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Unit 2: Powers and Roots.


Mathematics 4 ESO Option B

READING: READING Complex Numbers

It may seem strange to just invent new numbers, but that is how mathematics evolves. For instance, negative numbers were not an accepted part of mathematics until well into the thirteenth century. In fact, these numbers often were referred to as fictitious numbers. In the seventeenth century, Rene Descartes called square roots of negative numbers imaginary numbers numbers, an unfortunate choice of words, and started using the letter i to denote these numbers. These numbers were suggested to the same skepticism as negative numbers. It is important to understand that these numbers are not imaginary in the dictionary sense of the word. This misleading word is similar to the situation of negative numbers being called fictitious. If you think of a number line, then the numbers to the right of zero are positive numbers the and the numbers to the left of zero are negative numbers. One way to think of an imaginary number is to visualize it as up or down from zero.
Argand Diagram. Just as we can graph a real number on a real . number line, we can graph a complex number. This is accomplished by using one number line for the real part of the complex number and one number line for the imaginary part of the complex number. These two number lines are drawn perpendicular to each other and pass through their respective r origins, as shown on the left image. The result is called the complex plane or the Argand diagram after Jean-Robert Argand (1768-1822), an accountant and amateur 1822), mathematician. Although he is given credit for this repres representation of complex numbers, Caspar Wessel (1745 (1745-1818) actually conceived the idea before Argand.

Who starts using the letter i to denote imaginary numbers? Why was the situation of complex numbers similar to negative numbers numbers? Do you understand the joke? Whats its meaning? Could you represent the following numbers on the complex plane? 2 6, 2 5, 3 5, 4, 5

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Unit 2: Powers and Roots. ACTIVITIES 2

Mathematics 4 ESO Option B

1) Match the term with its description: Index Product rule of radicals

Irrational number Distributive property

Non-negative real number Radicand

Rational exponent Quotient rule of exponents

Product rule of exponents Like radicals

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Radicals that have the same radicand and index. The expression under a radical sign. The 3 in is an example of this. A real number that is greater than or equal to 0. A number that cannot be written as a fraction in which the numerator and denominator are integers. In , is this.

2) Put and X in the box if the number is an element of the set at the top of the column:
Whole Numbers Integers Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Real Numbers Complex Numbers

81 7 6 0.4 0

3 5

25 0. 97 20 5

27 8

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Unit 2: Powers and Roots. ACTIVITIES 2

Mathematics 4 ESO Option B

3) The formula for the volume of a cylinder is = ; where V is the volume, r is the radius, and h is the height. Solve for r, this formula is depth is 3 ft, find its radius ( = 3.14 . Round to the nearest whole number. Convert the result into meters. =

. If the volume of a circular swimming pool is 3052 ft3 and is

4) Drug Potency. The amount A (in milligrams) of digoxin, a drug taken by cardiac patients, remaining in the blood t hours after a patient takes a 2miligram dose is given by = 2 10 . . a) How much digoxin remains in the blood of a patient 4 hours after taking a 2-miligram dose? b) Suppose that a patient takes a 2-miligram dose of digoxin at 1:00 P.M. and another 2-miligram dose at 5:00 P.M. How much digoxin remains in the patients blood at 6:00 P.M. c) Suppose that a patient takes a 2-miligram dose of digoxin, when will we be able to observe a 50% reduction of the dose taken in the patients blood? 5) Simplify each radical and then combine like terms a) 5 2 + 3 8 18 = b)

c) 232 398 = 1 d) 3 3 270 3 80 + 3 1250 2 3 10 = 2 6) Simplify each expression by rationalizing the denominator. Write the result in simplest form. a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

a3 81 + 24 + 9 + = 9
3 6 3

= = =

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