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Communication is the activity of conveying meaningful information.

Communication requires a sender, a

message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space.

Classifying Communication:
Verbal Communication: These type is classified though the use of words, sounds, speech or language. You need to interact or relay the message by speaking directly or indirectly to the receiver. People are more convince with your ideas and perspective if you speak fluently and relay the message clearly. It is also essential in business to have good communication skills in dealing with different types of people. It would be advantageous to have this talent. Its no secret that speaking is the most effective way of communicating. Through the advancement of technology, people are able to talk even when they are on different sides of the world through different devices stated above. This allows people to interact with their love ones even if they are seas apart. We are lucky to enjoy this advancement. If these were not invented, we would have to wait for written mails to arrive at our doorsteps. Non-Verbal Communication: This involves communicating through, touch, gestures, body motion and tone of the voice. Some express a message through creative and aesthetic non-verbal communication such as dancing, sculpting or composing a song. Sign language or other gestures are also included in this category. Visual Communication: This includes visual representation to communicate. You could use paintings, photographs, or a video presentation to relay a message. With the advancement of technology, you could easily upload a video or photo slide-show to extend your message in the Internet or even through high tech mobile devices. Written Communication: Expressing the message you wanted to relay in words is another type of communication. Article writing, emails, reports, chatting, and sending text messages are forms of written communication. It could be edited anytime unlike verbal or non-verbal communication. Written communication is widely used to effectively relay messages. Written messages are easy to recall since you could just read it all over again. People nowadays are addicted through SM'S sending which is much cheaper compared to making phone calls. It has become an effective means of sending a short message or even a long one.

Purpose Of Communication:
Communication is a vital part in each and every one's life. It serves as a medium for exchanging information, ideas and emotions. People would go crazy without communicating or interacting with another person. We could not perform our task or duties without communication. There are many ways to communicate to other persons may it be verbally, written, or other forms. It could also be expressed none verbally through gestures or body language. The important part is that the receiver and the sender of the message are on the same page. Communication would be useless if both of you do not understand what you are trying to convey.

Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and non verbal messages. It is a continuous process. Prerequisite of communication is a message. This message must be conveyed through some medium to the recipient. It is essential that this message must be understood by the recipient in same terms as intended by the sender. He must respond within a time frame. Thus, communication is a two way process and is incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to the sender on how well the message is understood by him.

Communication Process
The main components of communication process are as follows: Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context. Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender. Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear. Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there. Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder. Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.


1. CORRECTNESS : i)To be correct in communication ii)Use correct level of language iii)Include only accurate facts, iv)words and figures . v)Maintain acceptable writing machines. 2. CONCISENESS: It makes the message more understandable and comprehensible. To achieve it i) Avoid unnecessary repetition and wordy expressions. ii) Include only relevant facts with courtesy . iii) Organize the message logically and efficiently. 3. CLARITY: It demands that the message should be correct, concise, complete, concrete and with consideration . To accomplish these : i) Choose precise, short and familiar words. ii)Proper punctuations make the writing clear. iii)Make the message readable and understandable. iv)Make correct sentences, and derived the message in properly sized paragraphs 4.COMPLETENESS: i) The message should be complete, we should be able to know the readers background, viewpoints, needs, attitudes and emotions. ii) The guidelines for completeness, iii)The message should answer all the questions in the order ,they were asked . iv) Give some additional information if important. 5.CONCRETENESS : i) The business writing should be specific , definite and vivid . The guidelines use to concreteness ii) Use specific facts and figures . iii) Avoid words like few, quick, soon etc. iv) Use action verbs. v)The message should have building words. 6.CONSIDERATION :Consideration refers to attitude, the human touch, and understanding of human nature . It can be achieved through: i )Emphasize you instead of I or we. ii)Your message should convey truth . iii) Stress the positive, pleasant aspects of facts. iv) Offer a services of value to the reader . 7. COURTESY : Courtesy is more important and advantageous in business writing then in face to face communication . It is achieved; i)Be truly tactful, thoughtful and appreciative . ii)Omit expression that annoy . iii) Answer all your mail. iv)Grant and apologize candidly.

The importance of communication in Management can be summarized as follows:

1. Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark. 2. Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions. 3. Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individuals attitudes, i.e., a well informed individual will have better attitude than a less-informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in moulding employees attitudes. 4. Communication also helps in socializing. In todays life the only presence of another individual fosters communication. It is also said that one cannot survive without communication. 5. As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process. It helps controlling organizational members behavior in various ways. There are various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work problem and grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of management. An effective and efficient communication system requires managerial proficiency in delivering and receiving messages. A manager must discover various barriers to communication, analyze the reasons for their occurrence and take preventive steps to avoid those barriers. Thus, the primary responsibility of a manager is to develop and maintain an effective communication system in the organization.

Communication Structure in Organization

Within an organization, the following types of communication networks exist: wheel network, chain network, circle network and all-channel network. There is also a larger formal network called the organizational communication network, which represents communication within the hierarchical structure of an organization. These are basic structures that describe how communication flows to employees, groups or teams throughout an organization. Wheel Network : If you are in a wheel network, information flows from one central member of the group to the rest of the members. Other group members may not have to communicate with each other to perform well. An example would be a group of independent makeup consultants who report to one regional mentor. The independent makeup consultants do not need to interact with one another in order to perform. Wheel networks do not exist in teams, since teams signify intense interaction between all members of a group. Chain Network : If you are a part of a chain network, members communicate with each other in a pre-planned sequence. An example of a chain network is an assembly-line group. In an assembly line, employees only communicate with those whose work precedes or follows their own. Like wheel networks, chain networks do not exist in teams. Circle Network : If you are in a circle network, members communicate if they share something in common, such as experiences, beliefs, areas of expertise, background or office location. For example, the people who you may informally socialize with in your office area may be a part of your circle network. Circle networks are not described as teamwork. All-Channel Network : An all-channel network is found in teams. Teamwork is characterized with high levels of intense communication. Each team member communicates with every other team member. Information flows in all directions. Computer programs are often utilized to maintain effective communication in teams due to their efficiency. Organizational Communication Network : Communication is also described as moving upward, downward or horizontally within the hierarchical communication structure. In a hierarchical communication structure, upper-level management is on top and lower-level employees are on bottom. An organizational structure may appear to be a good summary of a business' communication network, but they only describe formal communication. Rather than moving up and down, communication can be informal and flow around issues, goals, ideas and projects. A great deal of communication occurs informally. The "grapevine" is typically the name given for an informal communication network where unofficial information travels.

Communication In Crises:
1. Candor: Outward recognition through promptly verbalized public acknowledgement that a problem exists; that people or groups of people, the environment, or the public trust is affected; and that something will be done to remediate the situation. 2. Explanation (no matter how silly, stupid, or embarrassing the problem causing error was): Promptly and briefly explain why the problem occurred and the known underlying reasons or behaviors that led to the situation (even if there is only partial early information). Talk about what was learned from the situation and how it will influence the organization's future behavior. Unconditionally commit to regularly report additional information until it is all out, or until no public interest remains. 3. Declaration: A public commitment and discussion of specific, positive steps to be taken conclusively address the issues and resolve the situation. 4. Contrition: The continuing verbalization of regret, empathy, sympathy, even embarrassment. Take appropriate responsibility for having allowed the situation to occur in the first place, whether by omission, commission, accident, or negligence. 5. Consultation: Promptly ask for help and counsel from victims, government, and the community of origin - even from opponents. Directly involve and request the participation of those most directly affected to help develop more permanent solutions, more acceptable behaviors, and to design principles and approaches that will preclude similar problems from occurring. 6. Commitment: Publicly set organizational goals at zero. i.e. i) Zero errors. ii) Zero defects. iii)Zero dumb decisions. iv) Zero problems. Publicly promise that to the best of the organization's ability similar situations will never occur or reoccur. 7. Restitution: Find a way to quickly pay the price. Make or require restitution. Go beyond community and victim expectations and what would be required under normal circumstances to remediate the problem. Adverse situations remediated quickly cost far less and are controversial for much shorter periods of time.

Oral Communication: Oral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals
conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required. Face to face communication (meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and trust. Principles Of Oral Communication: 1. Designing of dynamic format rather than a Static one. 2. Keeping outline clear and simple. 3. Oral design should be oriented to time rather than space. 4. Emphasizing main idea by placement and reiteration. 5. Using carefully worded transitions as you move through the presentation. 6. Planning carefully for a combination of inducted and deducted movement. 7. Using language best suited to the Ear not the Eye. 8. Planning the whole design from the audience point of view.

Barriers of Communication:
Physical barriers are often due to the nature of the environment. Thus, for example, the natural barrier which exists, if staff are located in different buildings or on different sites. Likewise, poor or outdated equipment, particularly the failure of management to introduce new technology, may also cause problems. Staff shortages are another factor which frequently causes communication difficulties for an organization. Whilst distractions like background noise, poor lighting or an environment which is too hot or cold can all affect people's morale and concentration, which in turn interfere with effective communication.

System design faults refer to problems with the structures or systems in place in an organization. Examples might include an organizational structure which is unclear and therefore makes it confusing to know who to communicate with. Other examples could be inefficient or inappropriate information systems, a lack of supervision or training, and a lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities which can lead to staff being uncertain about what is expected of them Attitudinal barriers come about as a result of problems with staff in an organization. These may be brought about, for example, by such factors as poor management, lack of consultation with employees, personality conflicts which can result in people delaying or refusing to communicate, the personal attitudes of individual employees which may be due to lack of motivation or dissatisfaction at work, brought about by insufficient training to enable them to carry out particular tasks, or just resistance to change due to entrenched attitudes and ideas. Psychological factors such as people's state of mind. We all tend to feel happier and more receptive to information when the sun shines. Equally, if someone has personal problems like worries about their health or marriage, then this will probably affect them. Different languages and cultures represent a national barrier which is particularly important for organizations involved in overseas business. Individual linguistic ability is also important. The use of difficult or inappropriate words in communication can prevent people from understanding the message. Poorly explained or misunderstood messages can also result in confusion. We can all think of situations where we have listened to something explained which we just could not grasp.

Effective listening
Effective listening is actively absorbing the information given to you by a speaker, showing that you are listening and interested, and providing feedback to the speaker so that he or she knows the message was received. Delivering verbal communication, like writing a newsletter, involves trying to choose the right words and nonverbal cues to convey a message that will be interpreted in the way that you intend. Effective listeners show speakers that they have been heard and understood. Effective listening is a way of showing concern for subordinates, and that fosters cohesive bonds, commitment, and trust. Effective listening tends to reduce the frequency of interpersonal conflict and increases the likelihood that when conflicts emerge they will be resolved with a "win-win" solution. In addition, if you listen to the people you manage, you will learn "what makes them tick." When you know what makes them tick, you will be more effective at motivating them. You can encourage them when they need encouraging, and you will know what kinds of things they value as rewards for a job well done (e.g., additional responsibility, public praise, autonomy, etc.).

Non-Verbal Communication: Nonverbal communication is usually understood as the process of

communication through sending and receiving wordless (mostly visual) messages. Messages can be communicated through gestures and touch (Haptic communication), by body language or posture, by facial expression and eye contact. Meaning can also be communicated through object or artifacts (such as clothing, hairstyles or architecture). Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, rate, pitch, volume, and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the physical layout of a page. Dance is also regarded as a form of nonverbal communication. However, much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on face-to-face interaction, where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where communication takes place, physical characteristics of the communicators, and behaviors of communicators during interaction

Written Communication: Written communication has great significance in todays business

world. It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for preparing worthy promotional materials for business development. Speech came before writing. But writing is more unique and formal than speech. Effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.

Purpose of Writing:
Writing can be seen as having three general types of purpose, each type of purpose focusing on one of the parts of the communication model. 1. Writer: Expressive purposes. One may write simply to express one's feelings, attitudes, ideas, and so on. This type of writing doesn't take the reader into consideration; instead, it focuses on the writer's feelings, experience, and needs. Expressive writing may take the form of poetry, journals, letters, and, especially, free writing. Often, a person will do expressive writing and then be disappointed when readers don't respond to it. 2. Reader: Conative purposes. Conative writing seeks to affect the reader. Persuasive writing is conative; so is writing intended to entertain the reader. Writing intended to arouse the reader's feelings is conative. Conative writing may take about any form, so long as its intention to persuade the reader or affect the reader emotionally. 3. Context: Informative purposes. Informative writing refers to something external to the writing itself, with the purpose of informing the reader. For instance, this page is informative, as are the other components of this Map. In our times, informative writing is usually prose, although in earlier periods poetry was used for informative purposes.

Your success depends on effective communication, whether you are sending an email, creating a report, or writing a letter. This workshop presents a refresher on the essentials of business grammar and format. In-class exercises provide an opportunity to fine-tune your writing skills and receive individual feedback on your writing style. Topics Include: Writing emails and memos that get results Applying practical grammar rules and guidelines Solving common writing problems Polishing your writing style Organizing your message to connect with your reader

Principles Of Effective Writing:

1.To have one governing idea. 2.Addressing a specific person or group. 3.Making a point, then supports it with evidence. 4.To support the governing idea with a limited number of other ideas. 5.To make it as easy to read as possible.

Approaching the Writing Process Systematically: Pre-writing: Prewriting is the first stage of the writing process, typically followed by
drafting, revision, editing and publishing. Elements of prewriting may include planning, research, outlining, diagramming, storyboarding or clustering. Prewriting usually begins with motivation and audience awareness: what is the student or writer trying to communicate, why is it important to communicate it well and who is the audience for this communication. Writers usually begin with a clear idea of audience, content and the importance of their communication; sometimes, one of these needs to be clarified for the best communication.

Writing: Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or
symbols (known as a writing system).[1] It is distinguished from illustration, such as cave drawing and painting, and non-symbolic preservation of language via non-textual media, such as magnetic tape audio.Writing most likely

began as a consequence of political expansion in ancient cultures, which needed reliable means for transmitting information, maintaining financial accounts, keeping historical records, and similar activities. Revising: Specific Writing Features: Electronic Writing Process: