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Ethernet Principle

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Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Transmission Distance of Fast Ethernet


Technical Standard 100BaseTX Types of Cable Transmission Distance 100m

2 pairs EIA/TIA Type 5 (UTP) Unshielded Twisted Pair

100BaseT4 100BaseFX 1000BaseCX 1000BaseT 1000BaseSX

4 pairs EIA/TIA Type 3, 4 and 5 (UTP) Unshielded Twisted Pair Multi-Mode Fiber (MMF) cable Copper shielded twisted-pair Copper EIA/TIA Category 5 (UTP) Unshielded twisted-pair, 4 pair Multi-mode fiber, 50/62.5um fiber, use 850nm laser

100m 550m-2km 25m 100m 550m/275m

EIA: Electronics Industries Association TIA: Telecommunications Industries Association


Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page18

Ethernet Technology---AutoNegotiation
If there is no auto-negotiation mechanism, the following problems will arise:
Cannot realize the auto dual-rate configuration function of the port (such as 10Mbit/s and 100Mbit/s) Cannot confirm the operation mode of duplex Cannot confirm whether it's in need of the flow-control function or not

If both of the equipment provide auto-negotiation then, it is the best choice.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page19

Ethernet Technology---AutoNegotiation (Cont.)


The basic mechanism of the auto-negotiation function is to encapsulate the negotiation message into the link integration test pulse.
Fast link pulse

16ms

Every pulse includes 16 digital sequence

Fast link pulse includes a series of clock/digital sequence comprised of link integration test pulse.
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page20

Auto-Negotiation
Half-Duplex 10M 100M 1000M 10G Support Support Full-Duplex Support Support Support Support

If one device can not support auto-negotiation, the other device that can support auto-negotiation will work at the default work method.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Auto-Negotiation on Optical Fiber


For the optical fiber Ethernet, the conclusion is:
The operation modes at two ends of the link must be manually configured (speed, duplex modes, flow-control and etc.)

The auto-negotiation of Gigabit Ethernet has been realized

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page22

Flow Control
The function of flow control is to prevent frames from being lost in case of congestion Under half duplex mode, the flow control is achieved by backpressure technology Under full duplex mode, the flow control generally abides by standard IEEE 802.3x

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page23

Half Duplex Flow Control


Pretend that there is collision, then you will not constantly transfer!

backpressure

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page24

Full Duplex Flow Control


IEEE802.3x standard defines a new method named PAUSE frame, to realize the flow control in the full duplex environment. PAUSE frame uses a reserved multicast address which wouldn't be repeated by bridge or switch
Stop
PAUSE Frame

Congestion

DATA Frame

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page25

VLAN Based on MAC or Port


Switch
Port 1 Port 7 Port 3

Switch
Port 10

MAC A

MAC B

MAC C

MAC D

PC A

PC B

PC C

PC D

MAC MAC A MAC B MAC C MAC D

VLAN 5 10 5 10

Port Port 1 Port 3 Port 7 Port 10

VLAN 5 10 5 10

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page30

VLAN Based on Protocol or Subnet


Switch Switch

IPX

IP

UDP

IP

1.1.1.1/24

1.1.2.1/24

1.1.3.1/24 2.1.1.1/24

Protocol IPX UDP IP .

VLAN 5 10 2 11

IP 1.1.1.1/24 1.1.2.1/24 1.1.3.1/24 .

VLAN 5 10 2 11

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Frame Format of VLAN


DA SA Type Data CRC

Standard Ethernet Frame

DA

SA

tag

Type

Data TCI

CRC

TPID

Priority

CFI

VLAN ID

Ethernet Frame with IEEE802.IQ Flag

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page32

Frame Changes in Network Communication


Ethernet frame with VLAN tag 1

VLAN 2

VLAN 1

Ethernet frame without VLAN flag Ethernet frame with VLAN tag 2

VLAN 1

VLAN 2

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page33

Ethernet Card Port Tag Mode


Packets Tag flag Port Tag aware (In) Tag aware (Out) Access (In) Access (Out) Hybrid (In) Transmit transparently Transmit transparently Drop Remove the Tag flag (default VLAN ID) Transmit transparently If VLAN ID is the same, remove Hybrid (Out) the Tag flag, otherwise transmit transparently Drop Attach a Tag flag (default VLAN ID) Attach a Tag flag (default VLAN ID) Untag flag

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page34

Advantage and Disadvantage of VLAN


VLAN technology resolves the broadcast problem and enhances the communication security. Disadvantage of VLAN:
Improve the bandwidth utilization rate by dividing a physically interconnected network into several small logic networks. But what should we do if different VLANs need to communicate with each other?

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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