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QUESTION 1 a) Describe the following fixtures


Vise Fixtures

A vise or vice is a mechanical screw apparatus used for holding or clamping a work piece to allow work to be performed on it with tools such as saws, planes, drills, mills, screwdrivers, sandpaper, etc. Vises usually have one fixed jaw and another, parallel, jaw which is moved towards or away from the fixed jaw by the screw.

Three types of vise


Milling Fixtures

A milling fixture is usually located on the machine table and bolted in position. The work piece in turn is located and clamped in the fixtures. Unlike drill jigs, a milling fixture should be strong and rigid. Sufficiently, clearance is provided in the fixtures for disposal of large quantity of dwarf.


Progressive Milling

In progressive milling, two or more operation is performed simultaneously on identical pieces. Two different types of cutter are mounted on this system it is necessary to move a partially finished work piece to the next station in the fixture and insert the next in its place.


Boring Fixtures

Boring fixtures resemble drilling jigs and milling fixtures greatly, and some of them are often produced by combining the salient features of both. In a boring operation, the existing hole is enlarging with a boring tool. A boring operation is usually carried out by a single-point tool with to help of a boring bar. The size of the hole generated depends upon the adjustment of the tool inside the boring bar. Machines used for boring operation are lathes, milling machine, vertical machine and horizontal boring mills and specially designed boring machines


Broaching Fixtures

Broaching is a machining process that uses a toothed tool, called a broach, to remove material. There are two main types of broaching: linear and rotary. In linear broaching, which is the more common process, the broach is run linearly against a surface of the work piece to affect the cut. Linear broaches are used in a broaching machine, which is also sometimes shortened to broach. In rotary broaching, the broach is rotated and pressed into the work piece to cut an axis symmetric shape. A rotary broach is used in a lathe or screw machine. In both processes the cut is performed in one pass of the broach, which makes it very efficient. Broaching is used when precision machining is required, especially for odd shapes. Commonly machined surfaces include circular and non-circular holes, splines, keyways, and flat surfaces. Typical work pieces include small to medium sized castings, forgings, screw machine parts, and stampings.


Lathe Fixtures The standard work holding devices or fixtures for lathe are: Three and four jaw chucks Collets Face plate Mandrels Milling vice If the job can be held easily and quickly in the above mentioned standard devices, then there is no need for special work holding devices. However many jobs particuly casting and forging, because of their shapes, cannot be conveniently held by any of the standard devices. It then becomes necessary to build a special work holding device for the job. Such a device is called lathe fixture. A lathe fixture consists of a base, location and clamping devices. A lathe fixture can be fixed to the lathe either by holding in the chuck jaws or fixing to a face plate. A large majority of lathe operations can be accomplished by using standard chucks and holding methods. However, many parts such as casting and forging cannot readily be mounted by any of the standard methods. It is therefore necessary to manufacture special work-holding fixtures for machining these parts. The basic principles of fixture design apply to lathe fixtures. However, these are additional considerations that apply specially to lathe fixtures, since the fixture and the work piece revolve.


Describe the following dies


Inverted Dies

Inverted die is designed with the die block fastened to the punch holder and the punch fastened to the die shoe. During the downward stroke of ram, the blank is sheared from the strip. The blank and shedder are forced back into the die opening, which loads a compression spring in the die opening . At the same time the punch is forced through the scrap strip and a spring attached to the stripper is compressed and loaded. On the upstroke of the ram, the shedder pushes the blank out of the die opening and the stripper forces the scrap strip off the punch. The finished part (blank) falls, or is blown, out the rear of the press.

ii) Progressive Dies Progressive dies are made with two or more stations arranged in a sequence. Each station performs an operation on the work piece, or provides an idler station, so that the work piece is completed when the last operation has been accomplished. Thereafter each stroke of the ram produces a finished part. Thus after the fourth stroke of a four station die, each successive stroke will produce a finished part. Operations which may be carried out in a progressive die are piercing, blanking, forming, drawing, cut off, etc. The list of possible operations is long. The number and types of operations which may be performed in a progressive die depends upon the ingenuity of the designer. Station progressive die. The die block is made up of four pieces and fastened to the die shoe. This permits easy replacement of broken or worn die blocks. The stock is fed from the right and registers against a finger strop (not shown). The first stroke of the press produces a square hole and two notches. These notches form the left end of the first piece. During the upstroke of ram, the stock is moved to the next station against a finger stop (not shown). The stock is positioned for the second stroke. The second station is an idler. The right end of the first piece, the left end of the second piece, and a second square hole are pierced.

The ram retracts and the scrap strip is moved to the third station against an automatic stop. This stop picks up the notched V and positions the scrap strip. The third stroke of the ram pierces the four holes. The fourth stroke cuts off and forms the radii at the ends of the finished piece. Thereafter every stroke produces a finished part. Progressive dies generally have the cut off or blanking operation as the last operation. It is preferred to have piercing operation as the first operation so that the pierced hole can be advantageously used as a pilot hole. Alternatively, special pilot holes are pierced in the scrapped part of the stock. In certain special cases, blanking is done at the first station, and the blank returned to the die by using spring plates and then moved to the subsequent station by mechanical means or manually.

Progressive dies are used where higher production rates are desired and the material is neither too thick nor too thin. Their use helps in cutting down the material handling costs.

iii) Compound Dies

A type of die that has the die block (matrix) mounted on a punch plate with perforators in the upper die with the inner punch mounted in the lower die set. An inverted type of blanking die that punches upwards, leaving the part sitting on the lower punch (after being shed from the upper matrix on the press return stroke) instead of blanking the part through. A compound die allows the cutting of internal and external part features on a single press stroke.

iv) Combination Dies Another term for a compound die. For some manufacturers, the term "combination die" implies a die that both cuts and forms the metal. The another description is die having more than one cavity for different castings. In this die also , more than one operation may be performed at one station. It is difficult from compound die in that in this die, a cutting operation is combined with a bending or drawing operation, due to that it is called combination die.



Explain: i) Blanking Die Construction A blanking die comprises a relatively thin die plate having a cut out into which the punch of the press, upon blanking operation, forces the material to be cut to form the required part blank. A holder of sturdy construction is provided onto which the thin die plate is removable mounted. Slidably positioned within the holder is a reciprocating support block which, upon blanking operation, underlies the thin die plate in order to reinforce it against the impact of the punch. After the blanking cycle, the support block is moved either to eject the part blank or to allow the latter to fall through an opening in the holder. ii) Piercing Die Construction A piercing-and-blanking die, also cut and follow, and combination die. With this type of die no very accurate work can be expected, for curvature in the sheet means varying distances between pierced holes. Another cause of inaccuracy is due to the fact that, in this instance, the two pierced holes in the stock are located over the blanking die by means of the pilots aa, and that these pilots are of necessity a trifle smaller in diameter than the holes, which allows variation in any direction. Also, curved or kinked stock straightens out when the face of the blanking punch comes in contact with it, causing the holes to become of greater distance between centres, and distorted, due to pressure against the pilots. This die should be used only on work that does not require accuracy closer than 0.005 inch.