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Process Engineering
I SE 560 - Week 7/ 8
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Agenda
Experience-based planning
Process capabilit ies
Machining Process
Basic machining calculat ions
Process opt imizat ion
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Experience-based Planning
Machinist handbook
Process capabilit y
I n-plant experience and expert ise
Research-based experiment s
I n-plant experiment s
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Surface-finish ranges. (Court esy of
General Mot ors Corporat ion [ t aken from GM Draft ing St andards] )
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Principles of Machining by Cut t ing,
Abrasion, and Erosion
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Process Capabilit y
Shapes t hat process can generat e
Size limit at ions
Tolerances
Surface finish
Cut t ing force
Power consumpt ion
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Shape Capabilit y
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Process boundary
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Process-boundary dat a
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Process Boundaries (Holes)
Smallest t ool size
Largest t ool size
Negat ive t olerance - funct ion of diamet er
Posit ive t olerance - funct ion of diamet er
St raight ness - funct ion of l/ D rat io
Parallelism - funct ion of l/ D rat io
Roundness
Dept h limit - funct ion of diamet er
True posit ion
Surface finish
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Hole-making Capabilit ies
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Basic Machining Calculat ions
Cut t ing Speed
Feed and Feed Rat e
Dept h of Cut
Mat erial Removal Rat e (MRR)
Machining Time
Tool Life
Machining Force and Power
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Cut t ing geomet ry
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Chip format ion
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Cant ilever beam
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Arit hmet ic-mean surface finish
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Face milling
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Machining Formulas (Paramet ers)
Cut t ing speed and
feed
select from
machining t ables
Rot at ional speed
Feed rat e
Dept h of cut
Turning
Milling
Dept h of cut , a
p
Widt h of cut , w
N n f V
f
=
12
N D
V

=
t
2
p s
p
D D
a

=
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Machining Formulas (Time)
Mat erial removal
rat e
Turning
Milling
Machining t ime
General formula
Turning
I nclude number of
passes
Milling
Comput e correct
lengt h
fV D D MRR
V
D
MRR
p s
f
) ( 6
4
2
=
=
t
fV
D
wn a
MRR
p
t
12
=
f
m
V
L L
t
A +
=
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Machining Formulas (Power)
Machining forces Cut t ing power
Specific cut t ing
energy
] [
33000
r horsepowwe
V F
P
c
c
=
|
o
p c
s c t
a Kf F
k bwh F
=
=
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Specific Cut t ing Energy for Various
Mat erials and Operat ions.
(Reprint ed from Fundament als of Met al Machining and Machine Tools, G. Boot hroyd, 1975,
by permission of Hemisphere Publishing Corporat ion, formerly Script a Book Company.)
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Cut t ing Equat ions
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Cut t er Wear and Tool Life
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Lat he Tool (Flank) Wear
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Tool Life Equat ions
Tool wear and breakdown
Flank wear and crat er wear
Tool-life equat ion
Basic
Ext ended
o
V
C
V
V t
t
t
t
V
V
n
n
r r
n
r
r
= = > |
.
|

\
|
=
/ 1
/ 1
T T T
p
a f V
C
t
| o

=
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Log-log plot of t ool life
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C and o in Tool-life Equat ion
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Process Opt imizat ion
I ncrease cut t ing speed t o reduce
machining t ime
More frequent t ool change due t o fast er
wear
Find opt imal cut t ing speed t o minimize
t ot al t ime or cost
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Single-pass Model (Time)
Machining t ime, t
m
Handling t ime, t
h
Tool change t ime, t
t
Processing t ime, t
pr
Tot al t ime
t
pr
= t
m
+ t
h
+ t
t
(t
m
/ t )
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Single-pass Model (Cost )
Machine cost , C
m
Tool cost , C
T
Set up cost , C
b
Operat or cost (included in machine cost )
Tot al Product ion Cost
C
pr
= C
b
/ N
b
+ C
m
[ t
m
+ t
h
+ (t
m
/ t ) (t
t
+ C
T
/ C
m
)]
Example
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Const raint Opt imizat ion
Mult ipass model
Realist ic const raint s
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Const rained Opt imizat ion -
Example 6.5
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Cont ours of unit cost and t he
feasible region