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Leonard C. MacLean, Herbert Lamb Chair (Emeritus),School of Business, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS Edward O. Thorp, E.O. Thorp and Associates, Newport Beach, CA Professor Emeritus, University of California, Irvine William T. Ziemba, Professor Emeritus, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC Visiting Professor, Mathematical Institute, Oxford University, UK ICMA Centre, University of Reading, UK University of Bergamo, Italy January 1, 2010

Abstract We summarize what we regard as the good and bad properties of the Kelly criterion and its variants. Additional properties are discussed as observations.

The main advantage of the Kelly criterion, which maximizes the expected value of the logarithm of wealth period by period, is that it maximizes the limiting exponential growth rate of wealth. The main disadvantage of the Kelly criterion is that its suggested wagers may be very large. Hence, the Kelly criterion can be very risky in the short term. In the one asset two valued payoﬀ case, the optimal Kelly wager is the edge (expected return) divided by the odds. Chopra and Ziemba (1993), reprinted in Section 2 of this volume, following earlier studies by Kallberg and Ziemba (1981, 1984) showed for any asset allocation problem that the mean is much more important than the variances and co-variances. Errors in means versus errors in variances were about 20:2:1 in importance as measured by the cash equivalent value of ﬁnal wealth. Table 1 and Figure 1 show this and illustrate that the relative importance depends on the degree of risk aversion. The

Special thanks go to Tom Cover and John Mulvey for helpful comments on an earlier draft of this paper.

∗

1

15 Variances Covariances 0.S. Kelly bettors attain large ﬁnal wealth most of the time. we present simulations of medium term Kelly.20 Magnitude of error (k) 03 c-04 r-04 -04 p-04 c-04 r-05 -05 p-05 c-05 c-06 n n De Ma Ju Se De Ma Ju Se De De Date 10 Figure 1: Mean Percentage Cash Equivalent Loss Due to Errors in Inputs. because a long sequence of bad scenario outcomes is possible. the higher are the relative errors from incorrect means.68 ↓ ↓ ↓ 20 10 2 Error Mean Error Var Error Covar 20 2 1 ∗ Risk tolerance=RT (w) = 100 1 R (w) 2 A (w) where RA (w) = − u (w) u Price (U.42 2. any strategy can lose substantially even if there are many independent investment opportunities and the chance of losing at each investment 2 . Thorp.38 3. Variances and Covariances. which is close to zero. Zhao and Ziemba (2009) in this section of this volume.22 1. fractional Kelly and proportional betting strategies. The results show that with favorable investment opportunities.50 10.S. Chopra (1993) further shows that portfolio turnover is larger for errors in means than for variances and for co-variances but the degree of diﬀerence in the size of the errors is much less than the performance as shown in Figure 2. The Kelly bets may be exceedingly large and risky for favorable bets.67 50 22. RA = −u (w)/u (w). But.05 75 56. In MacLean. dollars) 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 11/68 10/73 11/77 PNP S&P 500 U.10 0.98 2. Table 1: Average Ratio of Certainty Equivalent Loss for Errors in Means. Since log has RA (w) = 1/w. Source: Chopra and Ziemba (1993) Errors in Means Errors in Means Errors in Variances Risk Tolerance* vs Covariances vs Variances vs Covariances 25 5. Thorp. T-Bill Nav Index % Cash Equivalent Loss 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 Means S&P500 3 2 1 0 0 0.Good and bad properties MacLean. Ziemba lower is the Arrow-Pratt risk aversion.84 21.05 0.

Variances. See the wealth graphs reprinted in section 6 from Ziemba (2005). risk increases and long term growth falls. see Ziemba (2003). variances and covariances. Average Turnover for Different Percentage Changes in Means. Source: Based on data from Chopra (1993) 12 ©2003. are never a sure way of winning for a ﬁnite sequence. One of the properties shown below that is illustrated in the graph is that for processes which are well approximated by continuous time. See Ziemba (2009) in this volume. eventually becoming more and more negative. Thorp. As you exceed the Kelly bets more and more. so Kelly dominates all these strategies in geometric riskreturn or mean-variance space. The Kelly and fractional Kelly rules.25 . Utility functions such as positive power that bet more than Kelly have more risk and lower growth. the growth rate becomes zero plus the risk free rate when one bets exactly twice the Kelly wager. were long term investors whose wealth paths were quite rocky but with good long term outcomes.8. Log maximizes the long run growth rate. Keynes and Buﬀett. Ziemba Average Turnover (% per month) 50 40 Means 30 Variances 20 10 Covariances 10 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Change (%) Source: Based on data from Chopra (1993). like all other rules. Graphs such as Figure 3 show that growth is traded oﬀ for security with the use of fractional Kelly strategies and negative power utility functions.Magnitude of Error (k) Means Variances Covariances Source: Based on data from Chopra and Ziemba (1993). Hence it never pays to bet more than the Kelly strategy because then risk increases (lower security) and growth decreases. Figure 2: Average turnover for diﬀerent percentage changes in means. Our analyses suggest that Buﬀett seems to act similar to a fully Kelly bettor (subject to the constraint of no borrowing) and Keynes like a 80% Kelly bettor with a negative power utility function −w−0. Long Term Capital is one of many real 3 . we describe the use of the Kelly criterion in many applications and by many great investors. The Research Foundation of AIMR™ decision point is small. Two of them. and Covariances MacLean. Good and bad properties Figure 1. In Section 6 of this volume.

and futures and commodity are − 1) = (this illustrates ∗ fδ = p 1−δ − q 1−δ p 1 1−δ 1 1 +q 1 1−δ = pα − q α pα + q α which is not αf ∗ .6 the negative power utility function δω|δ for δ < 0. For the case 0.51 and q=0. Ziemba Figure 2: Probability of doubling and quadrupling before halving and relative growth rates versus fraction of wealth wagered for Blackjack (2% advantage.999 additional examples.0 Overkill à 0. This utility function is concave and Teams Riskier 0. gamesexample. This formula does not apply more generally. how bets can be very tiny) next month.2 0.4 for Safer 0. 4 .67 1.78 when δ → 0 it converges to log utility.Liwill discussFor example.51 0.49). half Kelly is δ = of the Kelly log strategy In the Ziemba and I (2005).3 _ Range 0. 0.91 0. three topics: good and bad properties −1 and quarter Kelly is δ = −3.” which is simply a blend of Kelly0.49). See Ziemba and Ziemba (2007) for 0.96 0.8 0.94 Less Growth less than Kelly “fractional Kelly. they both will provide the same optimal portfolio when α is invested in 2.84 0. Source: MacLean and Ziemba (1999) Rates Versus Probability of Doubling Before Halving for Blackjack Table 3: Growth Kelly Fraction P[Doubling before of Current Halving] Wealth world instances in which overbetting led to disaster. where the returns investing using unpopular numbers in lotto For with low probabilities of success where P r(X = 1) = p. P r(X very largeq. Source: McLean and Ziemba (1999) Figure 3: Probability of doubling and quadrupling before halving and relative growth rates versus fraction of wealth wagered for Blackjack (2% advantage.56 between 0 and 1. see MacLean.00 the Kelly portfolio and 1 −Toois invested in cash. where f ∗ = p − q 0 is the Kelly bet. α Risky This handy formula relating the coeﬃcient of (1999)negative power utility function to the Source: MacLean and Ziemba the Kelly fraction is correct for lognormal investments and approximately correct for other distributed assets.51 and q=0.99 1.36 0.5 0.998 | 0.74 aggressive since his absolute Arrow-Pratt risk aversion index is also0.89 cash.83 More Growth | As δ becomes more negative.70 higher.5 Blackjack 0.9 of a stationary lognormal process and a given δ for utility function δwδ and α = 1/(1 − δ) 1. | 0. for coin tossing.next two columns. p=0. p + q = 1.1 0. the investor is less 0.00 0.75 0.98 Thus long term growth maximizing investors should bet _Kelly or less.50 Relative Growth Rate 0.75 0. why this led me to work with Len MacLean on a through study of fractional Kelly strategies and and So if you want a less aggressive path than Kelly pick an appropriate δ.0 Kelly 0.7 _ _ 0.64 0. p=0. We call betting | 0. Thorp. Consider and 0.6 Good and bad properties MacLean.19 0.

Sanegre. The Good Properties Good Maximizing ElogX asymptotically maximizes the rate of asset growth. Browne (1997a) Good Under fairly general conditions. Algoet and Cover (1988). Zhao and Ziemba (2004) reprinted in section 3.Good and bad properties MacLean. 1988) Good Simulation studies show that the ElogX bettor’s fortune pulls ahead of other “essentially diﬀerent” strategies’ wealth for most reasonable-sized samples. 2004. who show how to compute the coeﬃcent to stay above a growth path at discrete points in time with given probability or to be above a given drawdown with a certain conﬁdence limit. See Breiman (1961). Ziemba and Hausch (1986) and MacLean. For independent investments and any power utility a myopic policy is optimal. In fact past outcomes can be taken into account by maximizing the conditional expected logarithm given the past (Algoet and Cover. 2010) Good The ElogX bettor never risks ruin. see Mossin (1968). See MacLean. This is a crucially important result for practical use. Thorp. Algoet and Cover (1988) Good The expected time to reach a preassigned goal A is asymptotically least as A increases without limit with a strategy maximizing ElogXN . Good The ElogX bettor has an optimal myopic policy. For example g ∗ g but g ∗ − g = will not lead to rapid separation if is small enough The key again is risk. See also Cover and Thomas (2006. Hakansson (1971) proved that the myopic policy obtains for dependent investments with the log utility function. Zhao and Ziemba (2009) add the feature that path violations are penalized with a convex cost function. See also Stutzer (2009) for a related but diﬀerent model of such security. MacLean. then use a negative power utility function. δwδ . Thorp. maximizing ElogX also asymptotically maximizes median logX. MacLean and Ziemba(1999) and Ziemba and Ziemba (2007). Zhao and Ziemba (2009) in this volume. updated from MacLean. See Hakansson and Miller (1975) Good The absolute amount bet is monotone increasing in wealth. General formulas are in Aucamp (1993). See Bicksler and Thorp (1973). 5 . Ziemba We now list these and other important Kelly criterion properties. Good If you wish to have higher security by trading it oﬀ for lower growth. See Breiman (1961). He does not have to consider prior nor subsequent investment opportunities. See Ethier (1987. Essentially diﬀerent has a limited meaning. Ziemba and Blazenko (1992). chapter 16). or fractional Kelly strategy.

. 1]. This inequality can be improved when t = 1 by allowing fair randomization t U . Then the result improves to P r [X U X ∗ ] 2 for all portfolios X. 1980.2]. for t ∗ by a factor t with probability greater x. probability 1 2 is the best competitive performance one can expect. Any cost c for the St Petersburg random variable X. 1 1 + 2c Y 2 0 f 1 max E ln This is bounded for all f in [0. So we see that X ∗ (actually U X ∗ ) is competitively optimal in a single investment period (Bell and Cover 1980. and 1 let U be independent of X ∗ . 1] are equally good. This follows from the Kuhn Tucker conditions. then the expected X wealth ratio is no greater than one.Good and bad properties MacLean. 1980). i. one obtains a wealth U X ∗ that can only be beaten half the time. . Both investors’ wealth have super exponential growth.1]. Good Super St Petersburg. Thus fairly randomizing one’s initial wealth and then investing it according to the Kelly criterion. Since a competing investor can use the same strategy. . Let U be drawn according to a uniform distribution over the interval [0. Ziemba X Good Competitive optimality . the maximizing f ∗ in the previous equation guarantees that the f ∗ portfolio will asymptotically exponentially outperform any other portfolio f ∈ [0. for the wealth X induced by any other portfolio (Bell and Cover. . . Thus an opponent cannot outperform X than 1 . c where f is the fraction of wealth invested. by maximizing the relative growth rate 1−f + fY c . We see that Kelly gambling is the heart of the solution of this two-person zero sum game of who ends up with the most money. 1988). Now. But the larger the cost c. The maximizing f ∗ is the Kelly proportion (Cover and Bell. 2. E( X ∗ ) 1. for all other strategies X. and for all other induced wealths t . Good If X ∗ is the wealth induced by the log optimal (Kelly) portfolio. although the exponential growth rate of wealth is inﬁnite for all proportions f and it seems that all f ∈ [0. P r X = 2k = 2−k . where E ln Y = ∞. Thus by 1 Markov’s inequality. is acceptable. P r [X tX ∗ ] 1. Kelly gambling yields wealth X ∗ such that E( X ∗ ) 1. the less wealth one should invest.e. but the f ∗ investor will exponentially outperform any other essentially different investor. The Kelly fraction f ∗ can be computed even for a super St k Petersburg random variable P r Y = 22 = 2−k . k = 1. 1988). The growth rate G∗ of wealth resulting from repeated such investments is G∗ = max E ln(1 − f + 0 f 1 f X). 6 . Thorp.

see Ziemba and Hausch (1986. using the Dr Z place and show system using the win odds as the probability of winning.000 plus ﬁnal wealth 0. For example.i. Kelly. • Despite its superior long-run growth properties. (See also the 74% future bet on the January eﬀect in MacLean. Thus you may regularly win less than you expect. The sequence {fi∗ } denotes i=1 the Kelly betting fractions and the sequence {fi } denotes the corresponding betting fractions for the essentially diﬀerent strategy. the optimal fractional wager. Wild Again won this race. There. 1971). Ziemba The Bad Properties Bad The bets may be a large fraction of current wealth when the wager is favorable and the risk of loss is very small. hence fractional Kelly includes all these policies. Bad For coin tossing. See Ethier and Tavar´ (1983) and Griﬃn e (1985). process and a myopic policy. 159-160).000. For n wins and n losses and initial wealth W0 we have W2n = W0 (1 − f 2 )n . • The Kelly portfolio does not necessarily lie on the eﬃcient frontier in a mean-variance model (Thorp. Bad The unweighted average rate of return converges to half the arithmetic rate of return. Some Observations • For an i.1% of the time. the ﬁrst great victory by the masterful jockey Pat Day. making 700 wagers all of which have a 14% advantage. For 7 . Thorp and Ziemba actually made this place and show bet and won with a low fractional Kelly wager. see Ziemba and Hausch (1996). the least of which has a 19% chance of winning can turn $1000 into $18. like any other strategy.6% of the time $1000 turns into at least $100. in the inaugural 1984 Breeders Cup Classic $3 million race. the result is ﬁxed fraction betting.d. which results from maximizing expected utility in case the utility function is log or a negative power. But with full Kelly 16. Ziemba and Blazenko (1992) reprinted in this volume). any ﬁxed fraction strategy has the property that if the number of wins equals the number of losses then the bettor is behind. Half Kelly does not help much as $1000 can become $145 and the growth is much lower with only $100. can have a poor return outcome. Thorp. This is a consequence of weighting equally rather than by size of the wager. on the 3-5 shot Slew of Gold was 64%. • A betting strategy is “essentially diﬀerent” from Kelly if Sn ≡ n Elog(1+fi∗ Xi )− i=1 n Elog(1 + fi Xi ) tends to inﬁnity as n increases.Good and bad properties MacLean. For one such example. Slew ﬁnished third but the second place horse Gate Dancer was disqualiﬁed and placed third.

This result is due to Thorp (1997). betting exactly double the Kelly criterion amount leads to a growth rate equal to the risk free rate. The theory and practical application of the Kelly criterion is straightforward when the underlying probability distributions are fairly accurately known. under the further assumption of the Capital Asset Pricing Model. Consequently practitioners who wish to protect capital above all. • Fallacy: If maximizing ElogXN almost certainly leads to a better outcome then the expected utility of its outcome exceeds that of any other rule provided N is suﬃciently large. the good properties dominate the bad properties of the Kelly criterion. σβ = 10% with the same means.Good and bad properties MacLean. The Kelly and fractional Kelly strategies are very useful if applied carefully with good data input and proper ﬁnancial engineering risk control.0% and game B 1. Appendix In continuous time. bad properties and observations to test whether Kelly is well suited to their intended application. Thorp. For long term compounders.the size of the wagers should be reduced.1%. But if σα = 20%. As another example. It takes two million trials to have an 84% chance that game A dominates game B. to dominate an essentially diﬀerent strategy. 2006). in investment applications this is usually not the case. Then in ﬁve years A is ahead of B with 95% conﬁdence. Given the extreme sensitivity of E log calculations to errors in mean estimates. suppose µα = 20%. But the bad properties may dampen the enthusiasm of naive prospective users of the Kelly criterion. Bernoulli trials f = 1 maximizes EU (x) but f = 2p − 1 < 1 maximizes ElogXN . sharply reduce risk as their drawdown increases. in continuous time with a geometric Wiener process. with a geometric Wiener process. Zhao and Ziemba (2009) in this volume. 8 . Thorp. see Thorp (2006). 1/2 < p < 1. these estimates must be accurate and to be on the safe side. Stutzer (1998) and Janacek (1998) and possibly others. it takes 157 years for A to beat B with 95% conﬁdence. σα = σβ = 10%. Counterexample: u(x) = x. For instance. in coin tossing suppose game A has an edge of 1. Prospective users of the Kelly Criterion can check our list of good properties. See Samuelson (1971) and Thorp (1971. However. Realized future equity returns may be very diﬀerent from what one would expect using estimates based on historical returns. including Kelly. Ziemba more such calculations. µβ = 10%. is due to Harry Markowitz and appears in Ziemba (2003). • It can take a long time for any strategy. see Bicksler and Thorp (1973) and MacLean. The following simple proof.

In the CAPM Ep = ro + (EM − r0 )X 2 V p = σM X 2 In continuous time where X is the portfolio weight and r0 is the risk free rate. Vp . see Thorp (2006). For a more general proof and illustration. variance and expected log. 2 Substituting double Kelly. namely Y = 2X for X above into 1 2 gp = r0 + (EM − r0 )Y − σM Y 2 2 and simplifying yields 4 2 2 g0 − r0 = 2(EM − r0 )2 /σM − (EM − r0 )2 /σM = 0. 2 Hence g0 = r0 when Y = 2S.Good and bad properties MacLean. gp are the portfolio expected return. 9 . The CAPM assumption is not needed. Thorp. respectively. Ziemba 1 gp = Ep − Vp 2 Ep . Collecting terms and setting the derivative of gp to zero yields 2 X = (EM − r0 )/σM which is the optimal Kelly bet with optimal growth rate 1 2 2 g ∗ = r0 + (EM − r0 )2 − [(EM r0 )/σM ]2 σM 2 1 2 2 = r0 + (EM − r0 )2 /σM − (EM − r0 )2 /σM 2 1 = r0 + [(E − M − r))/σM ]2 .

Browne. Thorp (1973). and S. N.). University of Nevada. 1163–1172. Bamberg and . V. T. Management Science 30. Competitive optimality of logarithmic investment. and W. 161–166. The Kelly system maximizes median fortune. Survival and growth with a ﬁxed liability: optimal portfolios in continuous time. O. Breiman. Diﬀerent measures of win rates for optimal proportional betting.Good and bad properties MacLean. 724–733. (1998). Cover (1988). M. Journal e of Applied Probability 20. (2004). (1961).). Cover. Cover (1980). Hakansson. S. Management Science 22. Math of Operations Research 22. Finkelstein. Math of Operations Research 5. L. (1997). and T. Ethier. The eﬀect of errors in mean. Ethier. (2010). P. (1985). S. Cover (1988). J. 324–334. (1971). K. S. Department of Economics.Sc. Game-theoretic optimal portfolios. Optimal strategies for repeated games. Proceedings of the 4th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability 1. variance and covariance estimates on optimal portfolio choice. Chopra. 1230–1236. Prague. Compound-return mean-variance eﬃcient portfolios never risk ruin. Bicksler. Springer. M. Janacek. (1993). 10 . Asymptotic optimality and asymptotic equipartition properties of log-optimum investment. and T. Optimal growth in gambling and investing. (1993). 415–428. V. and W. 563–573. The capital growth model: an empirical investigation. M. Charles University. In G. The proportional bettor’s fortune. Ziemba (1993). L. Annals of Probability 16 (2). Chopra. and Thomas (2006). 468–493. Ziemba References Algoet. Journal of Portfolio Management 19. Bell. H. Kallberg. Opitz (Eds. S. Bell. Thorp. On the extensive number of plays to achieve superior performance with the geometric mean strategy. T. N. Ethier. Proceedings 7th International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking. and B. Advanced Applied Probability 13. Journal of Investing 2 (3). Aucamp. (1987). 1540–1547. K. Management Science 39. D. M. Whitley (1981). The proportional bettor’s return on investment. 391–400. Management Science 34 (6). 6–11. R. S. Tavar´ (1983). The Doctrine of Chances: Probabilistic Aspects of Gambling. 51–59. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis 8 (2). and R. Optimal gambling system for favorable games. H. and T. Reno. Ethier. J. Oelgeschlager. Improving optimization. K. Miller (1975). Elements of Information Theory (2 ed. Remarks on optimal portfolio selection. G. 876–898. M. Methods of Operations Research. M. and E. P. Griﬃn. On optimal myopic portfolio policies with and without serial correlation. Journal of Applied Probability 41. R. 63–8. Thesis. H. Ziemba (1981). 273–287. Journal of Business 44. T. Hakansson.

Bamberg and K. MacLean. Ziemba. S. Handbooks in Finance. Thorp. Medium term simulations of Kelly and fractional Kelly strategies. Growth versus security tradeoﬀs in dynamic investment analysis. Capital growth with security. Scenarios for Risk Management and Global Investment Strategies. R. 2493–2496. Y. and Li (2005). R. Zhao. MacLean. Investments. and W.). T. A.Good and bad properties MacLean. J. T. Ziemba (1999). Portfolio choice and the Kelly criterion. Y. The symmetric downside risk Sharpe ratio and the evaluation of great investors and speculators. Zhao. (2006). (1968). pp. W. J. Charlottesville. In G. Gunn and Hain. G. Mis-speciﬁcations in portfolio selection problems. C. Springer Verlag. Ziemba Volume 44. 343– 357. San Luis Obispo. L. A. (1971). W. g (2004). pp. (2009). and G. Ziemba. February. W. and W. 193–227. Mossin. 215– 229. 507–520. P. The Kelly criterion in blackjack. Spremann (Eds. New York. T. MacLean. Proceedings National Academy of Science 68. Thorp.. T. and W. Ziemba (2007).. Ziemba (Eds. Handbook of asset and liability management. T. 215–224. 108–122.. and W. 385–428. CA. Ziemba. sports betting and the stock market.. Ziemba (1984). O. (2009). Zenios and W.). Working Paper. (2005). North Holland. E. Z. Working Paper. Proceedings of the Business and Economics Section of the American Statistical Association. and D. The stochastic programming approach to asset liability and wealth management. and W. Ziemba. 11 . T. Kallberg. 1562–85. Samuelson. AIMR. T. W. (1971). Management Science 38. T. 19 pages. Time to wealth goals in capital accumulation and the optimal trade-oﬀ of growth versus security. Thorp. and W. W. Zhao. B. T. Ziemba. L. W. Dalhousie University. M. pp. L. Thorp. MacLean. O. Quantitative Finance 5 (4). this volume. L. Ziemba (2009). T. Optimal capital growth with convex loss penalties. L. Betting at the Racetrack. Ziemba. The fallacy of maximizing the geometric mean in long sequences of investing or gambling. MacLean.. T. E. Ziemba (2009). Risk and Capital. Growth versus security in dynamic investment analysis. T. O. Ziemba. Optimal multiperiod portfolio policies. VA. Y. Wiley. this volume. Journal of Portfolio Management Fall. Stutzer. Blazenko (1992). Annals of Operations Research 85. E. Hausch (1986). L. Dr. Journal of Business 41. MacLean. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control reprinted in this volume. 74–87. On growth optimality versus security against underperformance. T. In S.. Sanegre. Utility theory for growth versus security. (2003). E.

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