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CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


This chapter presents the result and discussion of the data gathered. Discussion of the responses is also included in this chapter. The plan and computation of loads necessary in designing the system were presented. Solar Insolation The figure below shown the annual solar irradiation in kW-hr/m2/day received by the town of Gasan in Marinduque (Source: PAGASA) It shows that the maximum solar irradiation available was on the months of March, April and May and the minimum is on the months of January, and December.

Solar Insolation in Gasan


6 5 4 3 Solar Insolation in Gasan 2 1 0

Fig. 4.0 Annual irradiation of Gasan, Marinduque

The graph shows the annual irradiation of town of Gasan, therefore the solar hours per day can be computed. Solar hours available =

Solar hours available = Solar PV system sizing

= 3.5hr/day

1. Determine power consumption demands Total appliance use = (11 W x 12 hours) + (11 W x1 2 hours) + (24 W x12 hours) +(24W x12 hours)+(80W x12 hours)+(50W x12 hours) = 2, 400 Wh/day Total PV panels energy needed = 2, 400 x 1.3 = 3, 120 Wh/day.

2. Size the PV panel 2.1 Total Wp of PV panel capacity needed 2.2 Number of PV panels needed = 3, 120 / 4 = 780Wp = 780 / 110 = 7.09 modules

Actual requirement = 7 modules so this system should be powered by at least 7 modules of 110 Wp PV module. 3. Inverter sizing Total Watt of all appliances = 11 + 11 + 24 + 24 + 80 + 50 = 200 W For safety, the inverter should be considered 25-30% bigger size. The inverter size should be about 250 W or greater. 4. Battery sizing Total appliances use = (11W12hrs2) + (24W12hrs2) + (80W12hrs2) + (50W12hrs2) Nominal battery voltage = 12Vhrs Days of autonomy = 2 days Battery Capacity (Ah) = x 1.04 x days of autonomy
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Battery Capacity (Ah) =

x1.04x2 day

Battery Capacity (Ah) = 693.33 Ah Total Ampere-hours required is 693.33 Ah

So the battery should be rated 12 V, 700 Ah usable for 2 days Total of batteries needed = = 3.467 or 4 batteries

5. Solar charge controller sizing PV module specification Pm = 110 Wp Vm = 17.80 V Im = 6.18 A Voc =21.90 V Isc = 6.71 Solar charge controller rating = (7 modules x 6.71 A) x 1.3 = 61.061 A So the solar charge controller should be rated 70 A at 12 V or greater.

Solar Tilt Angle Solar modules produce the most power when they are pointed directly at the sun. For installations where the solar modules are mounted to a permanent structure, the solar modules should be tilted for optimum performance. As a result of the experiment that shows in Fig 4. 1 the angle of orientation should be tilted at approximately 16.52 from horizontal, and should be faced due South.
Fig. 4.1 Measurement of the solar tilt angle

01:00 PM

Stick (75 cm)

12:00 PM 22 cm 11:00 AM

10:00 AM

Solving for the angle of tilt:

( )

22 cm

Diagram of Stand-alone PV System In many stand-alone PV systems, batteries are used for energy storage. Figure 4.2 shows a diagram of a typical stand-alone PV system powering DC and AC loads.

Figure 4.2 Diagram of stand-alone PV system with battery storage powering DC and AC loads.

Electrical Wiring Design The figure shown below is a simplified solar panel system wiring diagram for off-grid home. The installations and grounding must be done in accordance with Philippine Electrical Code (PEC). The solar wiring diagram below shows a configuration with an inverter that provides 3-wire split phase 120/240 VAC required for most Philippines household wirings. In practice, inverter models usually provide only 120VAC. However, most of them can be synchronized and stacked in a master-slave mode for 120/240 VAC output. In this case, the inverter inputs are paralled, and outputs are connected in series. Note that many systems provide isolation between DC input and AC input in a high frequency boost converter stage, and does not used a bulky low-frequency output transformer.

Fig. 4.3 Solar panel system wiring diagram

SCHEDULE OF LOADS

LOAD DESCRIPTION COMPACT FLOURESCENT LAMP COMPACT FLOURESCENT LAMP COMPACT FLOURESCENT LAMP COMPACT FLOURESCENT LAMP TELEVISION SET

WATT HOURS/WK WH/WK VOLTS AH/HR SIZE OF WIRE 11 84 924 230 4.017 2.0 mm PDX wire 2.0 mm PDX wire 2.0 mm PDX wire 2.0 mm PDX wire 2.0 mm PDX wire 2.0 mm PDX wire

11

84

924

230

4. 017

24

84

2016

230

8.765

24

84

2016

230

8.765

80

84

6720

230

29.22

ELECTRIC FAN

50

84

4200

230

18.26

Table 4.4 Schedule of loads Cost of Conventional Solar PV Systems Solar PV systems can be purchased as a preassembled kit or as components that can be integrated to meet the residential power needs of Sitio Talao, Brgy. Tiguion.. Table 4.5 shows components and there ratings that were configured to provide approximately 45 percent, 12 hours, of the daily power need. These systems were designed with consideration that the typical residential home of 4 occupants uses 2.4 kWh of power per day. Local distributor here in Marinduque offers an affordable price of PV system for P 37, 000 only.

COMPONENT Solar Panel Battery Charge Controller Inverter Price

RATING 100Wp 100Ah deep cycle 10A 350W P 37, 000


Table 4.5 Local PV system cost

Computing the Cost R= R= x (1.25) x 1.25 = 857.14 W = 857 W

Solving for the cost of the PV modules Present exchange value 1 US $ = Php 42.327

857 W

= Php 75, 813.16

Solving for the cost of the storage battery 700 Ah X

= Php 29,750

Technical Feasibility of the Study The present of installing the Solar Photovoltaic Stand-alone system is attainable. The PV modules considered are crystalline modules having efficiency of 20%. But due to extensive research and development in the Philippines and other countries it is expected that the cost of the system could gradually decrease and gain parity with other source of power production.

The cost to install solar PV systems on every home in Barangay Tiguion likely feasible; a tiered approach, such as installing these systems would be attainable. Installing solar power to the proposed site could benefit the residents.

Analysis of Financial Status Based on the results of the interview to the respondents of Sitio Talao, Barangay Tiguion, 24 consumers/households agreed to have a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic system in their area, they always asked was how much was the PV System. Almost all residents had their own coconut plantation and the money they earned from copra was ranging from P 15, 000 to P 10, 000 per month. The source of income of the inhabitants was planting banana and root crops. They also have their own rice field and each of them had land property ranging from 5 to 8 hectares where they plant most of their crops. A 8 hectares of coconut plantation can have an income of P30, 000 maximum and P23, 000 minimum. Other source of income of residents was working in the government office. Some of the families living in the remote areas had their husband or wife in abroad, through remittances they sustain the needs of their children. Other residents already have diesel generator but they complaining about the purchasing of fuel, we all knew that the price of these fossil fuel was gradually increasing and the noise and pollution generated by the generator. To those residents that had siblings working in manila got financial assistance. The money that they earned monthly was enough in purchasing the PV system based on the current price of the system.