as a result of the trusts that big businesses created in the economy. Literacy tests and poll taxes: Instituted in the late 1800s- In order to vote, voters were required to take a literacy test which required them to demonstrate an ability to read and interpret the Constitution or they were given a poll tax or had to meet some form of property qualification. This was significant because it affected poor white voters and blacks with their ability to vote. By the late 1800s, the black vote decreased by 62% and the white vote decreased by 26%. Panama Canal: Linked the Atlantic and Pacific by creating a channel through Central America. Ford Model T: Henry Fords Model T was the first automobile mass produced on moving assembly lines, a concept introduced by Ford. Moving assembly lines were factories through which automobiles were assembled by workers who specialized on particular tasks. The concept of Fords moving assembly lines stressed the complete interchangeability of parts. The assembly line allowed Ford to raise wages and reduce hours while cutting the base price of the Model T from 950$ to 290$. This is significant because the moving assembly line was a breakthrough in industrial technology because it led to mass production while providing fair working conditions for employees. Sharecropping: System of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land. In the mid to late 1800s, many sharecroppers were blacks who became tenants of white landowners. Sharecropping was significant because it was a small start to the beginning of 18th amendment- established prohibition in the USA, a progressive ideal, law caused a rise in organized criminal activity, later got repealed by the 21st amendment. This law had many peoples backing at first, but people quickly realized that it was not the best move, so they start doing bootlegging. This is important because it shows how reform through progressivism resulted in politics. Also, this amendment aimed to hurt political bosses, big business (liquor stores) , immigrants in the city culture/urban areas and these were all things the progressives sought to end through prohibition. 19th Amendment- allowed women the right to vote (enfranchised women). Womens suffrage movement led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Ratified in 1920. This was another progressive backed movement. Significant because it was an act of reform socially that attempted to gain power

through political means, and sought for the ideal of equality for all. It made men less manly or powerful and made women more manly or powerful by putting them on the same playing field in political rights. This allowed for the image of the woman to expand and become more powerful rather than just being a counterpart to her male partner. Big business also greatly disliked the idea of women voting because they had already appealed to the man voting class and women were more concerned with social and moral issues such as safety in the workplace, which might hurt big business and their power. Steel- a new stronger, lighter, and cheaper metal that started being mass produced by big business (Carnegie) to be put to use for such things as cars and railroads, guns, And battleships, and skyscrapers (urbanization/city life) Steel become a powerful industrial trust. Significant because it was the start of another big business, which got many, benefits from politics, which greatly encourages big business. it lead to urbanization and city life. Settlement Houses- late 19th century attempt by mostly middle class women who were college-educated at social reform. The Hull house is the most famous one in Chicago. Part of progressive movement where women would help the poor in urban areas, which tended to have many of the social issues that progressives sought to end. Also, there was a large portion immigrant in the urban life and so this aimed to help the immigrants to be assimilated into American society and not depend on political bosses like they had done before which only led to political corruption. Their role in settlement houses was viewed as appropriate. Espionage Act- 1917, right when the US got involved in WWI, gave the govt. tools to combat spying, sabotage, and obstruction of the war effort. Sabotage and Sedition Acts added as part of the Espionage Act that helped to make illegal and pulic expression of opposition to the war. Targeted the socialist party and the IWW (both radicals). Sentenced Eugene Debs to 10 years in prison Wilsons Fourteen Points: Wilsons plan and war justification, there were 3 categories: 1- changing postwar boundaries, 2- international conduct in the future like free trade and no more secret treaties, and 3. A league of nations. Allied powers (france, Britiain) resisted it b/c they wanted to hurt the central powers (germany, Austria-hungarian empire), Congress wouldnt pass the league either, but Allies eventually adopted the league. Free Silver- a policy of the populists (especially poor south/west farmers) that attempted to rid of gold standard and add silver to add more money into US system, therefore causing inflation, which would make it easier for the poor farmers to pay off debts & avoid debt cycles. William Jennings Bryan cross of gold speech got him vote of democrats and populists, but he lost to McKinley. This issue and election of 1896 started the ending of the populist party. This is important because it was huge politically and marked the end of a political party (populist) and he was a strong supporter of Prohibition. William Jennings Bryan- democrat who ran for president 3 times (inventing the idea of campaigning). In 1896 he represented both the democratic and populist parties, but lost all three times. He was for free silver coinage and against the gold standard. He gave his famous cross of gold speech and was antiimperialistic, and was against bad trusts too, and was a promoter of Prohibition. This is important because he acted as the political force for many of the populist and progressive ideals of reform in the nation. He represented the lower class and fought against the centralization of wealth that was in the Northeast.

Prohibition (1920): A progressive idea that eliminated alcohol from American society by making the 18th amendment law. Some reasons progressives wanted to eliminate alcohol from society was because it was leading to violence, husbands were getting drunk at saloons and not taking care of their family, workers did not perform well at work, urban machines were using the saloon as a place to establish political power, and the liquor industry was becoming one of the nations most sinister trusts. This is significant because the Prohibition was an unsuccessful attempt by the Progressive party because eliminating alcohol led to bootlegging and organized crime. Spanish-American War (1898): Splendid Little War, Cubans and Spanish fighting a colonial war, Americans intervene due to Dupuy de Lome letter and the sinking of the Maine, countries arent fit to rule themselves, war ended in 1898 with the Treaty of Paris, result of the war gave the U.S. temporary control of Cuba and indefinite colonial authority over Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Phillipines. This was significant because American foreign policy was beginning to establish itself as a world power. Ocala Platform (1890): Cooperation over competition, wanted government sub treasuries (big business in Northeast), railroad regulation (unfair rates), bank regulation, This was significant because it established the Populist Party