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Vancouver Referencing Style


Why reference and What is it For?
Referencing acknowledges the use of the work and ideas of others, and demonstrates an authors appropriate reading around a topic. Its good practice and allows an author to demonstrate their use and understanding of the knowledge base and allows readers of their work to trace the source, in order to protect the author from plagiarism accusations. Vancouvers referencing style uses numbers and has two parts citing in the text, and referencing, in the form of the reference list and bibliography.

Citing
Citing acknowledges an authors use of the work of others. Whenever an author directly quotes or paraphrases the work or ideas of someone else it must be cited. Vancouver uses a sequence of superscript to number the citations. A superscript reference number will look like this: example. To use superscript, highlight the number/s, go to Format on the toolbar, then Font, and then click Superscript.

Direct Quotations
When citing direct quotations, use single quotation marks and follow the quote up with the superscript reference number and page number. e.g. 'unalterable laws' 1(p1). If quotes are longer than two lines, use indented paragraph. e.g. It might seem logical to suggest that if you are taking a facilitative approach to learning there should be a change in your approach to the TNA process to involve the learners directly in identifying their own learning needs 2(p85). Alternatively, shorten the quote, by omitting the irrelevant parts using ellipsis (...) as long as it appears in the same paragraph. e.g. It might seem logical to suggest that if you are taking a facilitative approach to learning involve the learners directly in identifying their own learning needs 2(p85). If your quote is less than two lines you can run it as a part of the continuous text. e.g. When preparing a training specification it might seem logical to suggest that if you are taking a facilitative approach to learning involve the learners directly in identifying their own learning needs 2(p85).

Paraphrasing
Another way to use the ideas of others is to paraphrase rather than directly quote. In effect, the author rewords other peoples text. This still needs to be cited in order to protect the author from plagiarism accusations. e.g. Facilitation is another way of delivering a designed learning experience to a group2(p67)

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Naming Author in the Text
When paraphrasing and using an authors name in the text, the citation should appear next to the authors name e.g. Handy3 indicates

No Obvious Personal Author?


If there is no obvious personal author, the organisation which produced the document is used as the corporate author. e.g. Liverpool PCT4 indicate

Citing More Than One Piece of Work at Once


When citing more than one piece of work where you are referencing multiple works? Use superscript reference numbers you have sequentially assigned (or assign if brining a new work into play). e.g. Vancouver guides exist 5,6.

Citing Multimedia works


To cite CD-ROMs use the title as the author if the author is not obvious. To cite DVD/Video use the series title.

Referencing
Reference List
List the references in numerical order as used in the text from the examples given above. 1. Handy C. Understanding organisations. 4th ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin; 1993. 2. Bee F and Bee R. Facilitation skills. London: CIPD;1998. 3. Handy C. The elephant and the flea. London: Random House; 2001. 4. Liverpool PCT. Understanding Liverpool better: The joint Director of public Health annual report 2008 - 2009. Liverpool: Liverpool PCT; 2009. 5. University of Southampton. Citing & Referencing Guide: BMJ Vancouver Style. Southampton: University of Southampton; 2009. www.soton.ac.uk/library/resources/documents/vancouverreferencing.pdf (accessed 2 Feb 2011). 6. Imperial College London.Referencing Guide: Vancouver Style. London: Imperial College; 2010.

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Bibliography
A list of documents read but not cited in the text. List the references in alphabetical order. Marx G. The Groucho Letters: Letters from and to Groucho Marx. Cambridge, MA.: Da Capo; 1994.

Formats for References


Books
Hard Copy Author/Editor (ed./eds.). Title (in italics). Series title & no (if relevant). Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year Published e.g. Smith, AM. Another book to read. Oxford: Blackwells; 2001. Chapter in an Edited Book Chapter Author. Title of Chapter. In: Book Editors Name/s (eds.) Title ( in italics). Edition Number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication. e.g. Jones, AN. More reading. In: Smith, AM (ed.) Further book to read. Oxford: Blackwells; 2001. Using a Citation Used by the Book You Are Using e.g. Smith AN. This is the article title. NWPHJ 2011; 1(1): 2-3. In: Smith, AM (ed.) Further book to read. Oxford: Blackwells; 2001. E-Books Author/Editors (ed./eds. Used if an editor). Title (in italics). Series title & number (if relevant). Edition Number. Place of Publication. Publisher; Year URL (accessed date). e.g. Smith, AM. Another book to read. Oxford: Blackwells; 2001. www.myilibrary.com?ID=12345 (accessed 2 Feb 2011).

Journals
Hard Copy Author. Title of journal article. Title of journal (in italics) Publication Year; Volume Number (Issue Number) Page Numbers. e.g. Smith AN. This is the article title. NWPHJ 2011; 1(1): 2-3. E-Journals Author. Title of Journal Article article. Title of Journal (in Italics) Publication Yearr; Volume Number (Issue Number) Page Numbers. URL/DOI (Accessed Date) e.g. Smith AN. This is the article title. NWPHJ 2011; 1(1): 2-3. www.nwphj.org.uk/1/1/12345.html (accessed 2 Feb 2011) Or

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e.g. Smith AN. This is the article title. NWPHJ 2011; 1(1): 2-3. doi: 0.1073/nwphj.2011.02.01. (accessed 2 Feb 2011)

Newspapers
Hard Copy Author (no author, use paper title). Article title. Newspaper title (italics). Day, Month Year Published: Page Number. e.g. Smith A. Citing a paper article. The Guardian. Wednesday Jul 2 2010: 27. E-Newspaper Author (no author, use paper title). Article title. Newspaper title (in italics). Day, Month Year of Publication. Page Number (if known). URL
e.g. Smith A. Citing a paper article. The Guardian. Wednesday Jul 2 2010: 27. www.guardian.co.uk/1/1/

Website Author/Editor. Title ( in italics). URL. date of access. e.g. Fade Library. Fade Library. www.fade.nhs.uk. (accessed 2 Feb 2011) Blogs Author. Title of blog post. Title (in italics). Weblog. URL. (date of access). e.g. Lamb K. Why cite? Made Up Blog. http://www.madeupblog.org.uk/why-cite.html (accessed 2 Feb 2011). Personal Interviews Name of person interviewed. Interviewed by: Name of interviewer Date of interview. e.g. O'Neil J. Interviewed by: Lamb K. 2 Feb 2011.