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Lithos 126 (2011) 435454

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The Izera metabasites, West Sudetes, Poland: Geologic and isotopic UPb zircon evidence of Devonian extension in the Saxothuringian Terrane
Izabella Nowak a, Andrzej elaniewicz a, b,, Wolfgang Drr c, Wolfgang Franke c, Alexander N. Larionov d
a

Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN, Podwale 75, PL-50449 Wrocaw, Poland Instytut Geologii Uniwersytetu Adama Mickiewicza, Makw Polnych 16, PL-61606 Pozna, Poland Geologisch-Palontologisches Institut der Johann-Wolfgang Goethe-Universitt, Senckenberganlage 32, D-60054 Frankfurt, Germany d Centre of Isotopic Research, All Russian Geological Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
b c

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
In the LausitzIzera Massif of the Saxothuringian terrane, part of the central European Variscides, 515480 Ma metagranites have been intruded by a swarm of basic veins that have within-plate alkali basalt geochemistry, or, rarely, normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB) geochemistry. Based on their spatial orientation, distribution in the region and structural relationships to the host metagranites, these basic veins could be grouped into three types that displayed six varieties of hostvein contacts. Zircons extracted from eight of the basic veins revealed that there were two populations: clear zircons and brown zircons. Each type were subjected to both single grain conventional UPb analysis and to sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) UPb analysis. The clear grains yielded ages N 480 Ma, clustering at ~500 Ma; the brown grains yielded ages between ~390 and 365 Ma, clustering at ~370 Ma. The colourless zircons possess an oscillatory zoned structure and rare earth element (REE) distribution pattern that suggests they come from the host granites and from deeper Neoproterozoic granitoid basement. However, the basic host rocks show almost no obvious contamination by felsic material. The turbid brown grains, which are dark under cathodoluminescence, also seem to be mainly magmatic because of their internal structures, high Th/U ratios and REE pattern. When the zircon results are integrated into the regional geology, an ~30 m.y. period of episodic, intra-plate, predominantly alkaline basic magmatism at the passive margin of the Saxothuringian Terrane is suggested, with maximum activity at ~370 Ma during an extensional regime. Combining the factors of the relatively high thermal gradient during early metamorphism of the metabasites (~450 C, 2 kbar), the geology of Saxothuringia and the regional structural data, we propose a plume model of hot ngers type whereby the basic magmatism of the Izera region was due to repeated Devonian intrusions derived from garnet-bearing enriched (OIB type) and less commonly depleted asthenosphere sources. The waning stages of this activity were coeval with the early deformation of the Izera granite hostbasic vein system and matched by rifting and extensional widening of the Saxothuringian Basin in its IzeraKaczawa segment. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 10 April 2011 Accepted 17 July 2011 Available online 23 July 2011 Keywords: Bohemian Massif Izera gneiss Metabasites Variscides Mantle plume UPb zircon age

1. Introduction The early geodynamic evolution of the Saxothuringian Zone of the Variscan orogen comprised mantleplume-related extension of the local Cadomian crust, giving rise to characteristic bimodal magmatism ranging from within-plate alkali basalt (WPB) to normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB)-like chemistry (Floyd et al., 2000; Furnes et al., 1994). The timing of these intrusive events is constrained by numerous UPb zircon ages from acid rocks (515480 Ma; see below and summaries in Franke and elaniewicz, 2000; Kryza et al., 2007; Oberc-Dziedzic et al., 2010). Reliable ages from the basic rocks are scarce. In the West Sudetes, basic rocks have been dated indirectly by
Corresponding author at: Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN, Podwale 75, PL-50449 Wrocaw, Poland. Tel.: + 48 71 3416344; fax: + 48 71 3376342. E-mail address: andrzejz@twarda.pan.pl (A. elaniewicz). 0024-4937/$ see front matter 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2011.07.006

inferring their age (503485 Ma) from associated acid rocks (Kryza and Zalasiewicz, 2008; Kryza et al., 2007) or from enclosed felsic pods (~494 Ma, determined by Oliver et al., 1993). The bimodal magmatism has usually been ascribed to Cambro-Ordovician rifting (see review in Franke and elaniewicz, 2000), though less commonly to an Early Palaeozoic island arc (Krner and Hegner, 1998; Oliver et al., 1993) or even to anorogenic processes (Pin et al., 2007). Additional evidence of basic magmatism is provided by the Sudetic ophiolite, which contains a SilurianDevonian (420400 Ma) gabbroic member (Oliver et al., 1993) that suffered ocean-oor metamorphism at 400 Ma (Dubiska et al., 2004). In the West Sudetes, Devonian metabasalts are also known from the Jetd Unit on the southwestern ank of the LausitzIzera Massif. Further west in the Saxothuringian Zone, basic rocks of Devonian age occur in the Elbe Fault Zone at the eastern margin of the Erzgebirge (review in Chlup, 1993) and in Bavaria (Behnisch, 1993; Flick and Schmidt, 1987; Nesbor et al., 1993).

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In the LausitzIzera Massif, which represents the Saxothuringian passive margin (Franke and elaniewicz, 2000; Mazur and Aleksandrowski, 2001), there are metagranitoids that range in age between 515 and 480 Ma and that are cut by numerous, predominantly steep, veins of metabasites. These metabasites have been hitherto undated. Recent studies have mainly focused on their metamorphic history (Ilnicki, 2001, 2002; Nowak, 2003), their deformational evolution (Nowak, 2003; Nowak and elaniewicz, 2000) and their geochemical characteristics (Ilnicki, 2010; Nowak, 2000, 2003). These metabasite veins have been interpreted as a swarm of basic dykes emplaced during regional extension into the Izera granites. The dykes were deformed and metamorphosed together with their host granites, probably during the Devonian Early Carboniferous (Nowak and elaniewicz, 2003; elaniewicz et al., 2003). It is uncertain, however, whether the dykes were intruded during Early Palaeozoic rifting or whether they were intruded during a later magmatic stage. In order to constrain their emplacement age and to assess the maximum age for the onset of regional deformation and metamorphism in the eastern part of the LausitzIzera Massif, we have dated single zircons from eight dykes. The timing of the basic magmatism may signicantly impact onto the interpretation of the tectonometamorphic evolution of the Izera sector of the Saxothuringian passive margin. If basic magmatism did not occur during the Ordovician, then the

~500 Ma Izera (meta)granite may have had no impact on the Ordovician rifting, and the passive margin only extended during the Devonian. Preliminary isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) for UPb on single zircons from one of the basic veins yielded Devonian and Cambrian to Ordovician ages for two zircon populations. This data suggested the presence of two generations of zircons of different ages but did not unambiguously say when the basic magma was emplaced within the ~500 Ma metagranite or give the timing of the subsequent granitebasalt metamorphism. We address this problem via SHRIMP UPb zircon analyses and by interpreting new rare earth element (REE) data from zircons taken from the basic intrusions. 2. Geological setting of the LausitzIzera Massif The northeastern part of the LausitzIzera Massif is dominated by the 514480 Ma Izera metagranites (Korytowski et al., 1993; Krner et al., 2001; Oliver et al., 1993; Philippe et al., 1995) that are usually ascribed to mid-Cambrianearly Ordovician intra-plate rifting, as interpreted in rocks from the adjacent Kaczawa succession (Kryza et al., 2007). The granites intrude Cadomian basement that comprises the Ediacaran Lausitz metagreywacke and the late- to post-orogenic 540530 Ma Lausitz granodiorite (Gehmlich et al., 1997; elaniewicz et al., 2004). The Izera metagranites contain rafts of ne-grained gneisses as well as enclaves of relict high-pressure rocks of unknown age (elaniewicz

Fig. 1. Geological sketch map of the northeastern (Izera) part of the LusatianIzera Massif, as modied after Milewicz et al. (1979) and Sawicki (1995), with location of samples. Inset: Map location (shaded box) within the wider context of the Bohemian Massif (horizontal rulings). Abbreviations are as follows: MGCR (Mid-German Crystalline Rise); MSZ (Moravo-Silesian Zone, vertical ruling); RHZ (Rhenohercynian Zone); STZ (Saxothuringian Zone, horizontal ruling); Variscan granitoids (crosses).

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and Achramowicz, 1998). Mica schists of the LausitzIzera Massif occur in linear belts and probably represent original country rocks to the ~500 Ma granite (elaniewicz et al., 2009); however, some schists might have been tectonically juxtaposed at a later stage (Oberc-Dziedzic et al., 2010). Whatever their origin, all the schist/granite contacts are now ductile shear zones. During multistage deformation, the Izera granites were zonally transformed into orthogneisses and mylonites. Deformation was localized within steep to subvertical shear zones, mostly trending WNW to NW, with a mylonitic foliation dipping either SW or NE (elaniewicz et al., 2003). Both the tectonic regime and the origin of the foliation are still debated (Cymerman, 1994; Czapliski, 1998). In general, the multistage transformation of the basalts into the Izera metabasites and the granites into the Izera gneisses occurred consecutively in the sequence of normal slip to sinistral transtension, followed by dextral transpression, and nally a compression stage (elaniewicz et al., 2003). Although timing of the onset of the shearing is unknown, uplift and dextral strikeslip movements with a SE-vergent thrust component, thought to represent the dextral transpression phase, were active at 345320 Ma (Marheine et al., 2002). Prior to the dextral transpression, both the Izera granites and mica schist belts were intruded by basic magma that was injected into the mainly steep to subvertical fractures produced by the roughly NESW horizontal extension (elaniewicz et al., 2003). The basic intrusions form a conspicuous belt of predominantly WNW trending subvertical basic veins that are exposed across a distance of more than 30 km in Poland (Fig. 1) and that continue on NW to Lausitz in Germany. 3. Analytical methods Standard geological techniques were used during the eld work to locate the basic veins and determine their structural features and contacts with the country rocks. Whole rock chemical compositions of the Izera metabasites were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), all of which were carried out at Analytical Laboratories, Ancaster, Canada (Code 4LITHORESEARCH). Representative values are presented in Table 1. The analytical details are available at www. actlabs.com. Massive, unfoliated central portions of 17 metabasite veins were sampled for zircons. Samples were crushed and milled in the separation laboratory at the Instytut Nauk Geologicznych, Uniwersytet Wrocawski. Light and heavy minerals were separated using the standard techniques of heavy liquids, magnetic and electromagnetic separators. The remaining non-magnetic fraction was further separated in sodium polytungstate aqueous solution, and zircon fractions were hand-picked from density fraction d N 3.0 g/cm3. Zircons were found only in 10 samples, two of which could not be used due to the zircons being too small for meaningful analysis. Thus, eight zircon samples were subjected to examination under a binocular microscope in order to establish their general morphological characteristics. Reected and transmitted light microphotographs, as well as cathodoluminescence (CL) images, were made for all the zircons in order to examine their internal structures and to select appropriate areas devoid of cracks and inclusions on which to perform further analyses. In the isotope laboratory of Institut fr Geowissenschaften und Lithosphrenforschung, Universitt Giessen, the air abrasion technique of Krogh (1982) was applied to zircons from sample RB1 (zircons from an alkali basalt from the village of Rybnica). Abraded zircons from this sample were washed in hot 6 N HNO3 and then in double distilled water several times. The samples were dissolved in HF within polytetrauoroethylene (PTFE) bombs and a 205Pb 235U mixed spike was added. Ion exchange separation of U and Pb was carried out following a scaled-down modied version of the method of Krogh (1973). Isotopic ratios were determined using a Finnigan MAT 261 multi-collector solid-source mass spectrometer in static mode. The

Table 1 Representative whole rock chemical compositions of the Izera metabasites. Abbreviations are: AB (alkali basalts), CAB (calc-alkaline basalts), MB (MORB-like basalts), TB (transitional basalts), and WPT (within-plate tholeiites). AB SiO2 TiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 FeO MnO MgO CaO Na2O K2O P2O5 LOI Cr Ni Co V Rb Ba Sr Ta Nb Hf Zr Y Th U La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 47.70 3.81 14.47 2.66 9.57 0.17 6.05 8.57 3.34 1.07 0.59 1.04 123 79 55 230 57 171 392 2.54 33.0 6.50 261 37 2.96 0.84 29.70 67.90 8.80 41.00 9.59 3.34 9.15 1.39 7.41 1.31 3.46 0.43 2.45 0.32 TB 48.54 2.34 13.97 2.45 8.81 0.16 7.58 10.06 2.44 0.66 0.27 1.85 184 73 66 240 28 123 355 1.40 19.1 4.40 166 27 1.96 0.51 14.70 34.80 4.67 21.80 5.51 1.99 5.75 0.94 5.21 0.98 2.74 0.37 2.15 0.28 MB 48.11 1.30 18.36 1.98 7.13 0.12 6.17 12.60 2.30 0.37 0.12 1.11 266 47 0 269 9 52 248 0.14 2.1 2.70 87 31 0.22 0.09 3.17 9.16 1.50 8.90 3.08 1.17 4.20 0.81 5.44 1.17 3.46 0.54 3.46 0.50 WPT 50.63 1.49 16.74 2.03 7.30 0.14 6.68 9.04 2.66 1.25 0.14 1.28 218 90 26 182 48 169 273 0.80 8.0 4.80 59 12 1.70 0.60 11.70 23.40 3.40 11.90 2.40 1.30 4.30 0.50 3.60 0.90 1.80 0.20 1.90 1.20 CAB 54.53 1.30 16.43 1.46 5.25 0.15 4.89 6.01 3.48 1.86 0.20 2.82 124 15 32 151 109 604 361 0.70 8.4 4.60 177 32 6.92 1.63 30.00 56.70 6.43 27.40 6.11 1.90 5.48 0.95 5.75 1.13 3.27 0.50 3.14 0.43

Pb was measured simultaneously with a previously calibrated axial secondary electron multiplier in ion counting mode. All the isotopic ratios were corrected for mass fractionation, total procedure blank and initial lead composition. Blanks are approximately 10 pg Pb and 1 pg U. The isotopic ratio of the initial lead was taken from Stacey and Kramers (1975) for model lead with an age of 400 Ma. The calculation and correlation of errors for the 207Pb/ 235U and 206Pb/ 238U ratios were carried out after Ludwig (1980). Ages were calculated using the decay constants of Steiger and Jger (1977). Regression lines were calculated according to the least-squares method of York (1969). All in situ UPb analyses of the zircons from the remaining 7 samples were performed on a SHRIMP II machine at the All Russian Geological Research Institute VSEGEI in St. Petersburg, Russia. The technique was described in detail by Williams (1998) and by Larionov et al. (2004). The U/Pb ratios were determined using the TEMORA zircon standard (Black et al., 2003) with an accepted 206Pb/ 238U age of 416.75 0.24 Ma. Uncertainties at particular analyses and isotopic ratios are given at the one sigma level. The collected results were processed using SQUID v. 1.12 (Ludwig, 2005a) and ISOPLOT/Ex 3.22 (Ludwig, 2005b) software, employing the decay constants of Steiger and Jger (1977). The common lead correction was done using measured 204Pb according to the model of Stacey and Kramers (1975). Analyses of zircon REEs were also performed at VSEGEI on the same epoxy-mounted grains that were used for dating: the technique for determining the REEs was that of laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS). Back

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scattered electron (BSE) images of the metabasites were taken on the CAMECA SX-100 Electron Microprobe in the Electron Microprobe Laboratory in the Faculty of Geology of the University of Warsaw. 4. Structural observations in metabasite veins The metabasite veins have sharp planar boundaries with the host metagranite. Six types of contacts between the two contrasting lithologies were distinguished. These are as follows: (1) both vein and host granite are undeformed; (2) the vein is sheared and foliated, but the host granite remains undeformed; (3) the vein is foliated, but only one granite wall is sheared; (4) the vein and both of the granite wallrocks are foliated; (5) both the metabasite vein and the granite are sheared and the vein contains boudined xenoliths of the foliated metagranite; (6) a foliation in a host orthogneiss is itself crosscut by a foliated basic dyke (Figs. 2 and 3). Shear deformation usually started in the marginal parts of the dykes, which were apparently rheologically weaker, and then migrated toward the dyke centres, eventually moving outward into the host granite and transforming it into gneiss. Thin veins (b2 m) were pervasively deformed and syntectonically metamorphosed, whereas thicker dykes may have escaped deformation (but not metamorphism) in their central portions. Based on orientation and spatial relationships within the Izera metagranite, three different groups/sets of veins can be discerned (Figs. 1 and 4). These are referred to as the Wrzeszczyn (I), Lena (II) and Jelenia Gra (III) groups (Nowak, 2003; Nowak and elaniewicz, 2000).
Fig. 3. Spatial orientation of planar and linear structural elements in three groups of basic dykes (the Wrzeszczyn group, however, is here subdivided): a) Wrzeszczyn group: Wrzeszczyn area; b) Wrzeszczyn group: Siedlcin area; c) Lena group; d) Jelenia Gra group.

Fig. 2. The six types of observed contacts between the basic veins (grey) and the host Izera granite (crosses), as described in Section 4 of the text. Dynamic metamorphism produced the amphibolites (vertical ruling) and the gneisses (waves).

The Wrzeszczyn group is the dominant one and comprises subvertical veins that trend WNW to NW, dip SW or NE, and are a few centimetres to several tens of metres thick. Their contacts, using the above six-fold scheme, are represented by types 1 to 4 and, rarely, 5. Therefore, at least some veins were formed by basic magma that intruded into fractures in the unfoliated Izera granite. The Wrzeszczyn veins that display type 5 contacts enclose fragments of the metagranite that were sheared earlier in a dip-slip to sinistral oblique-slip regime (Czapliski, 1998; Nowak, 2003; Nowak and elaniewicz, 2000; elaniewicz et al., 2003). The type 5 contacts suggest that occasionally the basic magma must have penetrated shear zones that had developed in the host granite before the veins were emplaced. This relationship is important for unraveling a kinematic history of the Izera metagranite. As inferred from the established sequence of the observed planar and linear structures, the early shear zones were invariably steep and possessed a NW/WNW trending foliation. Such structural persistence indicates that the shear zones probably started to develop during the extensional regime, with some left-lateral oblique-slip component, and kinematically evolved over time. Dykes of the Lena group are less than 7 m thick, strike NESW to EW and dip to the NW or N at moderate angles (Fig. 4). They have contacts of type 6 and crosscut the pre-existing, N-dipping foliation of the host gneisses. This suggests that they intruded the already sheared metagranite. Dykes of the Jelenia Gra group are less than 50 cm thick, subvertical and strike in the NESW to NS direction. As neither dykes nor wallrocks are deformed (type 1 contacts), this basic magma intruded into a granite with no fabric. Basic veins set in the mica schist belts are normally several tens of centimeters thick, rarely up to 3 meters, trend in a NNW to NW direction and dip to the SW or NE at steep to moderate angles. Most of these veins are parallel to the foliation of the host rocks due to subsequent shearing; however, discordant contacts can be observed, e.g., at Gierczyn and

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Fig. 4. Field examples of basic dykes. Dyke-granite contact types are as described in Section 4 of the text. a) Wrzeszczyn group, metabasic vein (undeformed ne-grained massive amphibolite) in an almost unfoliated coarse-grained granite, the detached fragment of which (in the middle) was trapped by the basic magma; contact type 1, coin (1 Zloty) for scale, Siedlcin area; b) unfoliated, coarse-grained granite (right) showing contact type 2: Wrzeszczyn group amphibolite vein (left) has been strongly foliated at the dykegranite interface, deformation decreases away from interface; pencil for scale, Siedlcin area; c) Wrzeszczyn group, vein showing contact type 3, host granite is sheared on one side of the vein and almost undeformed on the other; Siedlcin area; d) Wrzeszczyn group, contact type 4, host granite is sheared on either side of the vein, Siedlcin area; e) Wrzeszczyn group, contact type 5, fragments of granite that have been entrapped by the basic magma are sheared and boudined during the early normal regime; pencil (for scale) points to the top of the vertical wall section; Siedlcin area; f) Wrzeszczyn group, contact type 4, both metabasite veins and host granite are strongly sheared, note extreme attenuation of the veins which die out completely 2 m away; Siedlcin area; g) Lena group, contact type 6, basic vein intruded along a fracture and cuts obliquely pre-existing foliation planes in the country metagranite; pen for scale; Bokowice; h) Lena group, variant of contact type 6, basic vein encloses some detached fragments of unfoliated host granite; pen for scale; Bokowice.

Kotlina. These discordant contacts suggest that the original dykes may have obliquely cut the country schists as well as the granite-gneisses. The dykes in the mica schists are always completely foliated and transformed into amphibolites, which often grade to amphibole schists at their margins.

The eld observations (Figs. 24) indicate that basic magma intruded along fractures of different orientations and dips, though mainly steep, into predominantly unfoliated granite (most of the Wrzeszczyn group and all of the Jelenia Gra group) in an extensional regime, and much less commonly into granites that had experienced

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earlier shearing with normal (extensional) kinematics, as observed in the Lena group and in some dykes of the Wrzeszczyn group. Such a tectonic regime also controlled the initial stages of deformation of veins from the Wrzeszczyn group, probably shortly after basalt injection, when they were still relatively hot. These then yielded to further softening by hot uids during syn-shear metamorphism, which rendered the resultant thinly foliated amphibolite, amphibole schists and greenschists rheologically weaker than the host metagranite which possessed a less well-developed fabric. Previous structural studies have revealed that the amphibolitised veins underwent a deformation path similar to that recognized in the Izera gneisses (Czapliski, 1998; Nowak, 2003; Nowak and elaniewicz, 2000; elaniewicz et al., 2003). The early deformation of both lithologies was accomplished in an extensional regime by steep, oblique to dip-slip shearing, with left-lateral reverse and normal components, depending upon the attitude of the dyke walls, as recorded by sigma-clasts and mica sh associated with the dip-slip to steeply plunging stretching lineation. Later deformation produced a subhorizontal or moderately plunging (to NW or W) stretching lineation that often obliterates the older set and that was associated with an oblique thrust to dextral strikeslip regime (Czapliski, 1998; Nowak, 2003; Nowak and elaniewicz, 2000; elaniewicz et al., 2003). 5. Petrography of metabasite veins The Izera basic veins comprise massive or foliated amphibolites and amphibole or amphibolechlorite schists. Some veins are virtually undeformed, most veins are either massive or show only a weak foliation in the centres but have strongly foliated margins. Some dykes show primary igneous features: ophitic texture together with relicts of clinopyroxene, olivine and normally zoned plagioclase (labradorite to andesine) usually occur in the undeformed central parts of the dykes. Superimposed strain tends to increase towards the margins of the dykes and syntectonic metamorphic transformations mean the total disappearance of primary features along the vein/host metagranite interface. The amphibolites are medium- to ne-grained or aphanitic, usually nematoblastic or granonematoblastic. They consist mainly of green amphibole and plagioclase. Amphiboles form usually 4060 vol.% of the rock and range from pale-brown to brown amphibole (tschermakite or magnesiohornblende) with Fe- and Ti-oxide exsolutions, through colourless and pale-green actinolite to pale green and green magnesiohornblende. They are occasionally zoned from actinolite in the cores to magnesiohornblende rims; some contain tschermakitic cores. Plagioclase forms 3050 vol.% of the amphibolites, is subhedral, more rarely euhedral, and normally zoned. The inner parts of plagioclase laths (An8035) are richer in Ca and represent the igneous stage, but they are often replaced by ne-grained aggregates of clinozoisite, white mica and chlorite and are surrounded by albite-oligoclase rims. Subordinate biotite, together with Fe- and Ti-oxides, replaces the tschermakite and, less frequently, the actinolite blasts, or forms inclusions in the magnesiohornblende. There are minor amounts of epidote, titanite, apatite, FeTi-oxides (ilmenite) and chlorite. K-feldspar, quartz, garnet, rutile, pyrite and zircon are the accessory phases. In the massive and weakly foliated amphibolites, one can observe both the well-preserved primary igneous texture (ophitic, porphyritic or doleritic textures) and the primary minerals of clinopyroxene, brown amphibole, magmatic plagioclase and, less commonly, olivine. The relict minerals and magmatic textures indicate that the protoliths were basic igneous rocks, probably medium- to ne-grained, ophitic gabbros and negrained to aphanitic, sometimes porphyritic, dolerites. 6. Metamorphism of metabasites The basic dykes underwent polyphase metamorphism along a prograde path from greenschist to amphibolite facies and then retrograde to lower greenschist facies (Ilnicki, 2002; Nowak, 2003).

The petrographic evidence of clinopyroxene replaced by actinolite and chlorite; pseudomorphs of chlorite and opaque minerals after olivine; partly sericitized, normally zoned magmatic labradorite and andesine converted to Na-oligoclase and albite, respectively; and some still-preserved primary ophitic texture shows that metamorphism of the vein rocks commenced under static conditions and continued syntectonically together with a mylonitic transformation of the host Izera granites into orthogneisses. The early metamorphism, the mineral relicts of which are still locally recognizable in the undeformed central portions of the thicker basic dykes, was characterized by the replacement of the original magmatic assemblage by, for the most part, actinolite, chlorite and albite. This replacement occurred at a temperature of 450480 C and a pressure of 1.82.2 kbar, as estimated from the plagioclasehornblende (Pl Hbl) geothermobarometer of Plyusnina (1982) and from the geothermometer of Holland and Blundy (1994) for the actinolite albite pair. Such greenschist facies conditions continued syntectonically and seemingly controlled the early normal slip to sinistral transtension deformation without any apparent change in depth. This implies that there was a high thermal gradient of ~ 90 C/km (Nowak, 2003). In the metabasites, foliation planes started to develop during the early stage of greenschist dynamometamorphism and are dened by an assemblage of actinolite, clinozoisite/epidote, titanite, albite, chlorite and opaque minerals. Prograde metamorphism to lower/ medium amphibolite facies was accompanied by extensive shearing in a dextral transpressive regime. Chlorite was replaced by biotite, and magnesiohornblende replaced the actinolite in the matrix and in the rims of the actinolite porphyroblasts, around which pressure shadows and asymmetric tails developed (Fig. 5). Some bigger blasts of magnesiohornblende occasionally contain variously oriented inclusion trails of chlorite, epidote, titanite and quartz, which represent relics of the earlier greenschist foliation. The amphibolite facies foliation, which formed during the dextral transpression shearing, is dened by the parallel alignment of elongated blasts of magnesiohornblende and aggregates of recrystallized plagioclase (An1830). Locally, tschermakite and andesine (An3033) appear in the highly strained parts of the metabasites. Chemical zoning observed in amphibole and plagioclase blasts testies to the progression of metamorphism during this stage of deformation, reaching peak conditions of 470630 C and 68 kbar (Nowak, 2003; elaniewicz et al., 2003). The last stage of metamorphism was associated with deformation in a semi-brittle sinistral strikeslip regime that took place under greenschist facies conditions. This sinistral overprint on the dextral fabric is documented by the growth of a retrogressive assemblage of chlorite and calcite with minor sericite and quartz, which replaces

Fig. 5. An actinolite blast (greenschist facies) has its rim progressively replaced by magnesiohornblende and is changed to a porphyroclast with asymmetric pressure shadows that comprise biotite and magnesiohornblende prisms. This microtextural evidence proves there was a dextral shear component.

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earlier amphiboles. Such a sequence of tectonometamorphic events in the studied metabasites is generally compatible with the data of aba (1984, 1985), who pointed to medium temperaturelow pressure metamorphism of the metabasites from the southern part of the Izera region, and with the data of Ilnicki (2002), who described four stages of metamorphism affecting the Izera amphibolites: a progression from greenschist facies through epidoteamphibolite facies to amphibolite facies and a retrograde phase back to greenschist facies. Our observations indicate that there was a generally W/SW-ward decrease of metamorphic grade because amphibolite facies conditions were only attained in the E/NE part of the studied area. Rocks in other parts of the Izera region underwent a metamorphic peak at only greenschist facies.

7. Geochemistry of metabasites Geochemically, all the metabasic dykes, irrespective of their afliation to any of the three spatial groups described above, represent either (I) alkali basalts, (II) transitional basalts, (III) N-MORB-like basalts, (IV) within-plate tholeiites, or (V) calc-alkaline basaltic andesites (Nowak, 2003). Most dykes are intra-plate alkali basalts, typical of intra-plate continental rift zones, whereas the remainder are within-plate tholeiites with minor transitional basalts and very rare MORB-like tholeiites (Fig. 6). The calc-alkaline basaltic andesites only occur in the eastern part of the studied area (Nowak, 2003). Trace element modeling of chemical composition of the basic rocks suggests

Fig. 6. Geochemistry of the Izera metabasites. a) Zr/TiO2 vs. Nb/Y classication (after Winchester and Floyd, 1977); b) ThHfNb discrimination diagram (after Wood, 1980); c) chondrite-normalized REE diagram for basalts, normalization values are from Sun and McDonough (1989); d) normalized REE diagram for tholeiites and andesites; e) mantlenormalized incompatible element diagram for basalts, normalization values are from Taylor and McLennan (1985); f) mantle-normalized incompatible element diagram for tholeiites and andesites.

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that they derived from a garnet-bearing asthenospheric source (Ilnicki, 2010). Characteristic ratios of incompatible elements (e.g. Th/Ta, La/Nb) and rarely negative anomalies in Nb, Ta and Ti point to an insignicant degree of crustal contamination in the Izera metabasites (Nowak, 2003). Ilnicki (2010) missed the problem of contamination because he distinguished neither the N-MORB-like basalts nor the within-plate tholeiitestwo groups that carry legible signs of crustal contamination. Characteristic ratios of trace and rare earth elements suggest an original connection with a mantle plume (Floyd et al., 2000; Ilnicki, 2010; Nowak, 2000, 2003), a possibility corroborated by the isotopic signatures (Nd400 = +3.7 to +4.0; 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.70419) of the Izera alkali basalts (Nowak, 2003). However, systematic negative NbTa anomalies, high 87Sr/86Sr ratios and distinctly raised values of La/Nb and Th/Yb ratios that have been observed, to differing degrees, in the withinplate tholeiites and the calc-alkaline andesites may result from crustal contamination of these chemical groups of the metabasites (Nowak, 2003). Thus, previous detailed studies of the incompatible elements and the degree of fractionation of REEs in the metabasites allow the following inferences to be made: (1) the alkali basalts originated from an enriched asthenospheric mantle of OIB type; (2) the transitional basalts were derived from a slightly depleted source that had resulted from mixing of undepleted and depleted asthenospheric magmas; (3) the basalts of N-MORB-type were released from a strongly depleted asthenospheric source with some continental crust contamination; (4) the within-plate tholeiites came from a heterogeneously enriched mantle source with mixed enriched and normal MORB compositions contaminated by continental crust; (5) the calc-alkaline basaltic andesites are similar to supra-subduction zone basalts developed from a lithospheric source (Nowak, 2003, 2008). 8. Descriptions of zircon-sampled host rocks Seventeen metabasite veins with relatively high Zr concentrations (59163 ppm) were selected for UPb isotopic dating. Rock samples were taken from the fresh, mostly undeformed, central parts of metagabbroic and metadoleritic dykes, which represent all the geochemical groups identied in the Izera metabasites. Zircon grains suitable for analyses, however, were found in only eight of the samples (Fig. 1), and these are described below.

4)

5)

6)

7)

8) 1) Sample S10. This came from Siedlcin (Fig. 1) where an old quarry exposes an ~30-m-thick vein of medium-grained metagabbro, unstrained in the centre but deformed toward the margins. This dyke showed a transition from massive amphibolite with ophitic texture, through weakly foliated rock, to becoming a strong mylonite at the 30-cm-thick marginal zone adjacent to the host gneissic granite. A sample was taken of the massive amphibolite with ophitic texture from the central part of the vein. This metagabbro represents a within-plate tholeiite of the Wrzeszczyn group with types 3 or 4 contacts (see classication above). 2) Sample S15. This was collected on the left side of the Bbr River, west of Siedlcin (Fig. 1) from the centre of an ~2-m-thick, wholly deformed, metagabbro dyke located within an ~5-m-wide shear zone, which dips steeply to the NW, in the host granite. The host metagranite is more intensely sheared at a distance of ~50 cm on either side of the vein, and the foliation dies out 2 m away of the contact. A sample was taken from a foliated amphibolite developed from a medium-grained gabbro, which represents an alkali basalt of the Wrzeszczyn group with a type 4 contact. 3) Sample S17. This came from metagabbro collected some 200 m to the east of the S15 outcrop (Fig. 1). An ~20 m thick dyke is hosted by a coarse-grained granite, which has been turned to a gneiss within a distance of 3 m from the contact. The medium-grained massive amphibolite has an ophitic texture and is foliated in ~1-mwide zones at its margins; however, a broad central part remains

undeformed, and it was this part that was sampled. This rock is a transitional basalt of the Wrzeszczyn group with a type 4 contact. Sample RB1. This was taken from an alkali basalt of the Wrzeszczyn group in a small quarry, only some 20 m across, at the eastern end of the village of Rybnica (Fig. 1). The quarry exposes only the central, undeformed part of a NW-trending, medium-grained metagabbro dyke that is ~40 m thick and which continues over the distance of about 700 m. In the middle of the dyke, the metagabbro is undeformed and ophitic. Along the NE margin, the dyke is sheared within an ~1-m-wide zone, and the adjacent granite is also foliated over an unknown distance from the types 3 or 4 contacts. Sample W3. This came from a 6-m-thick dyke occurring at the left side of the Bbr River, S of Wrzeszczyn (Fig. 1). It is set in a 10-mthick, steeply dipping, NW-trending shear zone in the Izera granite. The dyke is wholly foliated, markedly more so at its margins, and contains within it a boudined orthogneiss xenolith. The sample represents a foliated amphibolite from the central portion of the vein and can be classied as a transitional basalt of the Wrzeszczyn group with a type 5 contact. Sample ST1. This was taken from a location E of the village of Pasiecznik at the foot of Stanek hill (Fig. 1). An ~ 5-m-thick dyke of metadolerite is located inside an ~ 9-m-wide orthogneiss zone. The dyke is poorly foliated in the centre and strongly sheared over a 30-cm-wide margin at the contact with its host orthogneiss. The other margin of the dyke is not exposed. Sample ST1 is a weakly foliated, medium-grained amphibolite belonging to an alkali basalt of the Wrzeszczyn group with types 3 or 4 contacts. Sample BOZK. This came from the central part of a 7-m-thick, Wtrending dyke that crops out at the northern shore of the Leniaskie Lake, south of Bokowice (Fig. 1). The dyke crosscuts a pre-existing, N-dipping foliation in the host gneisses. Two ~10-cm-thick apophyses of the dyke enclose fragments of the gneisses. The foliation planes in the entrapped fragments are parallel to the foliation planes in the country gneisses. The vein is unfoliated in an ~ 2-m-thick central zone, then becomes gradually more sheared towards its margins where an amphibolechlorite schist developed in the ~ 10-cm-thick marginal zone. Sample BOZK represents a ne-grained, massive amphibolite from the centre of the vein, is classied as the alkali basalt of the Lena group, and displays a type 6 contact. Sample A111. This was collected from the central part of a 1-m-thick basic dyke that cuts leptinite embedded in the Stara Kamienica schist belt (Fig. 1). The dyke has a massive amphibolite centre and strongly schistose marginal zones, some 35 cm wide. The leptinite contact is foliated and becomes a ne-grained schist in a zone 3 cm adjacent to the contact. Sample A111 is a massive, medium-grain amphibolite derived from an alkali basalt protolith.

None of the eight samples revealed zircons in the thin section, but very small zircons (b50 m across) were occasionally seen in BSE images (Fig. 7a,b,c,d). Subhedral to euhedral zircons occur as inclusions in amphibole (A111, S10; Fig. 7a), quartz (A111, S10; Fig. 7a,b) and plagioclase (S15, ST1), but rarely in chlorite (ST1), epidote (S15, ST1) and K-feldspar (ST1). Anhedral zircons are mostly associated with titanite and ilmenite (ST1; Fig. 7b). 9. Zircon descriptions Two distinct types of zircons that differed in colour, size and habit were identied and are here labelled as types I and II (Fig. 8). Some zircons from both types had slightly rounded edges. Zircons of type I are colourless, transparent, euhedral to subhedral and are S-type in the typology of Pupin (1980). Type I zircons are bright in CL images and display distinct corerim structures: inherited cores are surrounded by rims of well-developed oscillatory zoning (Fig. 8). The cores, usually with rounded edges show a variety of internal

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Fig. 7. Back scattered electron (BSE) images of small zircon grains (b50 m across) from the Izera metabasites. a) Zircon inclusions in quartz and amphibole (magnesiohornblende) (A111). b) Zircon inclusions in quartz (S10). c) Zircon grains in association with titanite and ilmenite (ST1). d) Zircon inclusions in chlorite (ST1). e) Zircon inclusions in plagioclase (oligoclase) (S15). Abbreviations are as follows: Ab (albite); Amp (amphibole); Ap (apatite); Chl (chlorite); Cpx (clinopyroxene); Ep (epidote); Ilm (ilmenite); Olig (oligoclase); Pl (plagioclase); Qz (quartz); Ttn (titanite); Zrn (zircon). Scale bars are 50 m long.

structures: sector zoning, indistinct oscillatory or planar/band zoning or, commonly, irregular domains. Sometimes the growth zoning of the cores is crosscut by the oscillatory zoned rims (e.g. BOZK). Crystals without the inherited cores are rare and display either oscillatory zoning throughout the whole grain, or show planar-banded zoning surrounded by thin rims of oscillatory zoning. Some type I zircons are surrounded by thin, unzoned, CL-dark rims (S17, S10). Zircons of type II appear predominantly as anhedral fragments of larger euhedral crystals, possibly broken during the rock-crushing preparation. Unbroken crystals are subhedral or euhedral, usually shortprismatic (elongation ratio up to 2:1) with occasionally preserved pyramidal faces. They represent P5, D or J types in the typology of Pupin (1980). The type II zircon grains are brown, non-transparent or have only turbid cores usually rich in mineral inclusions. They are bigger (100600 m) than the type I zircons and are dark in CL. Nevertheless,

their internal structures are discernible (Fig. 8). Most of the brown zircons have a relatively large core (usually 2/3 of the grain size) surrounded by a thinner rim of oscillatory zoning, or, more rarely, sector zoning (Fig. 8). The centres are almost homogeneous, though some have irregular domains differing slightly in CL emission or have poorly visible sector zoning. Some of the brown zircons show sector zoning, often of the hourglass type with narrow rims of very low CL. The percentage contributions of the two types of zircons occurring in the metabasite samples are variable. The two alkali basalts A111 and BOZK contain exclusively crystals of type I, whereas the metadolerite ST1 has only brown zircons of type II. Sample S17 contains crystals of type I with rims of type II. In the other four samples, there are zircons of both types, with brown zircons (8090%) strongly dominating (S10, S15, RB1). Only one sample (W3) showed a more or less equal amount of the two zircon types.

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Fig. 8. Examples of cathodoluminescence images for type I and II zircons. Type I: BOZK 1, A111 13, A111 18, S10 16, S15 9, S17 8, S17 14. Type II: ST1 9, ST1 11, W3 6, S10 15.

10. Results of zircon UPb dating When sample RB1 was subjected to single zircon ID-TIMS UPb analysis, the two zircon populations above could be distinguished. The colorless zircons have very low uranium content (68.494.6 ppm),

while in contrast the brown zircons are rich in uranium, ranging from 1315 to 2571 ppm (Table 2). Five abraded brown zircons from sample RB1 were analyzed and showed the typical positive correlation between uranium content, common lead content and discordance. All the zircons were discordant. The 207Pb/206Pb ages varied between 393 and 403 Ma,

Table 2 Analytical details and results of UPb isotopic measurements for zircons of sample RB1. Grain Weight (g) Concentration (ppm) U Pb Radio genic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
a

Corrected 206 Pb/204Pb ratioa Initial 0.8 0.9 0.5 2.6 4.1 1.0 0.3 6040 5707 14269 2767 2042 389 2587

Calculated atomic ratios


206

Pb/

238

207

Pb/

235

207

Pb/

206

Pb

Cor. R5/R8

Apparent ages (Ma)


206

Pb/238U

207

Pb/235U

207

Pb/206Pb

b 10 b 10 14 b 10 b 10 30 15

1339.6 1315.0 1988.0 2018.9 2571.0 68.4 94.6

103.0 104.0 170.5 149.9 155.9 6.0 11.2

0.05977 19 0.05909 19 0.05812 09 0.05544 10 0.05182 09 0.08436 82 0.11774 114

0.4507 19 0.4453 19 0.4370 09 0.4188 12 0.3910 11 0.7084 138 1.4773 165

0.05469 14 0.05465 15 0.05454 06 0.05478 11 0.05473 12 0.06090 100 0.09100 49

0.78 0.77 0.83 0.71 0.66 0.54 0.88

374 1 370 1 364 1 345 1 326 1 522 5 718 7

378 2 374 2 368 1 355 1 335 1 544 11 921 10

400 6 398 6 393 2 403 4 401 5 636 36 1447 10

Corrected for mass fractionation, spike and blank.

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with a mean value of 396 5 Ma. The single zircons dene a discordia line (MSWD= 1.012) with an upper intercept at 392 +9/6 Ma, interpreted as an emplacement age, and a lower intercept at 59 + 87/88 Ma. The lower intercept has no geological meaning and appears to be related to low temperature Pb-loss. Two U-low, colourless zircons are discordant (points 6 and 7 in Fig. 9a). The lower one plots close to the concordia, near 510 Ma. A line dened by the two data points intersects the concordia at 506 Ma, which coincides with the age of the host granite, and at 2300 Ma. The upper intercept age of 392 +9/6 Ma of the U-rich zircons of type II from sample RB1 is similar within error to the SHRIMP II analyses of the U-rich zircons of type II from samples:S-17.8.2 (387 4 Ma) and S-15.4.1 (386 4 Ma). Six zircons of sample W3 give a mean age of 391 5 Ma (MSWD = 0.30, probability = 0.88). One-hundred-and-nine single grains of both zircon types were retrieved from the remaining 7 samples and were analyzed with the SHRIMP II machine for UPb data (Table 3). Analytical spot locations are shown on Fig. 8, and the data are plotted on concordia diagrams (Fig. 9). The colourless zircons of type I either have relatively low U contents in their cores (1041366 ppm) and oscillatory zoning rims, or they are slightly richer in U (812338 ppm), oscillatory zoned and do not have cores. In the type I zircons, Th/U ratios in the cores show scatter between 0.005 and 1.460, while their zoned rims have Th/U ratios ranging from 0.03 to 0.86. In contrast, the brown type II zircons are relatively rich in uranium (12214316 ppm) and thorium (Table 4). Th/U ratios in the type II zircons exhibit a wide range between 0.26 and 20.77 (Fig. 10). 10.1. Zircons of type I The cores of the type I zircons are interpreted as inherited and yielded 3 groups of concordant ages (Table 3): 1) A group of 560550 Ma in samples S17 (points 25.1 and 8.1) and S10 (point 12.1) 2) A group of 680600 Ma in samples A111 (point 9.1), BOZK (points 5.1, 9.1), S17 (point 20.1), S10 (points 16.1, 14.1) and S15 (points 17.1, 9.1, 22.1) 3) A group showing N 1.0 Ga intervals. Intervals ranged 1.01.2 Ga (samples BOZK and S17), 1.61.7 Ga (samples BOZK, S10) and 1.92.2 Ga (samples BOZK, S17, S10). The oscillatory zoned rims surrounding the inherited cores in the type I zircons yielded concordant ages: 502.1 3.7 Ma (S15), 487.3 7.7 Ma (W3) and 499.3 5.6 Ma (S10). An exception was for sample BOZK where the zoned rims yielded a concordant age of 561.9 5.5 Ma (7 points), corresponding to the ages of some type I cores. Both the centres and rims of the type I zircons without the inherited cores were analyzed in samples S17 and A111. They yielded concordant ages of 484.7 3.3 Ma (S17; 19 points) and 484.6 7.7 Ma (A111; 8 points). The thin, unzoned and CL-dark rims that occasionally surround the grains of type I yielded concordant ages of 387.0 4.3 Ma in zircon S178.2, and 432.3 6.3 Ma in zircon S1012.2. 10.2. Zircons of type II Most analytical points in the brown zircons, regardless of their position within the grains, yielded concordant ages with means of 372 3 Ma (5 points) in sample S15, 370 2 Ma (8 points) in sample W3, 364 7 Ma (7 points) in sample S10, 375 1 Ma (14 points), and 366 2 Ma (8 points) in sample ST1. Two analytical points located in central hour glass structures in sample S15 yielded discordant ages of 432 4 and 414 5 Ma. Thus, we infer that the brown zircons grew

Fig. 9. Zircon UPb concordia diagrams for metabasites analysed in this study. a) sample RB1, all zircons; b) sample RB1, brown zircons; c) sample BOZK; d) sample A111; e) sample S-17; f) sample S-15; g) sample S-10; h) sample W3; i) sample W3, relative probability plot for two age groups between ~391 Ma and ~371 Ma; J) sample ST1. Sample locations as given in Section 8 of the text.

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Fig 9. (continued).

mainly between 375 Ma and 364 Ma, with the majority at ~ 370 Ma within the error limits. The alkali basalts BOZK and A111 contain no Devonian zircons as they do not have any type II zircon. In metagabbro S-17, a Devonian age was obtained from a thin, unzoned, CL-dark rim on a Neoproterozoic type I zircon.

10.3. REE contents in the zircons To get more information from the two types of zircons, especially the brown ones, all were analysed for REE contents (Table 4, Fig. 10). The analyses were performed on the zoned rims of type I zircons and on the

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homogeneous cores and zoned rims of type II. The zircons of type I have REE contents in the range 10963051 ppm. On the REE chondritenormalized plot, they show a steep positive slope from La to Lu, are enriched in heavy REEs, and have a prominent positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly (Fig. 10). Such characteristics are commonly considered typical for igneous zircon (e.g. Hoskin and Schaltegger, 2003; Whitehouse, 2003). The type II zircons display higher REE concentrations and markedly shallower REE proles, with a slightly atter heavy REE prole, than the type I zircons. The type II zircon REE patterns are parallel, relatively coherent, positively sloped and have a clearly positive Ce anomaly and a moderate negative Eu anomaly. 11. Interpretation of the results 11.1. Metabasite geochemistry The geochemical studies suggest that the alkali basalts are the dominant type among the Izera metabasites, comprising most of the dated samples (5 out of total 8), and that they originated from an enriched asthenospheric mantle OIB-type magma. The next commonest type (2 samples) are the transitional basalts, which derived from a mixing of depleted and undepleted asthenospheric mantle sources. Some contamination from the continental crust was detected in volumetrically very minor basalts of N-MORB-type and within-plate tholeiites (1 sample). Two lithologies, N-MORB-type basalt and calcalkaline basaltic andesites, do not contain retrievable zircons and remain undated. The dominant alkali metabasites possess La/Nbb 1 and La/Ta b 12 and hence show no signicant signs of geochemical contamination by continental crust (Ilnicki, 2010; Nowak, 2003). 11.2. Zircons isotopic ages and REE geochemistry The age of 392 +9/6 Ma for the upper intercept of the discordia line obtained from the single zircon ID-TIMS UPb analysis of the brown type II zircons in sample RB1 is interpreted as the Devonian intrusion of a gabbroic vein into the Cambro-Ordovician Izera granite. The age of 392 +9/6 Ma is similar to eight UPb analyses determined by the SHRIMP II. The SHRIMP UPb analyses shed more light on the Devonian (Givetian to Famennian) magmatic episode and, in conjunction with the CL images, conrm that the Izera metabasite dykes contain at least two generations of zircons. The colourless, transparent, euhedral to subhedral type I zircons yielded ages in the range of 530460 Ma. In the inherited cores of these zircons different age groups were found: 560550 Ma, 680600 Ma and more than 1.0 Ga. Inherited zircons with UPb ages at around 510 Ma or older suggest contamination by country rock. By contrast, the brown, non-transparent, subhedral or broken type II zircons (Fig. 8) yielded younger ages of ~390365 Ma. Some of the type I zircons possess outer rims that are dark in CL and that resemble the type II zircons. These rims yielded ages that were either ~370390 Ma or were N 400 Ma: this might be due to the electron beam overlapping core and rim during the analysis. The type I zircons have a normal habit and pronounced oscillatory zoning, which strongly suggests a magmatic origin (e.g. Hoskin and Schaltegger, 2003). However, such features are thought to be typical of zircons grown in a felsic magma. In fact, the type I zircons are similar to zircon crystals extracted from the Izera granite and gneisses, rocks into which the basic magma intruded to form the mapped dyke swarm (Fig. 1). The results of UPb dating of the zoned rims, or of whole grains of type I zircons, are almost identical with the intrusion age of a probable granitic protolith for the Izera orthogneisses, estimated to be 515480 Ma by UPb single grain zircon analyses (Korytowski et al., 1993; Oliver et al., 1993; Philippe et al., 1995) and from PbPb evaporation ages (Krner et al., 1994, 2001). Such a coincidence may mean that the type I zircons represent xenocrysts incorporated into the basic magma via assimilation of material derived from the local granitic

crust. But the majority of the Izera metabasites (the alkali basalts) show very insignicant signs of continental crustal contamination (Ilnicki, 2010; Nowak, 2003). Therefore, one possible explanation is that the abundance of zircons in the host granite was high enough to leave behind type I zircons as a result of small amounts of granite becoming incorporated and then diffused and diluted into the mac magma. Most type II zircons do not display any distinct internal zoning except for narrow rims with weak oscillatory zoning, and they are almost uniformly dark in CL. These characteristics when combined with high U values suggest that these zircons are metamorphic or, possibly, are recrystallized magmatic grains (e.g. Corfu et al., 2003; Hoskin and Black, 2000). The uniform interiors of the type II zircons is evidence for homogeneous growth from a mac magma (e.g. Chen et al., 2008; Koglin et al., 2009), and the high Th/U values (0.2620.77) are typical for mac magmatic zircons (e.g. Rubatto and Gebauer, 2000), in contrast to the low Th/U ratios (0.010.08) typical of metamorphic zircons (e.g. Hoskin and Ireland, 2000). Magmatic zircons with high U contents from mac and intermediate rocks are interpreted as grains grown by disequilibrium crystallization of zircon from a residual magma enriched in U and Th (Wang et al., 2011). The oscillatory zoning of the rims suggests growth in a melt (Connelly, 2000; Vavra, 1994) or during high-pressure metamorphism (Corfu et al., 2003). The Izera metabasites experienced metamorphism no higher than medium amphibolite facies. And the zircon samples used in this paper came from the undeformed, or only mildly deformed, less metamorphosed central parts of the basic veins. The REE patterns (Fig. 10), the Th/U ratios (0.41.8), and the weak oscillatory zoning in the rims of the type II zircons suggest that these zircons crystallized from a magmatic melt rather than from metamorphic uids. The slightly attened HREE patterns of the type II zircons are connected with the coeval crystallization of other HREE-scavenging minerals such as pyroxene. The differences in the REE concentrations and the proles between the types I and II zircons probably reect crystallization from magmatic melts which differed in their chemistry. The above evidence leads us to the conclusion, subject to more sophisticated proof, that the type I zircons are xenocrysts from the surrounding granite and that the type II zircons derive from the basic magmas, being similar to zircons described from mid-ocean crust gabbro (e.g. Schwartz et al., 2010). 11.3. Tectonic and metamorphic evolution Our structural observations show that the ~500 Ma Izera granites and the basic veins that intruded into them at ~390370 Ma jointly underwent early deformation mainly in the extensional/transtensional regime with normal dip-slip shearing accompanied by a left-lateral component. The two lithologies were later deformed by oblique thrusting in a dextral strikeslip transpressional regime (Czapliski, 1998; Nowak, 2003; Nowak and elaniewicz, 2000; elaniewicz et al., 2003) and deformed even more by subsequent ductile/semi-brittle shearing in a left-lateral regime. The extensional/transtensional deformation was accompanied by greenschist facies metamorphism (as deduced from mineral relicts locally preserved in the unfoliated, central portions of thick basic dykes) at 450480 C and at 1.82.2 kbar, probably with a high thermal gradient of ~ 90 C/km (Nowak and elaniewicz, 2000). The subsequent extensive dextral transpressive shearing progressed from low to medium grade amphibolite facies, reaching a temperature peak of 470630 C and a pressure of 68 kbar. The last stage of metamorphism, again under greenschist facies, was associated with the reactivated deformation with the top-to-the WNW sinistral, strike slip/oblique, ductile/semi-brittle shearing on the earlier foliation planes both in the metagranite and the metabasic veins. This sequence of tectonic events is thought to generally accord with the wider tectonic history of the region: (1) Extensional widening of the Saxothuringian seaway/ocean in the IzeraKaczawa segment; (2) Subsequent transpressional tectonics, which terminated convergence of the Variscan

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Table 3 Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) ThUPb data for our analysed Izera zircon samples. Spot %
206

ppm Pbc U 517 662 1506 461 531 496 544 254 182 97 706 444 585 436 252 430 81 396 137 1230

ppm Th 78 47 70 252 68 214 78 125 116 11 18 183 245 47 172 55 49 197 67 548

232

Th/238U

ppm
206

206

Pb/238U Age

207

Pb/206Pb Age

206

Pb*/238U

err corr

Pb* 476 479 482 483 486 494 503 528 650 1258 1680 1735 1739 1776 1808 1819 1863 1869 1949 1967 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 14 34 33 34 34 35 35 36 38 36 39 37 545 504 405 416 493 516 465 594 541 1804 1696 1736 1815 1805 1908 1843 1863 1945 1959 2024.7 45 33 30 62 34 66 56 41 110 90 11 13 11 10 14 11 27 19 17 5.6 2 1.5 1.3 2.8 1.5 3 2.5 1.9 4.9 5 0.57 0.73 0.58 0.58 0.79 0.62 1.5 1.1 0.97 0.32 0.0767 0.0772 0.0776 0.0777 0.0784 0.0796 0.0812 0.0853 0.1061 0.2155 0.2978 0.3089 0.3096 0.3172 0.3237 0.3261 0.3351 0.3363 0.3531 0.3568 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.2 .741 .834 .857 .631 .826 .600 .668 .772 .428 .514 .968 .951 .967 .968 .944 .964 .845 .903 .921 .990

Sample A111 zircon type I KOT4.1 KOT7.1 0.05 KOT13.2 0.22 KOT3.1 0.24 KOT14.1 0.08 KOT13.1 0.34 KOT14.2 0.16 KOT11.1 0.01 KOT9.1 0.61 KOT8.1 0.37 KOT6.2 0.06 KOT10.1 0.06 KOT12.1 KOT2.1 KOT1.1 0.05 KOT16.1 KOT18.1 0.16 KOT17.1 0.69 KOT5.1 KOT6.1 0.00 Sample BOZK zircon type I BOZK_1.1 0.17 BOZK_5.2 0.18 BOZK_8.1 0.52 BOZK_1.2 0.24 BOZK_10.1 0.19 BOZK_3.1 0.18 BOZK_11.1 0.13 BOZK_6.1 0.31 BOZK_9.2 1.97 BOZK_2.1 0.25 BOZK_9.1 0.31 BOZK_5.1 0.26 BOZK_4.2 0.03 BOZK_6.2 0.02 BOZK_3.2 0.05 BOZK_7.1 0.05 Sample S17 zircon type I S-17.8.2 0.06 S-17.6.1 0.04 S-17.22.1 S-17.7.1 0.01 S-17.16.1 0.07 S-17.10.1 0.13 S-17.5.1 0.06 S-17.3.1 0.06 S-17.17.1 0.06 S-17.2.1 0.70 S-17.21.1 S-17.11.1 0.05 S-17.9.2 0.00 S-17.18.1 S-17.20.2 0.04 S-17.4.1 0.14 S-17.1.1 0.40 S-17.24.1 0.03 S-17.14.1 S-17.15.1 0.00 S-17.12.1 S-17.19.1 0.00 S-17.13.1 0.10 S-17.26.1 0.76 S-17.8.1 0.13 S-17.26.2 0.45 S-17.25.1 0.21 S-17.20.1 0.26 S-17.9.1 0.14 S-17.23.1

0.16 0.07 0.05 0.57 0.13 0.45 0.15 0.51 0.66 0.12 0.03 0.43 0.43 0.11 0.71 0.13 0.63 0.51 0.50 0.46

34 43.9 101 30.8 35.8 34.1 38.1 18.6 16.7 18 181 118 156 119 70.3 120 23.3 115 41.6 377

273 930 685 337 471 192 565 308 329 241 143 687 163 898 299 608

23 53 323 58 69 57 44 44 22 82 186 254 99 265 184 867

0.09 0.06 0.49 0.18 0.15 0.31 0.08 0.15 0.07 0.35 1.34 0.38 0.63 0.31 0.64 1.47

21.4 68.8 51.5 25.6 36.4 15 45.5 25.3 28.1 20.3 12.8 62.9 28.8 218 88.3 183

562 531.5 537.9 544.7 553.9 558.8 576.6 587.3 598.6 599.6 638.8 651.2 1207.9 1602.4 1904 1938

4.8 3.3 3.4 4.8 3.8 5.2 3.7 4.4 5.3 4.8 6 4.1 9 8.3 12 13

502 493 738 455 508 544 510 440 1011 526 560 596 1227 1827.5 2686 2120.5

68 41 46 130 51 120 40 82 110 65 77 38 36 8.3 27 8.6

3.1 1.8 2.2 5.6 2.3 5.7 1.8 3.7 5.6 3 3.6 1.8 1.9 0.46 1.7 0.49

0.0911 0.08594 0.08703 0.08818 0.08972 0.09056 0.09357 0.09538 0.09731 0.09748 0.1042 0.10629 0.2061 0.2822 0.3436 0.3507

0.9 0.65 0.65 0.92 0.72 0.97 0.67 0.79 0.92 0.83 0.99 0.66 0.82 0.58 0.73 0.76

.278 .331 .289 .161 .296 .167 .346 .210 .162 .268 .267 .351 .404 .786 .406 .839

1234 483 394 518 808 644 735 837 870 444 233 550 679 1145 659 360 169 636 771 272 444 970 339 143 297 134 104 376 264 157

12 53 50 221 183 163 73 73 79 44 107 81 52 50 52 64 52 65 65 117 187 110 26 113 111 87 51 44 29 80

0.01 0.11 0.13 0.44 0.23 0.26 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.47 0.15 0.08 0.05 0.08 0.19 0.32 0.11 0.09 0.45 0.43 0.12 0.08 0.82 0.39 0.67 0.51 0.12 0.11 0.53

65.5 31.3 25.6 33.8 53.1 42.5 48.8 55.6 57.9 30.0 15.8 37.3 46.0 77.7 44.9 24.5 11.6 43.6 53.1 18.9 32.2 70.4 25.1 11.1 23.0 10.6 8.2 33.8 38.2 54.2

387 469 471 472 475 477 480 480 481 485 489 490 490 491 491 492 493 495 498 502 522 523 532 552 557 562 565 640 1003 2184

4.3 5.6 5.6 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.6 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.3 5.5 5.6 6.1 5.5 5.5 5.8 5.8 5.7 6 7.4 6.5 7.7 7.7 7.2 14 23

408 472 458 477 468 510 467 503 449 532 486 499 465 486 508 537 491 474 488 479 532 507 534 577 565 542 593 1140 1129 2161

26 19 33 25 27 37 26 27 22 77 38 29 23 17 25 52 95 26 21 61 27 19 33 130 46 140 72 32 30 11

1.2 0.87 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.7 1.2 1.2 0.99 3.5 1.7 1.3 1 0.78 1.2 2.4 4.3 1.2 0.93 2.8 1.2 0.85 1.5 5.9 2.1 6.6 3.3 1.6 1.5 0.66

0.06178 0.07551 0.07578 0.07594 0.07645 0.07684 0.07726 0.07732 0.07745 0.07817 0.07885 0.08 0.08 0.07905 0.07919 0.07934 0.08 0.07982 0.08 0.08098 0.08439 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.1 0.17 0.4

1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.2

.695 .817 .635 .710 .688 .571 .701 .680 .752 .323 .576 .660 .751 .825 .709 .447 .288 .702 .776 .396 .690 .802 .611 .231 .503 .210 .392 .595 .691 .885

I. Nowak et al. / Lithos 126 (2011) 435454 Table 3 (continued) Spot %


206

449

ppm Pbc U 756 980 877 899 1029 1297 388 662 324 1029 438

ppm Th 288 75 55 53 67 83 12 317 458 5 70

232

Th/238U

ppm
206

206

Pb/238U Age

207

Pb/206Pb Age

206

Pb*/238U

err corr

Pb* 432.3 479.1 493.4 499.2 507.6 508.2 514.1 566.7 606.1 679 2057 6.3 6.9 7 7.2 7.3 7.2 7.6 8.1 8.9 11 26 449 472 486 496 505 507 506 562 623 761 2482 65 27 21 33 20 17 31 27 28 15 11 2.9 1.2 0.95 1.5 0.91 0.77 1.4 1.3 1.3 0.7 0.67 0.0694 0.0771 0.0795 0.0805 0.0819 0.082 0.083 0.0919 0.0986 0.111 0.3758 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 .455 .776 .841 .710 .854 .885 .741 .765 .761 .920 .912

Sample S10 zircon SIEDL10_12.2 SIEDL10_1.1 SIEDL10_19.1 SIEDL10_16.2 SIEDL10_8.2 SIEDL10_13.1 SIEDL10_11.1 SIEDL10_12.1 SIEDL10_14.1 SIEDL10_16.1 SIEDL10_8.1 Sample S10 zircon SIEDL10_18.1 SIEDL10_15.1 SIEDL10_2.1 SIEDL10_3.1 SIEDL10_7.1 SIEDL10_4.1 SIEDL10_17.1 SIEDL10_6.1 SIEDL10_5.1 SIEDL10_9.1

type I 0.78 0.08 0.06 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.04 type II 1.71 0.41 0.02 0.08 0.85 0.32 0.15 0.01 0.00 0.03

0.39 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.03 0.50 1.46 0.005 0.16

45.4 65 59.9 62.2 72.4 91.4 27.7 52.2 27.4 98.1 142

3338 2397 668 2244 3669 3024 2447 1745 3806 2338

853 4167 235 2405 3846 3715 2583 1804 5272 1861

0.26 1.80 0.36 1.11 1.08 1.27 1.09 1.07 1.43 0.82

140 114 32.1 112 185 154 125 90.9 199 129

301.8 346.6 351.2 364.8 364.8 370.1 372.6 379.5 380.5 401.1

4.3 5 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.5 5.4 6.5

364 358 365 369 375 371 372 391 390 403

52 33 33 24 30 26 34 26 13 19

2.3 1.4 1.5 1 1.3 1.1 1.5 1.1 0.59 0.83

0.04793 0.05525 0.056 0.05822 0.05822 0.05909 0.0595 0.06064 0.06081 0.0642

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.7

.539 .712 .724 .815 .748 .789 .697 .790 .929 .894

Sample S15 zircon type I S15_15.1 0.20 S15_16.1 S15_14.1 S15_6.1 S15_19.1 0.17 S15_17.2 0.05 S15_23.1 S15_25.1 0.01 S15_24.1 0.11 S15_5.1 0.03 S15_18.1 S15_7.1 0.09 S15_13.1 S15_9.2 S15_1.1 0.20 S15_22.1 0.12 S15_9.1 S15_17.1 0.01 S15_8.1 0.01 Sample S15 zircon type II S15_11.1 0.10 S15_25.2 0.13 S15_10.1 0.39 S15_3.1 S15_20.1 0.09 S15_12.1 1.37 S15_4.1 1.19 S15_21.1 6.34 S15_2.1 1.32 Sample W3 zircon type I W3-2.7.1 0.15 W3-2.9.1 0.02 Sample W3 zircon type II W3-2.5.1 0.06 W3-2.2.1 0.09 W3-2.16.1 0.17 W3-2.14.1 0.02 W3-2.8.1 0.01 W3-2.11.1 0.00 W3-2.15.1 0.01 W3-2.10.1 0.01 W3-2.3.1 0.01 W3-2.12.1 0.03 W3-2.13.1 0.10 W3-2.6.1 0.01

356 1682 830 410 310 1316 1094 1005 455 656 528 690 1468 583 328 236 562 1366 394

45 79 421 83 55 89 62 69 68 392 60 60 73 73 145 101 499 131 178

0.13 0.05 0.52 0.21 0.18 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.15 0.62 0.12 0.09 0.05 0.13 0.46 0.44 0.92 0.10 0.47

22.6 113 56.1 27.7 21.2 90.7 75.6 70 31.9 46 37.2 48.8 104 41.5 24.1 19.8 48.2 124 104

458.2 487.1 488.5 489.2 493 497.2 499 502.7 504.5 505.5 509.2 509.8 512.9 513.6 528.1 600.3 613.5 648.8 1722

4.6 4.1 4.3 4.7 4.9 4.7 4.9 4.4 5 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.7 5.5 6.1 5.3 5.4 15

501 478 491 523 488 501 495 496 519 515 492 505 504 490 518 631 603 639 2109

71 16 25 36 61 21 20 20 44 28 30 34 22 49 53 49 18 14 15

3.2 0.73 1.1 1.6 2.8 0.95 0.92 0.91 2 1.3 1.4 1.6 0.99 2.2 2.4 2.3 0.82 0.67 0.87

0.07367 0.07849 0.07873 0.07883 0.07948 0.08018 0.08048 0.0811 0.0814 0.08158 0.08219 0.08229 0.08281 0.08293 0.08537 0.0976 0.09984 0.10589 0.3061

1 0.88 0.92 0.99 1 0.98 1 0.9 1 0.94 0.95 0.94 0.89 0.96 1.1 1.1 0.9 0.88 0.97

.308 .768 .627 .516 .352 .720 .741 .702 .451 .599 .570 .513 .667 .398 .413 .424 .742 .794 .744

1573 192 473 463 1545 1221 1793 489 725

599 11 2045 3488 6325 4246 4435 9836 1231

0.39 0.06 4.47 7.79 4.23 3.59 2.56 20.77 1.76

72.2 9.53 24 23.5 79.4 64.8 98.7 29.8 43.8

335.3 361.3 369.2 370.9 373.9 380.9 395.7 413.8 432.2

2.9 4.7 3.7 3.7 3.3 3.5 3.5 5.2 4.3

342 389 370 389 378 336 388 397 463

27 75 74 45 28 80 65 260 110

1.2 3.3 3.3 2 1.3 3.5 2.9 12 5.2

0.05339 0.05765 0.05894 0.05922 0.05971 0.06088 0.06331 0.06629 0.06934

0.89 1.3 1 1 0.9 0.94 0.91 1.3 1

.600 .374 .297 .456 .580 .256 .301 .109 .195

2827 2032

90 67

0.03 0.03

178 137

456 488

3.6 3.9

466 474

17 16

0.78 0.72

0.07328 0.07867

0.83 0.84

.728 .760

1679 1367 3586 3755 4048 2727 4590 5633 10021 7321 6799 6185

708 556 970 1594 1663 2164 2129 2939 5456 7127 3841 5245

0.44 0.42 0.28 0.44 0.42 0.82 0.48 0.54 0.56 1.01 0.58 0.88

84.3 68.8 181 189 207 139 234 291 525 390 363 331

366 367 367 368 372 372 372 376 382 387 389 389

3.1 3.2 3 3 3 3.1 3 3 3 3.1 3.4 3.1

389 356 386 377 367 352 376 376 386 390 384 383

31 38 21 16 13 15 14 11 9.3 12 13 9.9

1.4 1.7 0.94 0.73 0.56 0.66 0.63 0.48 0.41 0.55 0.59 0.44

0.05845 0.05855 0.05865 0.05867 0.05938 0.06 0.05941 0.06005 0.06099 0.06194 0.06212 0.06227

0.86 0.91 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.82 0.89 0.82

.533 .476 .670 .755 .832 .792 .798 .866 .893 .828 .831 .881

(continued on next page)

450 Table 3 (continued) Spot %


206

I. Nowak et al. / Lithos 126 (2011) 435454

ppm Pbc U 8173 4251

ppm Th 9751 6738

232

Th/238U

ppm
206

206

Pb/238U Age

207

Pb/206Pb Age

206

Pb*/238U

err corr

Pb* 394 395 4.1 3.2 389 395 9.9 14 0.44 0.63 0.06307 0.06318 1.1 0.83 .927 .796

Sample W3 zircon type II W3-2.4.1 0.01 W3-2.1.1 0.03 Sample ST1 zircon ST1.6.1 ST1.2.1 ST1.11.1 ST1.17.1 ST1.12.1 ST1.11.2 ST1.4.1 ST1.15.1 ST1.5.1 ST1.10.1 ST1.8.1 ST1.16.1 ST1.3.1 ST1.7.1 ST1.18.1 ST1.9.1 ST1.13.1 ST1.14.1 ST1.1.1 ST1.9.2 type II 0.36 0.32 0.58 0.37 0.53 0.36 0.38 0.45 0.37 0.16 0.25 0.08 0.29 0.81 0.21 0.50 0.07 0.02 0.10 0.05

1.23 1.64

443 231

499 870 863 3157 432 819 818 792 2225 2014 1972 2351 1865 2087 1910 1669 2766 3186 1564 4316

10916 1473 7432 7286 2233 4640 4029 2011 11030 4011 3825 5504 10485 3374 9187 5159 4622 10207 1442 8500

22.59 1.75 8.90 2.38 5.34 5.85 5.09 2.62 5.12 2.06 2.00 2.42 5.81 1.67 4.97 3.19 1.73 3.31 0.95 2.03

24.6 43.4 43.2 159 21.8 41.6 41.7 40.4 114 103 101 122 96.8 109 99.2 87.1 144 166 82.5 238

358.2 362.5 363.0 365.1 366.1 369.4 369.7 370.6 370.9 373.5 373.7 376.6 377.1 377.6 377.6 378.2 378.7 379.0 383.6 401.0

3.6 2.8 2.7 1.6 3.7 2.7 3.2 2.7 1.8 1.8 2 1.6 1.9 2.1 1.8 2.2 1.8 1.4 2.1 1.8

375 316 375 375 453 427 402 447 360 393 376 348 374 417 362 405 371 372 376 393

140 120 140 41 140 99 110 100 50 41 77 29 57 71 43 71 27 22 48 34

6.1 5.3 6.3 1.8 6.5 4.4 4.7 4.7 2.2 1.8 3.4 1.3 2.5 3.2 1.9 3.2 1.2 0.97 2.1 1.5

0.05714 0.05785 0.05793 0.05827 0.05843 0.05897 0.05903 0.05918 0.05923 0.05965 0.05969 0.06016 0.06024 0.06032 0.06032 0.06042 0.06051 0.06055 0.06132 0.06418

1 0.78 0.77 0.46 1 0.75 0.89 0.76 0.5 0.5 0.56 0.44 0.53 0.57 0.48 0.6 0.48 0.38 0.55 0.45

.167 .146 .122 .243 .158 .166 .186 .159 .219 .268 .161 .326 .206 .176 .241 .186 .372 .364 .250 .290

terranes and that led to the closure of the Saxothuringian Basin with consequent thickening of the crust accompanied by the metamorphic peak; (3) Final adjustment of the orogenic pile by W-directed transport (Nowak and elaniewicz, 2000; elaniewicz et al., 2003). The transpressional stage is coeval with a high temperature event between 345 and 335 Ma, as estimated by ArAr data (Marheine et al., 2002). The overall WNW-ward tectonic transport in the Izera (para)autochthonous gneisses and basic rocks might, therefore, be linked to the same general processes that produced the W-vergent thrusting in the superposed allochthonous units, with blueschist facies rocks occurring to the south and north (Aleksandrowski and Mazur, 2002; Seston et al., 2000). 12. Discussion and conclusions The Izera metabasites have hitherto been interpreted as the basic product of bimodal magmatism that was due to Cambro-Ordovician

continental rifting (elaniewicz, 1994). They have also been treated as a part of a tholeiitic and alkalic metabasalt series that, in the Sudetes, may have been associated with an Early Palaeozoic plumeridge interaction (Floyd et al., 2000). However, the data reported in this paper calls both these hypotheses into question. Although the basic rocks contain a number of zircons dated at 506485 Ma, it seems doubtful whether the basic magma actually penetrated the Izera granitic pluton concurrently with its emplacement at 515480 Ma. In the Orlicanienik Dome, the nearest major tectono-stratigraphic unit in the West Sudetes to the LausitzIzera Massif, the 515480 Ma augen orthogneisses, which are commonly considered as a counterpart to the Izera metagranite, are free of metabasic veins, such veins only occurring within metasediments and in migmatitic gneisses. Our structural observations of the Izera basic veins, including their contacts with the granite/gneiss country rocks, show that some veins intruded under greenschist conditions into pre-existing shear zones that, prior to

Table 4 Results of laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analyses of rare earth elements in zircons from 3 dated samples: S17, S10, and W3. Zircon type I S17-12-1 c La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu REE (Sm/La)N (Lu/Gd)N 0.351 2.814 0.282 4.037 7.412 1.360 35.089 13.892 161.108 61.473 239.348 43.955 434.038 91.328 1096.488 32.712 21.057 S17-22-1 c 0.116 1.917 0.203 3.418 9.369 0.461 47.137 15.217 209.336 94.290 379.463 65.053 588.802 105.048 1519.829 125.618 18.030 S17-8-1 c 0.092 4.168 0.144 1.473 2.532 1.106 31.867 14.587 169.97 61.308 227.031 44.057 538.154 118.297 1214.782 42.603 30.034 S10-8-2 r 0.017 0.912 0.063 0.978 4.374 0.196 33.562 20.037 391.897 163.464 625.696 133.997 1407.451 268.792 3051.436 399.131 64.795 S10-13-1 r 0.007 1.752 0.074 1.216 2.433 0.062 25.625 13.260 294.747 135.002 507.817 110.543 1055.442 203.711 2351.693 535.206 64.319 S10-16-1 c 0.064 6.516 0.134 2.330 3.627 0.294 26.941 12.055 179.393 80.662 379.772 100.660 1137.115 206.136 2135.697 88.020 61.905 S10-8-1 c 0.068 5.604 0.208 5.135 7.352 2.493 39.328 12.281 141.889 49.181 203.159 44.010 491.248 91.662 1093.617 167.285 18.857 Zircon type II S10-15-1 r 3.539 368.895 4.784 36.570 34.441 12.014 409.560 117.575 1327.326 385.414 1361.524 226.075 1932.953 244.791 6465.361 15.074 4.836 S10-17-1 r 0.271 133.658 2.600 31.137 54.065 10.085 357.692 97.001 1359.803 453.458 1526.518 288.933 2525.629 368.104 7208.954 308.789 8.326 S10-6-1 c 0.268 51.040 1.168 13.484 18.419 6.099 170.683 42.009 506.187 184.732 720.651 148.503 1281.552 186.908 3331.702 106.323 8.860 W3-6-1 c 5.967 593.738 6.698 58.533 80.686 6.923 650.739 220.007 2426.399 765.081 2624.468 495.409 5546.204 792.536 14273.536 20.945 9.855 W3-8-1 r 1.452 235.895 3.026 48.850 96.698 24.348 373.673 122.224 1201.001 374.333 1292.562 257.798 2410.468 345.202 6787.529 103.187 7.474 W3-13-1 c 0.891 168.529 1.516 16.347 19.733 12.296 128.978 45.886 616.004 249.626 1182.122 245.370 2162.293 369.807 5219.398 34.302 23.197

I. Nowak et al. / Lithos 126 (2011) 435454

451

Fig. 10. Chondrite normalized rare earth element (REE) diagrams of type I and II zircons from Izera metabasite samples S17, S10, and W3 (see Section 8 of text for locations). Normalization values for chondrite are from Sun and McDonough (1989).

~370 Ma, had already transformed the host granite into a gneiss. We consider it unlikely that the granite was sheared and converted to gneiss concurrently with the intrusion of the basic veins under greenschist facies conditions. Floyd et al. (2000) assumed that the basic dykes of the Sudetes intruded into deep crustal segments. However, this is not the case for the Izera basic veins. Our metamorphic data, consistent with that of Ilnicki (2001, 2002), indicate that the early greenschist facies event occurred at shallow crustal levels: so most dykes, at least those in the western part of the studied region, must also have been emplaced into relatively shallow crust. We propose that the dykes with the alkaline within-plate basalt chemistry in the northeastern part of the LausitzIzera Massif were formed mainly during the Late Devonian (Frasnian). Basic magma that was derived either from enriched or from moderately depleted asthenosphere sources penetrated the crust and lled extensional, subvertical, fractures in the Izera granite (dykes of the dominant Wrzeszczyn group). Rheological contrasts were thereby introduced into the granitebasalt system, which facilitated subsequent and repeated shearing along the hostvein interfaces (Nowak and elaniewicz, 2000; elaniewicz et al., 2003). The volumetrically minor Lena dykes (alkali basalts) and Jelenia Gra dykes (alkali basalts and transitional basalts and calc-alkaline basaltic andesites) are discordant to the main foliation of the Izera metagranite (Figs. 1 and 3) and so must be younger then the Wrzeszczyn group and postdate the main foliation-forming event. These latter dykes also testify to prolonged, yet episodic, basic magma activity, the episodes being separated by deformational events that repeatedly occurred in extensional/transtensional regimes that included some switches in the principle stress orientation. We suggest that the ~500 Ma type I zircons, which coincide in age with the host metagranites, are likely derived from these metagranites. The cores of the type I zircons were inherited from older, reworked crustal rocks and possibly represent the source material for the Izera granite itself. Consequently, the type I zircons may have come from the felsic rocks via assimilation by the basic melt. We speculate that such an assimilation occurred in the LausitzIzera lower or middle crust where a transient magma chamber that was replenished from an asthenospheric upwelling temporarily existed in EarlyLate Devonian times and was able to incorporate rocks from its chamber walls. The appearance of basic magma can be interpreted as basaltic underplating related to extensional or transtensional processes. If one assumed that the Izera metabasites were part of a CambroOrdovician bimodal magmatic suite with newly crystallized ~500 Ma zircons, then the type II zircons would expected to be of metamorphic or hydrothermal origin. The textural and Th/U characteristics of the type II zircons neither conrm nor reject metamorphic origin. Therefore, we interpret the ~390365 Ma ages of the brown grains as due to several basic magmatic episodes associated with crustal extension and rifting

Fig. 11. Block diagram showing extensional/transtensional attenuation of the Saxothuringian passive margin basement in its Sudetic sector during the MiddleLate Devonian when the basic dykes were emplaced (modied after elaniewicz et al., 2003).

during the Devonian and take Devonian metamorphism of ~500 Ma dykes as an alternative interpretation. However, the temperature of amphibolite grade metamorphism is not high enough to trigger partial melting or to allow diffusion-controlled growth of new metamorphic zircon grains. Although hydrothermal zircons may develop in a temperature range of 600300 C (Schaltegger, 2007), no clear sign of hydrothermal activity (e.g. hydrothermal minerals, etc.) was observed within the Izera metabasites, rendering a hydrothermal origin for the type II zircons rather improbable. And last but not least, rare earth element contents in 7 type I zircons from samples S10 and S17 and in 7 type II zircons from samples S10 and W3 seem to favour a magmatic origin. In view of the above and taking into account the upper intercept age of 392 + 9/6 Ma for sample RB1 and the concordant mean ages in the interval 375364 Ma for 5 other samples, we suggest that there was an ~30 m.y. duration of intra-plate, predominantly alkaline, basaltic magmatism in the passive margin of the Saxothuringia Terrane, with activity peaking at ~370 Ma. It follows that the margin was subjected to multiple extensional/transtensional episodes during the Devonian. Such a scenario is consistent with our structural observations in the Izera sector: namely, that the early stages of deformation of the ~500 Ma Izera

Fig. 12. Schematic structural map of the Variscan terranes of Central Europe (modied after elaniewicz, 2006).

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granite took place under a normal regime with a left-lateral oblique component and that fragments of granite that were converted to gneiss in this regime were then entrapped by the basic magma during its intrusion (Figs. 2 and 3). This means that the IzeraKaczawa margin of Saxothuringia was overwhelmed by the prolonged transtensional regime that lasted from the Middle through to the Late Devonian (time scale of Ogg et al., 2008). The Lena group of dykes also contributes to dening exactly when the dykes intruded. In sample BOZK, there are no brown zircons, zircons dated at ~ 560 Ma dominate and there are no grains younger than 540 Ma. The BOZK vein intersects the already sheared 500 Ma Izera metagranite, so the type I zircons cannot match the age of the basic dyke. We suggest that the same disconnect between the type I zircons and the age of their host applies to all the ~500 Ma zircons: therefore, the dykes intruded not during the Cambro-Ordovician but during the Devonian, as shown by the 390365 Ma ages of the brown zircon population. Another implication coming from the Lena group is that our proposed transient Devonian basic magma chamber(s) occurred within the 560540 Ma Lausitz granodiorite, which is not exposed at the sampled localities but outcrops further north and west (Fig. 1). Further important information is furnished by sample A111, which came from a vein that intersects the mica schists of the Kamienica schist belt (Fig. 1). Transparent zircons from this vein, dated at 485 7 Ma, were probably derived from rocks similar to the adjacent Izera granite; older xenocrysts might come from both the granite or from older (~Lausitz) units at deeper crustal levels. Samples BOZK and A111 strongly suggest that the type I zircon population in the Izera metabasites were derived from the surrounding felsic crust. But whether these zircons originated from the transient magma chamber's roof and/or walls or were entrapped by rising basic magma as it made its way up through steep fractures in the crust is not known. It is also unclear why the assimilation of the felsic materials left retrievable zircons in the alkali basalt magma but did not cause detectable felsic contamination. In the adjacent Kaczawa fold belt (Fig. 1), mac lithologies (Baranowski et al., 1990; Furnes et al., 1994) and melanges (Baranowski et al., 1998; Haydukiewicz, 1987) also record extension. The recognized polyphase deformation history of the Izera basic dykes and their country rocks (elaniewicz and Nowak, 2003; elaniewicz et al., 2003) in the Saxothuringian autochthonous basement ts well the scenario of incremental widening of the IzeraKaczawa section of the Saxothuringian basin and its Izera margin during the MiddleLate Devonian, followed by closure of the basin in the Mississippian. This history is consistent with the termination of the subduction-related blueschist metamorphism at ~360 Ma (Maluski and Patoka, 1997), as recorded in allochthonous associations further to the south in the Southern Krknoe fold belt (Maluski and Patoka, 1997) and further to the north in the Kaczawa fold belt (Kryza et al., 1990). The allochthonous blueschist associations were formed in a subduction zone to the S or SE (Guiraud and Burg, 1984), while the passive northern margin of the Saxothuringian Basin, including the LusatiaIzera section, was undergoing extension/transtension (Fig. 11). This preceded the nal collision of Gondwana-derived microplates and the ultimate closure, during the Visean (Turnau et al., 2002), of the seaways between the Saxothuringia, Bohemia and Wielkopolska terranes in an extensive re-entrant in Laurussia (Fig. 12, elaniewicz, 2006). Despite no palaeomagnetic evidence, the Saxothuringian Basin must have been both wide enough and structurally complex enough to accommodate extension in one part and coeval subduction in another. Taken altogether, our new ndings from the LausitzIzera Massif support a model of polyphase crustal extension and magmatism plus concurrent synmetamorphic shearing in the Saxothuringian belt. In Bavaria, there is a widespread Ordovician magmatic suite, the so-termed "Bavarian" Facies, and there are SilurianDevonian metabasalts that occur in the "Thuringian" Facies (e.g. Gandl, 1989; Hammann et al., 1989;

Wurm, 1961). Devonian metabasalts, metarhyolites and metatuftes are typical of the rifted Rhenohercynian shelf (Behnisch, 1993; Flick and Schmidt, 1987; Nesbor et al., 1993). Rifting started during the Early Devonian (~400 Ma, see discussion in Franke, 2000) and, after a quiet phase in the Eifelian, continued during the Givetian and Frasnian, i.e. between ~392 and 375 Ma (Nesbor, 2004; dates from Ogg et al., 2008). However, the magmatism in the Rhenohercynian belt was probably not directly related to the tectonics of the Rhenohercynian (Lizard/Giessen) ocean itself (Franke, 2006). In the Sudetes, in the Kaczawa segment of the Saxothuringian Basin, intra-plate alkali basalts occurred around 502486 Ma (Kryza et al., 2007) and were followed by E- to N-MORB metabasalts associated with graptolite-bearing Silurian shales (Urbanek et al., 1995) and with tholeiitic basalts associated with conodont-bearing upper Devonian sediments (Seston et al., 2000). Devonian basaltic magmatism also occurred at the southwestern margin of the LausitzIzera Massif (Jeted Mts.) and in the Elbtal Schiefergebirge (see review in Franke et al., 1995). Such polyphase records are not compatible with the standard continuous rift/drift tectonic scenario, but rather support the observation that the Saxothuringian Basin has not been documented in the palaeomagnetic and biogeographic records (Havliek et al., 1994; Tait et al., 2000). Distances between members of the Armorican Terrane Assemblage (Tait et al., 2000), to which Saxothuringia belongs, were always smaller than those predicted by a rift/drift model. The plume model, which is favoured by us, seems to explain better the observed Saxothuringian geology. It also ts reports of a relatively high thermal gradient during early metamorphism (~450 C/2 kbar) of the Izera metabasites (Ilnicki, 2002; Nowak, 2003) in the normal to oblique sinistral regime with top-to-the NW kinematics; it explains a variety of geochemical features, such as the indicative ratios of trace and rare earth elements (Floyd et al., 2000; Ilnicki, 2002; Nowak, 2000, 2003); and it ts better the measured isotopic signatures (Nd400 = +3.7 to +4.0, 87 Sr/86Sr = 0.70419) of the Izera alkali basalts (Nowak, 2003). We envisage the plume to be of the hot ngers or mini plumes type, sensuGranet et al. (1995) and Wilson and Downes (2006). In the absence of evidence for a wide Saxothuringian ocean, the CambroOrdovician magmatism may be explained as a type of a plumeridge interaction (Floyd et al., 2000). We favour the plume model because it explains the prolonged, but probably discontinuous, record of crustal extension that was associated with the metamorphism, and which was accompanied by discrete mantle-derived magmatic events in CambroOrdovician and Late Devonian times. A modern analogue of the Late Devonian plume(s) under the Saxothuringian lithosphere may be seen in a nearby part of Europe and northwest Africa. In the Eifel region of West Germany, alkaline basaltic volcanism repeatedly occurred from Cretaceous to Quaternary times, being attributed to the discontinuous activities of minor, intra-plate plumes, or a heterogeneous uprising mantle plume (e.g. Granet et al., 1995; Witt-Eickschen et al., 2003). This alkaline basaltic volcanism has been linked to the Cenozoic European rift system, which developed a continental rift margin along the Western Mediterranean as a part of a complex transtensional left-lateral megafault (Lpez-Ruiz et al., 2002). This rift margin faces the recent extensional LigureProvencal and Tyrrhenian basins that themselves are coupled with Apennine/Ionian/Maghrebian subduction zones (Doglioni et al., 1997). This transient conguration will probably only last for 50 m.y., after which time the Mediterranean basins will be closed and inverted to form a future Mediterranean Mountain belt (Scotese, 2000). The evolution of the Western Mediterranean during the Neogene has been ascribed to plume activity (Lavecchia et al., 2003). And we consider that an analogous situation applies to the EarlyLate Devonian extension of Saxothuringia and the basaltic magmatism within the Saxothuringian Basin. Thus, this extensional episode was coeval with high pressure to medium pressure metamorphism at the opposite margins of the Saxothuringian Basin, as dated in NE Bavaria (Mnchberg Klippe) at 400380 Ma (review in

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Franke et al., 1995; Scherer et al., 2002) and in the West Sudetes at 360 Ma (Maluski and Patoka, 1997). Furthermore, the timing of the high-pressure events is seen to be very similar in other Sudetic fragments of the Armorican Terrane Assemblage, such as the Gry Sowie Massif of the Bohemian Terrane (review in Franke and elaniewicz, 2000), which faces the Saxothuringian Basin. Acknowledgements This study was carried out as a part of a statutory research project at the Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, partly nanced through grant nos.: 6 P04D 003 17 and N307070 32/4104 from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poland, to Izabella Nowak. The project was the result of bilateral cooperation between the IGS PAS and the Institute of Earth Sciences, Giessen University. Janina Schastok is gratefully acknowledged for her help with the TIMS UPb analyses of the zircons, and Pawe Bylina is thanked for showing an early interest in the project. Constructive comments by Vclav Kachlik and by an anonymous reviewer helped improve the manuscript. Patrick Roycroft kindly corrected the English of the paper. References
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