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Computer Fundamentals Basics Computer Components Part 1

Identify the fundamental principles of using personal computers > Identify the names, purposes and characteristics of storage devices FDD (floppy disk drive) has only 1.4 Mb storage space. Was used for backup of data and mode of transferring data from one PC to another. As of 2005 3-inch drives were still common equipment on many new PCs other than laptops. But have become pretty much obsolete, portable storage options, such as USB storage devices and recordable or rewritable CDs / DVDs have taken its place.

Floppy Connection on Motherboard Drive

Floppy

HDD (hard disk drive) is a data storage device that stores data on a magnetic surface layered onto hard disk platters. As of June 2006 the smallest desktop hard disk still in production has a capacity of 40 gigabytes, while the largest-capacity internal drives are a 3/4 terabyte (750 gigabytes), with external drives at or exceeding one terabyte by using multiple internal disks.

Types of Hard Drives ESDI (Enhanced Small Disk Interface) was an interface developed by Maxtor to allow faster communication between the PC and the disk. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) was an early competitor with ESDI, originally named SASI for Shugart Associates. ATA / IDE and EIDE (Advanced Technology Attachment, also known as Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) SATA (Serial ATA)

CD / DVD / RW (e.g. drive speeds, media types) CD-ROM Compact Disc Read-Only Memory Used for data storage and data transfer. A standard 120mm CDROM holds 650 or 700 Mb of data. DVD-ROM Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high quality video and sound. DVDs resemble compact discs as their physical dimensions are the same but they are encoded in a different format and at a much higher density allowing for a greater data capacity of about 4.7 GB

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CD-RW CD-RW recorder can rewrite 700 MB of data to a CD-RW disc roughly 1000 times. CD-RW recorders can also write CD-R discs. Except for the ability to completely erase a disc, CDRWs act very much like CD-Rs. CD-RWs cannot be read in CD-ROM drives built prior to 1997. CD-R is considered a better technology for archival purposes as disc contents cannot be modified.

DVD-RW Rewritable optical disc with equal storage capacity to a DVD-R, typically 4.7 GB. Primary advantage of DVD-RW over DVD-R is the ability to erase and rewrite to a DVD-RW disc. DVD-RW discs may be written to about 1,000 times before needing replacement, making them comparable with the CD-RW standard. DVD-RW discs are commonly used for volatile data, such as backups or collections of files.

Dual Layer recording allows DVD-R and DVD+R discs to store significantly more data, up to 8.5 Gigabytes per disc, compared with 4.7 Gigabytes for single-layer discs. > Removable storage Tape drives mainly for backup and long-term storage. Can be connected with SCSI (most common), parallel port, IDE, USB, FireWire or optical fibre. Tape drives can range in capacity from a few megabytes to upwards of 800 GB compressed. External CD-RW and hard drive May be used for backup, easy transfer of data to another PC, and are good choices for offsite backup data storage in case of fire et.. Thumb drive, flash and SD cards small, lightweight, removable and rewritable data storage devices. Some recent USB flash drives act as two drives - as a removable disk device , and as a USB floppy drive. This is likely intended to make it easier to use them as a bootable device. > Identify the names, purposes and characteristics of motherboards A motherboard, also known as a mainboard, logic board, or system board, and sometimes abbreviated as mobo, is the central or primary circuit board of the computer. A typical computer is built with the microprocessor, main memory, and other basic components on the motherboard. Other components of the computer such as external storage, control circuits for video display and sound, and peripheral devices are typically attached to the motherboard via ribbon cables, other cables, and power connectors. Form Factor Form factor refers to the size and format of motherboards ATX (Advanced Technology Extended) is a full size board measuring 12" wide by 9.6" deep (305 mm x 244 mm) BTX (for Balanced Technology Extended) was originally slated to be the replacement for the aging ATX motherboard, but it has not been widely accepted by the market as of early 2006. microATX is a small motherboard size of 9.6" x 9.6" (244 mm x 244 mm). Compared to full size ATX, microATX has reduced the amount of I/O slots but a smaller power supply can be used.

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> Components Common Motherboard Layout (INTEL Socket T (LGA775))

1 CPU Socket 2 CPU_FAN - CPU cooling fan connector 3 DIMM1~2 - 240-pin DDR2 SDRAM slots 4 IRDA - Infrared header 5 FDD - Floppy diskette drive connector 6 ATX1 - Standard 24-pin ATX power connector 7 IDE1 - Primary IDE channel 8 CLR_CMOS - Clear CMOS jumper 9 SATA1~4 - Serial ATA connectors 10 PANEL1 - Panel connector for case switches and LEDs 11 USB1-2 - Front Panel USB headers 12 1394a - IEEE 1394a header

13 BIOS_WP - BIOS flash protect jumper 14 COM2 - Onboard Serial port hader 15 WOL1 - Wake On LAN connector 16 S/PDIF - SPDIF out header 17 F_AUDIO - Front panel audio header 18 AUX_IN - Auxiliary In connector 19 PCI1~2 - 32-bit add-on card slots 20 PCIE1 - PCI Express x1 slot 21 PCIEX16 - PCI Express slot for graphics interface 22 SYS_FAN - System cooling fan connector 23 ATX12V - Auxiliary 4-pin power connector

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> Integrated I/Os

Rear panel on of a motherboard with many integrated inputs and outputs (I/O's).

PS2 Mouse Used to connect a PS/2 pointing device. PS2 Keyboard Used to connect a PS/2 keyboard. Parallel Port (LPT1) Used to connect printers or other parallel communications devices. Serial Port Used to connect serial devices such as mice or (COM1) fax/modems. VGA Port Connect your monitor to the VGA port. 1394a Port Use the 1394a port to connect to any firewire device. LAN Port Used to connect an RJ-45 cable to a Network hub or router. USB Ports Used to connect USB devices such as printers, scanners cameras et... Audio Ports Used to connect audio devices. The D port is for stereo line-in signal, while the F port is for microphone in signal. This motherboard supports 8channel audio devices that correspond to the A, B, C, and E port respectively. In addition, all of the 3 ports, B, C, and E provide users with both right & left channels individually. A. Center & Woofer B. Back Surround C. Side Surround D. Line-in E. Front Out F. Mic_in Rear

Computer Fundamentals Basics Computer Components Part 2


Identify the fundamental principles of using personal computers part 2 > Memory slots RIMM Slots: were commonly used on the Intel Pentium 4 motherboards. Unlike most other types of computer memory, computers that support RIMM require a continuous signal. If a memory slot is left empty the PC will not work. The empty slot must be filled with another RIMM module or a C-RIMM pass through module which enables a continuous signal. < Installed DIMM < Open DIMM Slots DIMM Slots: come in three common pin configurations. 240-pin slots - for DDR2 SDRAM memory for desktop computers. 184-pin slots - for DDR SDRAM memory for desktop computers. 168-pin slots - commonly found in Pentium and Athlon systems.

Processor sockets A motherboard is designed for a certain range of processors. One of the determining factors of processor compatibility is the slot or socket connector soldered onto the board. 242-contact and 330-contact slot connectors were used for a short time to allow for L2 cache to be packaged close to the processor die. Processor manufacturing advancements now allow L2 cache to be manufactured on the same die as the processor, requiring a smaller form-factor processor packaging. PGA (pin grid array) sockets are more common, flexible, and compact, but have many variations in the amount of pin connects and pin layouts. AMD Proccessors

CPU Socket

Processors AMD AMD Athlon Athlon Duron (650 XP (600 MHz 1400 1800 MHz) 3200+) MHz) 3300+)

PIN's

(1500+ MHz (2000+ -

Socket A

AMD AMD

453

Sempron

AMD Athlon MP (1000 MHz - 3000+) AMD Socket 754 AMD Athlon Sempron 64 (2800+ (2500+ 3700+) ) 754

AMD Turion 64 (ML and MT) AMD Athlon 64 (3000+ 4000+)

Socket 939

939

Computer Fundamentals Basics

AMD AMD Some AMD

Athlon Athlon Opteron

64 64 1xx

FX X2 series

Some Sempron 3xxx Socket 940

AMD AMD Opteron

Athlon

64

FX 940

NOT compatible with Socket AM2 940 pin CPUs

Athlon Athlon Socket AM2 Athlon Opteron Sempron Athlon Athlon Socket AM3 Athlon Sempron 64 64 64 64

64 X2 940 FX

64 X2 ? FX

INTEL Proccessors

CPU Socket

Processors Intel Intel Pentium Celeron D 4 (1.7 (to (1.4 3.4 3.2 3.2 GHz) GHz)

PIN's

Socket 478 Celeron GHz)

478

Intel Pentium 4 Extreme Edition (3.2, 3.4 GHz) Intel Intel Socket 479 Intel Intel Pentium Celeron Core Core M M Duo (900 (800 MHz MHz 2.267 1.733 2.167 (1.667 GHz) GHz) GHz) GHz) 479

(1.667 Solo

VIA C7-M (1,5 GHz and 1,8 GHz)

Computer Fundamentals Basics

Intel Intel Intel (3.20 LGA775 Intel Intel (3.20 Intel

Pentium Celeron Pentium Pentium D

(2.66 (2.53 4 -

3.80 3.46 GHz

GHz) )

Extreme 3.73

Edition GHz) 3.60 GHz) Edition GHz) 775

(2.66

Pentium Core 2 Duo

Extreme 3.73 (1.60 2.67

GHz)

Intel Core 2 Extreme (2.66 - 2.93 GHz) Intel Intel Socket M Intel Dual-Core Xeon (1.67, 2.0) Core Core Solo Duo 478

Intel Core 2 Duo (T5x00, T7x00)

External cache memory L2 Cache: Now usually found on the processor. The size of 2nd level cache. L2 Cache is ultra-fast memory that buffers information being transferred between the processor and the slower RAM in an attempt to speed these types of transfers. L3 Cache: Is a type of cache that is found on the motherboard instead of the processor. The size of 3rd level cache, typically larger then L2. L3 Cache is ultra-fast memory that buffers information being transferred between the processor and the slower RAM in an attempt to speed these types of transfers. Integrated Level 3 cache provides a faster path to large data sets stored in cache on the processor. This results in reduced average memory latency and increased throughput for larger High-end Desktop workloads. Bus architecture Front side buses serve as a backbone between the CPU and a chipset. The chipset (northbridge and a southbridge) is the connection point for all other buses in the system. The PCI, AGP, and memory buses all connect to the chipset to allow for data to flow between the connected devices. Chipsets The motherboard chipset consists of a north bridge, or Memory Controller Hub (MCH), which is responsible for controlling communication between system memory, the processor, AGP, and the south bridge, or I/O Controller Hub (ICH). The ICH controls communication between PCI devices, system management bus, ATA devices, AC'97 (audio), USB, IEEE1397 (firewire), and LPC controller. These chipsets are soldered onto the motherboard and cannot be changed or upgraded

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Bus slots

PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect, is a specification introduced by Intel Corporation that defines a local bus system that allows up to 10 PCI-compliant expansion cards to be installed in the computer. Many netword, modem, sound, and graphics adapters et... use the PCI bus. The PCI bus is being replaced by PCI Express AGP: Accelerated Graphics Port , used for graphics adapters. The AGP port is being replaced by the new PCIe slot. PCIe: PCI Express (PCIe) is a new I/O bus technology that, over time, will replace Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI), PCI-X, and the Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP). PCIe hardware is backwards compatible with PCI software (not with hardware PCI slots) on the Microsoft Windows 2000 and Microsoft Windows XP operating systems. The PCI features supported by current Windows operating systems will continue to work with PCIe without any need for modifications in the applications, drivers, or operating system; however, the advanced PCIe features will be natively supported only in Windows Vista and later versions of Windows. PCIe slots today are mostly used for graphics cards which require the greater bandwidth PCIe is capable of. AMR: Audio Modem Riser, is an expansion slot found on the motherboards of some Pentium III, Pentium 4, and Athlon personal computers. Drawbacks of AMR are that it eliminates one PCI slot, it is not plug and play, and it does not allow for hardware accelerated cards (only software-based). CNR: Communications and Networking Riser, is a slot found on some motherboards. A motherboard manufacturer can choose to provide audio, networking, or modem functionality in any combination on a CNR card. Today nearly all riser technologies, such as ACR, AMR, and CNR, have been generally obsoleted in favor of on-board or embedded components. PATA: In 2003, the original ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) was retroactively renamed Parallel ATA (PATA) IDE: Integrated Drive Electronics EIDE: Enhanced IDE, sometimes referred to as Fast ATA or Fast IDE Are standard interfaces for connecting storage devices such as hard disks and CD-ROM drives inside personal computers.

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SATA: Serial ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) is a computer bus technology primarily designed for transfer of data to and from hard disks and optical drives. The SATA connectors will only fit in one orientation. The main differences between the serial interconnect and the parallel interconnect of ATA are as follows: Serial ATA is point to point, meaning only one storage device can be connected to a single Serial ATA cable. Parallel ATA has a shared channel and can connect up to two storage devices on a single cable. Serial ATA is faster. Currently Serial ATA transfers data at a rate of 150 megabytes (MB) per second and will likely advance to 300 MB and 600 MB per second in the near future. Serial ATA has a thinner cable and a smaller connection that is keyed so they cannot be connected incorrectly, unlike some parallel ATA cables.

> BIOS / CMOS / Firmware Basic input/output system (BIOS) is the set of essential software routines that test hardware at startup, start the operating system, and support the transfer of data among hardware devices. The BIOS is stored in read-only memory (ROM) so that it can be executed when you turn on the computer. Although critical to performance, the BIOS is usually invisible to computer users. The BIOS Setup Utility displays the PC systems configuration status and provides you with options to set system parameters. The parameters are stored in battery-backed-up CMOS RAM that saves this information when the power is turned off. When the system is turned back on, the system is configured with the values you stored in CMOS. Most BIOS Setup Utilities enable you to configure: Hard drives, diskette drives and peripherals Video display type and display options Password protection from unauthorized use Power Management feature

(CMOS) complementary metal oxide semiconductor is an on-board semiconductor chip powered by a CMOS battery inside IBM compatible computers that stores information such as the system time and system settings for your computer. Firmware is software that is embedded in a hardware device. It is often provided on flash ROMs or as a binary image file that can be uploaded onto existing hardware by a user. Most devices attached to modern systems are special-purpose computers in their own right, running their own software. Some of these devices store that software ("firmware") in a ROM within the device itself. Over the years, however, manufacturers have found that loading the firmware from the host system is both cheaper and more flexible. As a result, much current hardware is unable to function in any useful way until the host computer has fed it the requisite firmware. This firmware load is handled by the device driver.

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Riser card / daughter board Riser card is a PC expansion card that can be added to a PC to give it audio, modem or networking capabilities. Daughter boards are expansion boards that commonly connect directly to the motherboard and give the computer an added feature such as modem, audio capability ect.. . Today, these types of boards are not found or used in desktop computers and have been replaced with PCI boards. But, many laptops still use these types of boards.

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Computer Fundamentals Basics Computer Components Part 3


Identify the fundamental principles of using personal computers part 3 > Identify the names, purposes and characteristics of power supplies: Power Connections on typical modern motherboard

ATX Today, PCs will use either an ATX or ATX12V power supply. It contains software control of the power on/off signal so that it can shut down the system. Since the ATX/ATX12V power supplies are software activated/deactivated, you need to connect the Power SW cable from the chassis to the motherboard. Most power supplies require to have a load connected to the power supply. In other words, you must have at least one component such as a drive or motherboard connected to the power supply. Most power supplies designed to be used in the United States operate at 120 volts with a frequency of 60 Hz. In other nations, the supply voltage and frequency may be different. In Europe, you will find 230 volt with a 50 Hz frequency as the standard. Today, most PC power supplies will operate at either voltage. Some can automatically switch over to the proper voltage while most are done by using a small switch on the rear of the power supply. Ensure when plugging in your PC and turning it on, the correct voltage is selected. If you have a power supply switched over to 230 V and the voltage is 120 V, the PC will not boot up. Unfortunately, if the power supply is set to 120 V and it is connected to a 230 V outlet, it will seriously damage your power supply and other important components. The ATX12V power supply provides increased 12 V, 3.3 V, and 5 V current and provides additional cooling capability. An ATX12V power supply can be easily identified by the addition of an additional new 2x2 pin connector and an optional 1X6 pin connector.

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Computer Fundamentals Basics

ATX Pin Outs The ATX power supply uses the PS_ON signal to power up the system. A +5 volt signal is constantly sent through pin 14 (PS_ON) of the ATX power connector. When the PS_ON is shorted tells the power supply to turn on and start the boot process. A push button contact switch is connected to two pins on the motherboard that link to the PS_ON signal to ground. When the push button is pushed, it connects the PS_ON signal to ground. When the push button is pushed, it connects the PS_ON signal with ground, shorting it out. Therefore, when you are installing an ATX motherboard, you need to connect the push button wires (usually labeled PWR SW) to the motherboard. If you decide to test a motherboard without physically installing it into an ATX case, you can start the system by either connecting a push button switch to the motherboard and pressing the button or by taking a small screw driver and make contact with the two pins that make up the power switch connector. Since the switch only toggles the on/off status, the switch carries only +5 V of DC power, rather than the full 110 V AC current used in the T power supplies. Besides supplying the power to the PC components, the power supply also provides the power-good signal. During boot up, the processor tells the computer to constantly reset. As soon as the power supply performs a self-test, testing if all voltage and current levels are acceptable, the power supply will send a power good signal (+5 volts) to the microprocessor. When the power good signal is sent, the computer will finish the boot process. ATX Power Supply

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Computer Fundamentals Basics

24 pin connections on main board, some newer motherboards with 24 pin connections can accept both 20 and 24 pin connectors

20 and 24 pin main power connectors

20 main and 4 pin secondary connector - AMD Athlon 64 and Intel Pentium 4 processors require a power supply with an extra 12V connector that is connected to a 4-pin header on the motherboard

8 Pin CPU connector - On some motherboards, for example boards that support Intel dual-core processors have a secondary 8 pin connection.

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Computer Fundamentals Basics


The ATX form factor has five main power supply designs: ATX - 20 pin connector (Used through Pentium III and early Athlon XP) WTX - 24 pin connector (Pentium II and III, Xeon and Athlon MP) AMD GES - 24 pin main connector, 8 pin secondary connector (some dual-processor Athlon) ATX12V - 20 pin main connector, 4 pin secondary connector, 8 pin tertiary connector (Pentium 4 and mid/late Athlon XP & Athlon 64) EPS12V - 24 pin main connector, 8 pin secondary connector, optional 4 pin tertiary connector (Xeon and Opteron) defined in SSI specification ATX12V 2.0 - 24 pin main connector, 4 pin secondary connector (Pentium 4, Core 2 Duo, and Athlon 64 with PCI Express) ATX12V 2.2 - One 20/24-pin connector, one ATX12V 4 pin connector. Many power supply manufacturers include a 4 plus 4 pin, or 8 to 4 pin secondary connector instead, which can also be used as the secondary EPS12V connector.

CPU

Power Supply

ATX plug 20-pin, sometimes 24pin 20-pin, sometimes 24pin 20-pin 20-pin 24-pin, sometimes 20pin

P4 connector (4-pin 12V)

AMD Socket 754

ATX12V 1.3 or higher

sometimes needed

AMD Socket 939

ATX12V 1.3 or higher

sometimes needed

Intel Socket 423 Intel Socket 478

ATX12V 1.3 or higher ATX12V 1.3 or higher

needed needed

Intel Socket 775

ATX12V 2.01 or higher

needed

> Identify the names purposes and characteristics of processor / CPUs CPU chips: Central Processing Unit is the component on interprets instructions and processes data contained in computer programs. The CPU combines the control unit, storage unit, and arithmetic unit. Control unit interprets the instructions given to the computer. Internal storage is where the program of instructions is kept and where data from the input devices are sent. External storage can consist of disk and tapes. Arithmetic unit actually does the calculation required by the program. the motherboard that

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Computer Fundamentals Basics


CPU technologies: Hyper threading is Intel's trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. The technology improves processor performance under certain workloads. Dual core a CPU that includes two complete execution cores per physical processor. It has combined two processors and their caches and cache controllers onto a single integrated chip. Dual-core processors are wellsuited for multitasking environments because there are two complete execution cores instead of one, each with an independent interface to the frontside bus. Since each core has its own cache, the operating system has sufficient resources to handle most compute intensive tasks in parallel. Throttling is sort of enforced power management: Even when the system is highly active, the CPU is "put to sleep" for short amounts of time. This is done when the temperature is critically high, or, by request of the user, when the system shall use less power to allow longer system usage when on battery power. Micro code (MMX) technology is designed to accelerate multimedia and communications applications by including new instructions and data types that allow applications to achieve better performance. Overclocking is the process of forcing a computer component to run at a higher clock rate than it was designed for or was designated by the manufacturer. Cache memory is used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. The cache is a smaller, faster memory which stores copies of the data from the most frequently used main memory locations. As long as most memory accesses are to cached memory locations, the average latency of memory accesses will be closer to the cache latency than to the latency of main memory. Voltage Regulator Module (VRM) is an electronic device that provides a microprocessor the appropriate supply voltage. It can be soldered to the motherboard or be an installable device. It allows processors with different supply voltage to be mounted on the same motherboard. Some voltage regulators provide a fixed supply voltage to the processor, but most of them sense the required supply voltage from the processor. In particular, VRMs that are soldered to the motherboard are supposed to do the sensing, according to the Intel specification. Speed (real vs. actual) between 2001 and 2003, Intel and AMD made few changes to the designs of their processors. Most performance increases were created by raising the processor's clock speed rather than improving the microprocessor's core. Around mid 2004, Intel encountered serious problems in increasing their Pentium 4's clock speed beyond 3.4 GHz because of the enormous amount of heat generated by the already hot Prescott core processor when working at higher clock speeds. In response, Intel started exploring ways to improve the performance of its microprocessors in ways other than raising the clock speeds of the processors such as increasing the sizes of the processors' caches and using multiple processing cores in its processors. Because of the philosophy change, a Pentium 4 clocked at 3.0 GHz with a 1MB L2 cache could now outperform a 3.4 GHz Pentium 4 with 512KB L2 Cache. Clock speeds could no longer solely differentiate the performance of different Pentium 4s. As a result, Intel has adopted a PR rating of its own using three digit numbers. Intel now faces the challenge of making consumers compare its processors based on PR ratings rather than raw clock speed, ironically a problem which Intel created itself. Some analysts regard the PR scheme (and a raw MHz/ GHz rating) as nothing more than a marketing tactic, rather than as a useful measure of CPU performance. Many professionals or interested amateurs now consult extensive benchmark tests to determine system performance on various applications. 32 vs. 64 bit A change from a 32-bit to a 64-bit architecture is a fundamental alteration, as most operating systems must be extensively modified to take advantage of the new architecture. Other software must also be ported to use the new capabilities; older software is usually supported through either a hardware compatibility mode (in which the new processors support the older 32-bit version of the instruction set as well as the 64-bit version), through software emulation, or by the actual implementation of a 32-bit processor core within the 64bit processor die (as with the Itanium processors from Intel, which include an x86 processor core to run 32-bit

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Computer Fundamentals Basics


x86 applications). The operating systems for those 64-bit architectures generally support both 32-bit and 64-bit applications. > Identify the names, purposes and characteristics of memory Types of memory: Common DRAM PIN Count: DIMM 168-pin (SDRAM) DIMM 184-pin (DDR SDRAM) DIMM 240-pin (DDR2 SDRAM)

DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory, stores data as electronic signals. These signals must be constantly refreshed to keep them from dissipating. SRAM: Synchronous Random Access Memory. SDRAM: Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory. A DRAM technology that uses a clock to synchronize signal input and output on a memory chip. The clock is coordinated with the CPU clock so the timing of the memory chips and the timing of the CPU are "in synch." The synchronization eliminates time delays and allows for fast consecutive read and write capability, thereby increasing the overall performance of the computer. SDRAM has two separate memory banks that operate simultaneously, while one bank prepares for access, the other is being accessed. SDRAM is controlled by the system clock. SDRAM can only be used in computers designed for it and cannot be mixed with any other type of memory. SDRAM can operate at 100MHz, 133Mhz and features a burst mode that allows it to address blocks of information instead of small data bits. DDR / DDR2 DDR (DOUBLE DATA RATE) finds its foundations on the same design core of SDRAM, yet adds advances to enhance its speed capabilities. As a result, DDR allows data to be sent on both the rising and falling edges of clock cycles in a data burst, delivering twice the bandwidth of standard SDRAMS. DDR essentially doubles the memory speed from SDRAMs without increasing the clock frequency.

DDR memory modules near the center, while DDR2 have 240 pins.

have

184

pins

and

one

notch

The key difference between DDR and DDR2 is that in DDR2 the bus is clocked at twice the speed of the memory cells, allowing transfers from two different cells to occur in the same memory cell cycle. Thus, without speeding up the memory cells themselves, DDR2 can effectively operate at twice the bus speed of DDR. DDR2 DIMMs are not backwards compatible with DDR DIMMs. The notch on DDR2 DIMMs is in a different position than DDR DIMMs, and the pin density is slightly higher than DDR DIMMs. DDR2 is a 240-pin module, DDR is a 184-pin module. 184-pin DIMM: DDR 200/266/333/400 DDR SDRAM 240-pin DIMM: DDR2 400/533/667/800 DDR-2 SDRAM

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Computer Fundamentals Basics


DOUBLE DATA RATE 3 SYNCHRONOUS DRAM (DDR3 SDRAM) DDR3 is the third generation of Double Data Rate (DDR) SDRAM memory. Similar to DDR2, it is a continuing evolution of DDR memory technology that delivers higher speeds (up to 1600 MHz), lower power consumption and heat dissipation. It is an ideal memory solution for bandwidth hungry systems equipped with dual and quad core processors and the lower power consumption is a perfect match for both server and mobile platforms. DDR3 modules will be available in the second half of 2007. RAMBUS: Direct Rambus DRAM or DRDRAM (sometimes just called Rambus DRAM or RDRAM) is a type of synchronous dynamic RAM, designed by the Rambus Corporation. Not widely in PC's today. Operational characteristics: Parity versus non-parity Parity is a quality control method that checks the integrity of data stored in a computer's memory. Parity works by adding an extra bit of data to each byte to make the total number of 1's either odd or even. An error is detected if the parity circuit determines that this number has changed, indicating that some of the data may have been lost or otherwise corrupted. Two different parity protocols exist, even parity and odd parity. Parity protocols are capable of detecting single bit errors only. To enable multiple-bit error detection, manufacturers must use a more advanced form of error checking called Error Correcting Code (ECC). ECC vs. non-ECC Error Correction Code. A method used to check the integrity of data stored in memory . ECC memory improves data integrity by detecting errors in memory and is more advanced than parity because it can detect both multiple-bit errors and single-bit errors (parity only detects single-bit errors). ECC is typically found in high-end PCs and file servers where data integrity is key. Most computers designed for use as high-end servers support ECC memory. Most computers designed for use at home or for small businesses do not use ECC memory.

Single-sided vs. double-sided A physical terms meaning that the memory chips are arranged on one or both sides of the memory module.

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Computer Fundamentals Basics Computer Components Part 4


Identify the fundamental principles of using personal computers part 4 > Identify the names, purposes and characteristics of display devices, for example: Projectors A video projector takes a video signal and projects the corresponding image on a projection screen using a lens system. All video projectors use a very bright light to project the image, and most modern ones can correct any curves, blurriness, and other inconsistencies through manual settings. Video projectors are widely used for conference room presentations, classroom training, and home theatre applications.

Common display resolutions for a portable projector include SVGA (800600 pixels), XGA (1024768 pixels), and 720p (1280720 pixels). A Projector can be connected to a PC in many ways ie: HDMI, Component Video,VGA, DVI, Composite Video (RCA), S-Video, RS-232 CRT The CRT or cathode ray tube, is the picture tube of a monitor. The back of the tube has a negatively charged cathode. The electron gun shoots electrons down the tube and onto a charged screen. The screen is coated with a pattern of dots that glow when struck by the electron stream. Each cluster of three dots, one of each color, is one pixel.

The image on the monitor screen is usually made up from at least tens of thousands of such tiny dots glowing on command from the computer. The closer together the pixels are, the sharper the image on screen. The distance between pixels on a computer monitor screen is called its dot pitch and is measured in millimeters. Most monitors have a dot pitch of .28 mm or less. A modern CRT display has considerable flexibility: it can usually handle a range of resolutions from 320 by 200 up to 2560 by 2048 pixels.

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Computer Fundamentals Basics


LCD A liquid crystal display (commonly abbreviated LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector.

Resolution: unlike CRT monitors, LCD monitors have a native-supported resolution for best display effect. Dot pitch: the granularity of LCD pixels. The smaller, the better. Viewable size: The length of diagonal of a LCD panel Input ports: (e.g. DVI, VGA, or even S-Video ).

Video Connector types:

Video Card Outputs, from left to right. VGA, S-Video and DVI VGA

The common 15-pin VGA connector found on most video cards, computer monitors, and other devices, is almost always used solely to carry analog component video signals. Used mostly for CRT monitors but many LCD monitors also use these connectors. The common 15-pin VGA connector found on most video cards, computer monitors, and other devices, is almost universally called "HD-15". HD stands for "high-density". VGA connectors are almost always used solely to carry analog signals.

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Computer Fundamentals Basics


Mini VGA

A Mini-VGA connector is used on laptops and other systems in place of the standard VGA connector. Apart from its compact form, mini-VGA ports have the added ability to output both composite and S-Video in addition to VGA signals. DVI

Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video interface standard designed to maximize the visual quality of digital display devices such as flat panel LCD computer displays and digital projectors. As well as digital signals, the DVI connector also includes pins providing the same analog signals found on a VGA connector, allowing a VGA monitor to be connected with a simple plug adapter. This feature was included in order to make DVI universal, as it allows either type of monitor (analog or digital) to be operated from the same connector. The connector also includes provision for a second data link for high resolution displays, though many devices do not implement this. In those that do, the connector is sometimes referred to as DVI-DL (dual link). The DVI connector on a device is therefore given one of three names, depending on which signals it implements: DVI-D (digital only)

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DVI-A (analog only)

DVI-I (digital & analog)

HDMi

High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is an all-digital audio/video interface capable of transmitting uncompressed streams. HDMI is compatible with High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) Digital Rights Management technology. HDMI provides an interface between any compatible digital audio/video source, such as a set-top box, a DVD player, a PC, a video game system, or an AV receiver and a compatible digital audio and/or video monitor. The standard Type A HDMI connector has 19 pins, and is backward-compatible with the single-link Digital Visual Interface carrying digital video (DVI-D or DVI-I, but not DVI-A) used on modern computer monitors and graphics cards. This means that a DVI-D source can drive an HDMI monitor, or vice versa, by means of a suitable adapter or cable, but the audio and remote control features of HDMI will not be available. Because most DVI PC style displays do not have support for High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) on the display, the signal source may prevent the end user from viewing or especially copying certain restricted content. S-Video

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Separate video, (S-Video) is an analog video signal that carries the video data as two separate signals (brightness and color), unlike composite video which carries the entire set of signals in one signal line. S-Video, as most commonly implemented, carries high-bandwidth 480i or 576i resolution video, i.e. standard definition video. It does not carry audio on the same cable. S-Video is mostly used to output a PC's video signal to a Television. Component / RGB

Composite video is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal. Is used to output a PC's video signal to a Television. Settings: Refresh rate The refresh rate is how many times per second the screen is refreshed (redrawn). The faster the refresh rate, the less the monitor will flicker. On smaller CRT monitors (14") few people notice any change above 6072 Hz. On larger CRT monitors (17", 19") most people would experience mild discomfort unless the refresh is set to a more comfortable 85 Hz or higher. 100 Hz is comfortable for most people. LCD monitors do not suffer from the same problems as CRT monitors because the refresh rate does not mean the same. LCD monitors will provide excellent quality and resolution at 60Hz. The more important issue for a LCD monitor is its Response Time, Image Brightness and Image Contrast Ratio. Different operating systems set the default refresh rate differently. Windows 95 and Windows 98(SE) set the highest possible refresh rate. Windows NT based OS's such as Windows 2000 and its descendant Windows XP, however, by default set the refresh rate to the lowest supported, usually 60 Hz. Old monitors could be damaged if a user set the video card to a higher refresh rate than supported by the monitor. Nowadays most monitors would simply display a notice that the video signal uses an unsupported refresh rate. To change the refresh frequency for your monitor 1. 2. 3. Open Display in Control Panel. On the Settings tab, click Advanced. On the Monitor tab, in the Refresh Frequency list, click a new refresh rate.

Resolution The resolution of a monitor indicates how densely packed the pixels are. In general, the more pixels (often expressed in dots per inch), the sharper the image. Most modern monitors can display 1024 by 768 pixels, the SVGA standard. Some high-end models can display 1280 by 1024, or even 1600 by 1200.

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To change your screen resolution 1. 2. 3. 4. Open Display in Control Panel. On the Settings tab, under Screen resolution, drag the slider, and then click Apply. When prompted to apply the settings, click OK. Your screen will turn black for a moment. Once your screen resolution changes, you have 15 seconds to confirm the change. Click Yes to confirm the change; click No or do nothing to revert to your previous setting.

Computer Components Part 5


Identify the fundamental principles of using personal computers part 5 > Identify the names, purposes and characteristics of adapter cards Video including: PCI A specification introduced by Intel that defines a local bus system that allows up to 10 PCI-compliant expansion cards to be installed in the computer. PCI video cards were replaced by the newer AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) Specifications: PCIe PCI Express is a computer system bus that allows expansion cards with various capabilities to be added to a system. It is a flexible system intended to replace PCI, and AGP. While PCI Express has the same software interface as PCI and can be bridged to PCI, the cards are physically and electrically incompatible. PCIe 1.1 transfers data at 250 MB/s in each direction per lane. With a maximum of 32 lanes, PCIe allows for a total combined transfer rate of 8 GB/s in each direction. To put these figures into perspective, a single lane has nearly twice the data rate of normal PCI, AGP The Accelerated Graphics Port (also called Advanced Graphics Port, often shortened to AGP) is a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a graphics card to a computer's motherboard, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. Some motherboards have been built with multiple independent AGP slots. AGP is currently being phased out in favor of PCI Express. Multimedia: SCSI SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. The SCSI standards define commands, protocols, and electrical and optical interfaces. SCSI is most commonly used for hard disks and tape drives, but it can connect a wide range 33.33 MHz clock with synchronous transfers peak transfer rate of 133 MB per second for 32-bit bus width (33.33 MHz 32 bits (1 byte 8 bits) = 133 MB/s) 32-bit or 64-bit bus width 32-bit address space (4 gigabytes) 256-byte configuration space 5-volt signaling

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of other devices, including scanners, printers, and optical drives (CD, DVD, etc.). The SCSI standards promote device independence, which means that, at least in theory, almost any type of hardware can be connected via SCSI. Serial Port

a serial port is a serial communication physical interface through which information transfers in or out one bit at a time. Data transfered through serial ports connected the computer to devices such as terminals or modems. Mice, keyboards, and other peripheral devices. While such interfaces as Ethernet, FireWire, and USB all send data as a serial stream, the term "serial port" usually identifies hardware more or less compliant to the RS-232 standard, intended to interface with a modem or with a similar communication device. As of 2007, the USB interface has replaced the serial port, most new computers are connected to devices through a USB connection, and often don't even have a serial port connection. Parallel

A parallel port is a type of socket found on personal computers for interfacing with various peripherals. It is also known as a printer port. Like the serial port, the USB interface has replaced the parallel port. As of 2006, most modern printers are connected through a USB connection. Communications including: Network Interface Adapters A hardware device that provides a computer with access to a LAN. Network interface adapters can be integrated into a computer's motherboard or take the form of an expansion card, in which case they are called network interface cards or NICs. The adapter, along with its driver, implements the data-link layer protocol on the computer. The adapter has one or more connectors for network cables, or some other interface to the network medium. The network interface adapter and its driver are responsible for functions such as the encapsulation of network layer protocol data into data-link layer protocol frames, the encoding and decoding of data into the signals used by the network medium, and the implementation of the protocol's media access control (MAC) mechanism.

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Modem Short for modulator/demodulator, a hardware device that converts the digital signals generated by computers into analog signals suitable for transmission over a telephone line, and back again. A dial-up connection between two computers requires a modem at each end, both of which support the same communication protocols. Modems take the form of internal devices that plug into one of a computer's expansion slots, or external devices that connect to one of the computer's serial ports. The term modem is also used incorrectly, in many cases, to describe any device that provides a connection to a wide area communications service, such as a cable or DSL connection. These devices are not actually modems, because the service is digital, and no analog/digital conversion takes place. > Identify the names, purposes and characteristics of ports and cables for example: USB (Universal Serial Bus) Universal Serial Bus, or USB, is a computer standard designed to eliminate the guesswork in connecting peripherals to a PC. It is expected to replace serial and parallel ports. A single USB port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices, such as mice, modems, keyboards, digital camera's, printers, scanners, MP3 players and many more. USB also supports Plug-and-Play installation and hot plugging. USB 1.1 standard supports data transfer rates of 12 Mbps. USB 2.0 (Also referred to as Hi-Speed USB) specification defines a new High-speed transfer rate of 480 Mb/sec.

USB 2.0 is fully compatible with USB 1.1 and uses the same cables and connectors. USB has with two connector types. The first is Type A (on the right), This connector connects to the PC's USB port. The Type B (on the left) connector and is for connecting to the relevant peripheral.

Where as the type A connector is truly standard, the Type B connector could be changed in size etc. with individual peripherals meaning they require there own unique cables. IEEE 1394 (FireWire) Is a personal computer (and digital audio/video) serial bus interface standard, offering high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data services. FireWire can be considered a successor technology to the obsolescent SCSI Parallel Interface. Up to 63 devices can be daisy-chained to one FireWire port.

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IEEE 1394 connectors are used to connect FireWire devices such as host controllers, adapters, hard drives, hubs, repeaters, and card readers. FireWire, a registered trademark of Apple Computer, is a communications protocol for the transmission of data, video, and audio over a single cable at very high bit rates. IEEE 1394 is an interface standard adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for digital data transfers at 400 Mbps. The popularity of IEEE 1394 is due in part to its use of a bus-powered architecture that does not require peripherals to supply their own power. Products that support the IEEE 1394 standard adhere to its specifications, but often use proprietary trade names. For example, Sony uses the term iLink to describe its FireWire products. iLink is a registered trademark of the Sony Corporation. There are two basic types of IEEE 1394 connectors: four-pin and six-pin. Four-pin or four-position FireWire connectors are used with digital video camcorders and other devices that have a small footprint and do not require external power. By contrast, six-pin or six-position connectors are used with personal computers (PCs), rewritable compact disc rewritable drives (CDRWs), external hard drives, digital audio stations, and other larger, more durable FireWire devices that use external power. Four-pin connectors are rectangular, 1/4 by 1/8 devices in which one of the longer sides is indented. Six-pin connectors are rectangular, 1/2 by 3/16 devices in which one of the smaller sides is rounded. Four-pin and six-pin IEEE 1394 connectors are either straight or right-angled.

RJ-11 (Registered Jack) Standard telephone cable connectors, RJ-11 has 4 wires (and RJ-12 has 6 wires). RJ-11 plug Pin 1 socket 2 board, 3 adapter. 4 5 6 Signal Name VCC (5 volts regulated) Power Ground One Wire Data One Wire Ground No Connect V+ (unregulated DC)

Pinout that on or a

of connects TINI a

the to

1-Wire the C

E20

Revision 9097U

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RJ-45 RJ-45 The "RJ" stands for Registered Jack. These connectors are used with 10-100BaseT cables, and resemble telephone RJ-11 connectors, but are larger. They are connected to the cable by crimping.

Used for Ethernet cable connectors, where usually 8 pins (4 pairs) are used, e.g., a male-to-male cable to connect a cable or ADSL modem to the computer Ethernet network card. Applications include other networking services such as ISDN and T1.

25 Pair Color Code Chart RJ-45 Wiring (EIA/TIA-568B) Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Pair 2 2 3 1 1 3 4 4 Wire 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Color white/orange orange white/green blue white/blue green white/brown brown Pins

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> Identify the names, purposes and characteristics of cooling systems for example heat sinks, CPU and case fans, liquid cooling systems, thermal compound In earlier PC's it was possible to cool most components using convection (passive cooling), more efficient cooling has become a necessity on many components. To cool these components, fans are used to move heated air away from the components and draw cooler air over them. Fans attached to components are usually used in combination with a heatsink to increase the surface area available for heat conduction, thereby improving the efficiency of cooling.

CPU topped by heatsink and fan

Areas where cooling fans may be used: Power Supply (PSU) fans : often play a double role, not only keeping the PSU itself from overheating, but also removing warm air from inside the case. CPU fan: Used to cool the CPU (central processing unit). Case fans: move air through the case, usually drawing cooler outside air in through the front and over the internal motherboard components expelling it through the rear. Chipset fan: Used to cool the northbridge of a motherboard's chipset. Graphics card fan: Used to cool the GPU and/or memory on graphics cards. PCI slot fan: A fan mounted in one of the PCI slots, usually to supply additional cooling to the PCI and/or graphics cards. Hard disk fan: A fan mounted next to or on a hard disk drive.

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Computer Fundamentals Basics Computer Components Part 6


Install, configure, optimize and upgrade personal computer components part 1 > Add, remove and configure internal and external storage devices Install Hard Drive The following procedure is for a Western Digital EIDE hard drive, but is pretty much the same for all EIDE drives. The only difference being the jumper setting. Determine Appropriate Drive Configuration The default jumper setting for most new hard drives is Cable Select (CSEL). However, not all computer systems and motherboards support this setting. You will first need to determine whether your system or motherboard supports Cable Select as follows: 1. 2. 3. If your system does not support Cable Select or if you are uncertain, we recommend using the Master/Slave configuration. If there is an existing IDE device installed, check the jumper settings to see if it is configured for Cable Select. If it is, then your system supports Cable Select. If the IDE device installed is not configured for Cable Select or if you do not have an IDE device installed in your computer, check your system documentation or contact your computer/motherboard manufacturer to determine if Cable Select is supported.

Set the Jumpers Jumper settings are used to determine the order in which IDE devices (i.e. hard drives, CD-ROM drive, etc.), attached to a single cable, are detected by the system. Western Digital EIDE hard drives have a 10-pin jumper block located next to the 40-pin IDE connector on the hard drive. After you have determined the appropriate drive configuration, you must jumper the drive(s) accordingly. Identify the procedure that corresponds to your configuration. Western Digital Jumper Setting

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Seagate Jumper Settings

Maxtor Jumper Setting

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Connect the IDE Interface Cable to the hard drive(s): If installing the hard drive as the only drive on the cable: Connect the black connector of the IDE interface cable to the drive.

If installing two drives on the same IDE interface cable: Jumper the bootable drive as Master and the other drive as Slave; then connect the Master drive to the black connector of the IDE interface cable and the Slave drive to the gray connector.

Connect the IDE Interface Cable to the Motherboard: Attach the blue end of the IDE interface cable to the 40-pin connector on the motherboard. Match pin 1 on the IDE interface cable to the connector on the motherboard. note: The 40-pin 80-conductor cable is orientation specific. The cable connectors are color-coded: blue for the host connector, black and gray for the primary and secondary disk drives. The blue connector should be installed into the Primary IDE connector.

Primary IDE Connection All Ultra ATA/66 devices should be attached to a single channel and devices that do not support Ultra ATA/66 should be connected to a separate channel. In single drive configurations, connect the primary drive to the end connector on the 40-pin 80-conductor cable.

Connect the Power Supply Cable: Attach the computer system power supply cable to the 4-pin power connector on the back of your new Western Digital hard drive. The 4-pin connector is keyed to ensure proper insertion.

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Secure the hard drive: Most drives will function normally whether they are mounted sideways or upside down (any X, Y, Z orientation). Of course, the physical design of your system may limit the positions in which the drive can be mounted. However, in all cases, you should mount the drive with all four screws for good grounding. Also ensure that there is enough air space around the drive for adequate air flow, and avoid mounting the drive near sources of excessive heat (such as some CPUs). Configure the BIOS: Run the system setup program. (usually by hitting the delete key before windows boots.) Enable LBA mode and UDMA mode, if applicable. Select the auto-detect option. Save and exit the system setup program.

Note: If your hard disk controller requires a third-party original equipment manufacturer (OEM) driver, press F6 to specify the driver. 3. At the Welcome to Setup page, press ENTER. 4. Press F8 to accept the Windows Licensing Agreement. 5. If an existing Windows installation is detected, you are prompted to repair it. To bypass the repair, press ESC. 6. All the existing partitions and the unpartitioned spaces are listed for each physical hard disk. Use the ARROW keys to select the partition or the unpartitioned space where you want to create a new partition. Press D to delete an existing partition, or press C to create a new partition by using unpartitioned space. If you press D to delete an existing partition, you must then press L (or press ENTER, and then press L if it is the System partition) to confirm that you want to delete the partition. Repeat this step for each of the existing partitions that you want to use for the new partition. When all the partitions are deleted, select the remaining unpartitioned space, and then press C to create the new partition.

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Note If you want to create a partition where one or more partitions already exist, you must first delete the existing partition or partitions, and then create the new partition. For drives larger than 137GB you will need Service Pack 3 for Windows 2000, Service Pack 1 for Windows XP, or a controller driver that supports 48 bit addressing to format the full capacity during installation. Once the OS is installed, you may update the OS to the latest Service Pack and then partition the remainder of the drive through Disk Management. 7. Type the size in megabytes (MB) that you want to use for the new partition, and then press ENTER, or just press ENTER to create the partition with the maximum size. 8. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 to create additional partitions if you want them. 9. If you want to install Windows, use the ARROW keys to select the partition where you want to install Windows, and then press ENTER. If you do not want to format the partition and install Windows, press F3 two times to quit the Windows Setup program, and then do not follow the remaining steps. In this case, you must use a different utility to format the partition. 10. Select the format option that you want to use for the partition, and then press ENTER. You have the following options: Format the partition by using the NTFS file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the FAT file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the NTFS file system Format the partition by using the FAT file system Leave the current file system intact (no changes)

The option to leave the current file system intact is not available if the selected partition is a new partition. The FAT file system option is not available if the selected partition is more than 32 gigabytes (GB). If the partition is larger than 2 GB, the Windows Setup program uses the FAT32 file system (you must press ENTER to confirm). If the partition is smaller than 2 GB, the Windows Setup program uses the FAT16 file system. Note If you deleted and created a new System partition, but you are installing Windows on a different partition, you will be prompted to select a file system for both the System and startup partitions. 11. After the Windows Setup program formats the partition, follow the instructions that appear on the screen to continue. After the Windows Setup program is completed, you can use the Disk Management tools in Windows to create or format more partitions. Windows 2000/XP hard drive setup through Disk Management A hard drive must contain at least one formatted partition before it is usable. You can use the Windows 2000/XP Disk Management tool to set up volumes or partitions on your hard disk. With Disk Management, you can create and delete partitions; format volumes using a FAT, FAT32, or NTFS file system; and setup more

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advanced disk subsystems. You can perform most disk-related tasks without the need to restart your computer as most configuration changes take effect immediately upon committing the changes. Note: You must be logged on as an Administrator or a member of the Administrators group in order to use the Disk Management utility. To start Disk Management: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select Start, point to Settings, and then select Control Panel. Open Administrative Tools, and then open Computer Management. Alternatively, select Start, right click on My Computer and select Manage. In the console tree, select Disk Management.

Before a new, un-partitioned disk can be used in Windows XP it must contain a disk signature. The first time that Disk Management is run after a new hard disk is installed, the Disk Signature and Upgrade Disk Wizard is started. If the wizard is cancelled, you may find that when you attempt to create a partition on the new hard disk, the New Partition option is unavailable (appears dimmed). In this case a signature can be written on the hard drive by right clicking on the disk description window (lower pane, typically a red circle with a white dash covering the hard drive icon) and selecting Initialize Disk. Note: For drives larger than 137GB you will need Service Pack 3 for Windows 2000, Service Pack 1 for Windows XP, or a controller driver that supports 48 bit addressing.

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To create a new partition or logical drive: In the Disk Management window, do the following: 1. Right-click the Unallocated space and select New Partition.

2. On the "Welcome to the New Partition Wizard" page, select Next. 3. On the "Select Partition Type" page, select the type of partition that you want to create, and then select Next.

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4. On the "Specify Partition Size" page, specify the size in megabytes (MB) of the partition that you want to create, and then select Next. 5. On the "Assign Drive Letter or Path" page, enter a drive letter or drive path, and then select Next. 6. On the "Format Partition" page, specify the formatting options that you want, and then select Next.

7. On the "Completing the Create Partition Wizard" page, verify that the options that you selected are correct and then select Finish.

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Computer Fundamentals Basics Computer Components Part 7


Install, configure, optimize and upgrade personal computer components Part 2 > Install display devices Installing A Graphics Card

Following example is fo a AGP card, proccess is the similar for PCI(e) cards. Note: If the computer has an on-board graphics capability, you may need to disable it on the motherboard or in the motherboard?s BIOS settings. For more information, see your computer or motherboard documentation. 1. Align the video card with the free AGP slot, and press down firmly. Stop when you feel the card is not going in any further, or the AGP lock locks in place.

2. Screw the card to the case at the metal bracket near the back of the case. Ensure that the card is secure and the AGP lock, if present, is in its locked position. NOTE: Some newer model video cards will require that you connect a power cable from the power supply to the video card. 3. Replace the computer case side and reconnect all of the other cables. Start the computer.

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4. Install the manufacturers Software Accessing the Display Properties Panel Under Windows 2000 / XP There are two methods to opening the DISPLAY PROPERTIES panel under Windows 2000 / XP: RIGHT-CLICK on an open area of the Windows desktop and select PROPERTIES from the drop down menu.

Or Click the START button on the Windows taskbar. Select CONTROL PANEL from the menu. Click APPEARANCE AND THEMES. Click DISPLAY

BIOS Settings for Graphics Adapters The following BIOS settings will commonly impact the performance and/or operation of a graphics adapter. Where applicable, a description of the setting, along with common symptoms that might occur with an incorrect setting, is noted. The recommended "default" to use for the setting is also provided. NOTE: The exact names of various BIOS settings may vary from system to system. Not all systems will offer the options listed below. For specific information on the BIOS options available for your system, please consult the manual of your motherboard or check with the motherboard/BIOS manufacturer directly.

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AGP Aperture Size (MB) Select the aperture size of the Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP). The aperture is a portion of PCI memory dedicated for graphics memory address space. If the memory aperture size is set too low you may experience: Windows Protections Error during startup Windows hangs at a black screen while loading the system may boot correctly but hangs after a few minutes of operation

For most graphics cards, the BIOS default setting (usually 64MB) for the AGP Aperture Size should be used. If you are using a graphics card with a 128MB or more of memory installed, a larger aperture size may need to be used. AGP Bus Mastering Enable this option to allow the graphics adapter to have priority over the system bus for transferring data directly to and from system memory. This improves performance on certain video operations such as 3D acceleration functions that use system memory. Default AGP Bus Mastering should generally be Enabled. AGP Driving Control This option allows user adjustments to the AGP driving force. The value is adjusted using a hexadecimal value. Default settings: AGP Driving Control should be left at AUTO. Most newer graphics cards will automatically adjust for the appropriate setting. AGP Mode Adjusts the bandwidth available for AGP bus data transfers. The data transfer rate is calculated using the following formula: AGP 4X: 66MHz x 4 bytes x 4 = 1056MB/s AGP 2X: 66MHz x 4 bytes x 2 = 528MB/s AGP 1X: 66MHz x 4 bytes x 1 = 264MB/s settings:

If the AGP Mode is set incorrectly you may experience: Windows Protections Error during startup Windows hangs at a black screen while loading the system may boot correctly but hangs after a few minutes of operation

AGP Mode should be set to match the capabilities of the graphics card you are using. For example, if you are using a AGP 2X capable graphics card, AGP 2X should be selected. If AGP4X is selected, the system may not function correctly. In general, there should be no issues with having the AGP Mode set lower (e.g. AGP 2X when using an AGP 4X card) outside of a slight decrease in performance.

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NOTE: If the AGP mode is set appropriately and you experience system hangs, you may wish to try lowering the setting as a test; for example, try setting it to AGP2X when using a AGP4X card. If the system functions correctly, this may indicate a problem with the AGP data path in the system. Several things may affect the AGP data path including other incorrect BIOS settings, an issue with the system BIOS, a memory issue, excessive bus noise, a display driver problem, etc. PCI 2.1 Compliance When enabled, the PCI bus will comply with the PCI 2.1 specification. For more information about the PCI 2.1 specification, please refer to your motherboard user guide or contact the motherboard manufacturer. If all PCI adapters in the system support PCI 2.1, this option should be Enabled. If you have any PCI adapters which do not support PCI 2.1, this option should be set to Disabled. Assign IRQ for VGA Assign an Interrupt Request (IRQ) for the graphics adapter. Assign IRQ for VGA should be Enabled. Init. Display First This setting is generally only a concern if you have both an AGP and PCI display adapter installed in the system. Initialize the AGP or PCI video display before initializing any other display device in the system. The setting for this option will depend on which display adapter (PCI or AGP) you wish to be "Primary" in the system. Video Memory Cache Mode Select the method in which video memory is cached. USWC (Uncached Speculative Write Combining) - Write-Back Cache mode UC (Uncached) - Uncached mode

Default settings: Video Memory Cache Mode should be set to the BIOS "default" setting.

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Computer Fundamentals Basics Computer Components Part 8


Install, configure, optimize and upgrade personal computer components Part 3 Connecting A Monitor Typical Connections

CRT

Typical Connections (with built in speakers)

LCD

Install additional monitors Multiple monitors overview Windows makes it possible for you to increase your work productivity by expanding the size of your desktop. Connecting up to ten individual monitors, you can create a desktop large enough to hold numerous programs or windows.

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You can easily work on more than one task at a time by moving items from one monitor to another or stretching them across numerous monitors. Edit images or text on one monitor while viewing Web activity on another. Or you can open multiple pages of a single, long document and drag them across several monitors to easily view the layout of text and graphics. You could also stretch a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet across two monitors so you can view numerous columns without scrolling. One monitor serves as the primary display and will hold the logon dialog box when you start your computer. In addition, most programs will display windows on the primary monitor when you initially open them. Different screen resolutions and different color quality settings can be selected for each monitor. Multiple monitors can be connected to individual graphics adapters or to a single adapter that supports multiple outputs. Using Dualview On many portable computers and some desktop computers (those with two video ports on one video card), you can expand your display to a second monitor by using Dualview. Dualview is very similar to the multiple monitor feature, with the exception that you cannot select the primary display. On a portable computer, the primary monitor is always the LCD display screen. On a desktop computer, it is the monitor attached to the first video out port. Once you attach the second monitor and turn on your computer, use Display in Control Panel to configure your settings, just as you do with multiple monitors. Dualview can be used with docked or undocked portable computers. To use the multiple monitor support feature, you need a video adapter for each monitor. If you have an onboard video adapter (one that is not a plug-in card but is part of the motherboard) that you want to use as part of a multiple-monitor configuration, it must be set as VGA. To install additional monitors: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Turn off your computer. Insert your additional video card adapter into an available slot. Plug your additional monitor into the card. Turn on your computer. Windows will detect the new video adapter and install the appropriate drivers. Open Display in Control Panel. On the Settings tab, click the monitor icon that represents the monitor you want to use in addition to your primary monitor. Select the Extend my Windows desktop onto this monitor check box, and then click Apply or OK. If the check box is not displayed on your computer, it may be because your video adapter does not support multiple monitors.

If you are using Dualview, skip steps 2 and 3 above. Just plug your second monitor into the video out port on your portable computer, or into the second video out port on your desktop computer. When you turn on your computer, it should recognize the second monitor. Follow steps 5 through 7 to extend your display to the second monitor. If the second monitor is not shown on the Settings tab, you might need to update your display driver. > Add, remove and configure basic input and multimedia devices Access Device Manager Under Windows 2000 / XP There are two different methods that can be used to access the device Manager under Windows XP: Click the START button on the Windows taskbar. Select CONTROL PANEL from the menu. Select PERFORMANCE AND MAINTENANCE. Select SHOW BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR COMPUTER. Select the HARDWARE tab. Click on the DEVICE MANAGER button.

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Computer Fundamentals Basics Computer Components Part 9


Identify tools, diagnostic procedures and troubleshooting techniques for personal computer components > Recognize the basic aspects of troubleshooting theory for example: Assess a problem systematically and divide large problems into smaller components to be analyzed individually You can usually divid common PC problems into four categories hardware, software, user and environment. Each of these problem areas can be broken down further. Hardware Failure - One or more components fail inside the computer. Compatibility - A component is not compatible with another component. Configuration - The hardware has not been installed or configured properly.

Software Configuration - Software (Operating System or Application Software) is not installed or configured properly. Failure - Software glitch. (This can range from corrupted data to a flaw in the programming) Compatibility - Software may not be compatible with some hardware or other software.

Environment The location of the computer and its environment (temperature, air flow, dust, electromagnetic interference ect).

User Error User hits the wrong keys. (sometimes as simple as the user hitting the zero (0) key rather than the letter O) Is not familiar with the computer Is not familiar with the software.

> Identify and apply basic diagnostic procedures and troubleshooting techniques for example: Before trying to fix a problem, you need to gather information. First, make sure that you can duplicate the problem and that the user is not part of the problem. In addition, determine if the problem is always repeatable or is an intermittent problem. If it is an intermittent problem, does the problem follow a certain pattern (such as when the computer is on for a while) or does it occur completely randomly. You can gather additional information by trying to use software utilities to test your system and by using a digital multimeter (DMM). Some of the utilities include software to test the computer components, check for viruses, look for formatting errors on a disk or check software configuration. In addition, find out if the computer was serviced or changed recently. Many times servicing or changes can cause other problems. Other solutions including reconfiguring the software or hardware, reloading the operating system, application software or drivers, making changes to the CMOS Setup program or reconfigure the software. Whatever course of action that you choose, you should only make one change at a time. If the problem still exists, you will then make another change until the problem no longer exist. When determining which item to check or swap, you should first try to check items that are likely to cause the problem and are the easiest and quickest to check. Before replacing any components, you should do the following:

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Confirm that all cables and connectors are connected properly and securely Verify CMOS setup programs Update the BIOS Verify that all drivers are installed properly and that you have loaded the newest drivers Look for updated device drivers

After you fixed the problem, you should always thoroughly test the computer before returning it to the customer or client. This will make sure that the problem did go away and that you did not cause another problem when fixing the first problem.

> Apply basic troubleshooting techniques to check for problems with components: Use Windows XP Help and Support If running Windows XP, there's a simple system health monitoring tool available. The tool can be found in the Help and Support Center. To monitor system health using Help and Support 1. 2. 3. Log on as a local administrator on your computer, click Start, and then click Help and Support. Under the Pick a task, click Use Tools to view your computer information and diagnose problems. In the Task pane, click My Computer Information, and then click View the status of my system hardware and software.

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You can check what programs and hardware are installed on this computer, the amount of memory available, or review diagnostic information about the health of the computer system.

> Motherboard Troubleshooting The PC will not power on: Double check the power cable connection from the power supply to your AC power source. Ensure you are using the proper power supply. Ensure that the power supply connections to the motherboard are secure. Check for external power switch on back of power supply, Ensure it is turned ON. Remove and re-insert the processor, memory, and any add-in cards to make sure they are fully seated. Remove any non-essential hardware components and boot the system. Disconnect all power and remove the CMOS battery. Wait 10 minutes, then re-install the battery, reconnect power, and boot the system.

Processor heat sink fan will not turn: Connect the processor's fan heatsink cable to the processor fan connector labeled CPU FAN. Ensure that the power supply cable with the 4-pin connector is plugged into the 12 V processor core voltage connector located near the processor socket on the desktop board.

Floppy drive or CD-ROM not detected during boot:

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If you make any hardware changes related to drives, such as adding/removing hard drives, floppy drives or CD-ROMs, the specified boot order may change. Additionally, after you upgrade to a new BIOS or if you set the BIOS to factory defaults, your floppy drive or CD-ROM may not be detected in the desired boot order. Enter the BIOS Setup program and re-specify the boot order.

> Power Supply Troubleshooting Besides supplying the power to the PC components, the power supply also provides the power-good signal. During boot up, the processor tells the computer to constantly reset. As soon as the power supply performs a self-test, testing if all voltage and current levels are acceptable, the power supply will send a power good signal (+5 volts) to the microprocessor. When the power good signal is sent, the computer will finish the boot process. If the power supply detects a short or overload, the power supply will stop sending the power good signal and the system will reboot. Use a voltmeter to verify that each output from the power supply is correct. If any output is very low (especially the +5 volt output), replace the power supply.

To check for shorts and overloads, you need to use isolation: 1. 2. 3. Take out all of the expansion cards except the video card. Disconnect any drives except your floppy disk drive and your primary hard drive. If the system powers on with the minimum devices, one of the components which you removed or disconnected is causing a short or overload or all of the components together is too much for the power supply. To find out which one is causing the problem, put one expansion card or connect one drive at a time and turn on the system to find out if that device causes the power supply to go into idle mode.

4.

If it still does not work after removing all of the extra devices, it could be the motherboard/RAM, video card, floppy drive/hard drive controller card, floppy drive or the hard drive, which is causing the problem. In this case, you must then replace one device at a time until you find out which one is causing the problem.

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ATX Troubleshooting Guide From PC Power & Cooling (http://www.pcpower.com/) 1. Unplug the drive power supply connectors. 2. Turn the computer on. If computer will not turn on proceed to step 3. If the computer does turn on, one of the drives was connected incorrectly or shorted. Reconnect the drive connectors with proper polarity. 3. Unplug the AC power cord from the power supply. 4. Unplug the power supply from all connections on the motherboard and all drives, except for one hard drive. 5. Plug the AC power cord into the power supply. Have the AC power coming directly from a wall outlet with no UPS, surge protector, or line conditioner in between. 6. Short between the green and black wires on the 20 or 24-pin connector, with a paper clip or piece of wire (see diagram below).

7. See if the power supply fan is running. If so, your power supply is probably good. 8. Plug components back in - one at a time - to see what component is causing the short. > Processor / CPU Troubleshooting CPU is not identified correctly during POST or in the BIOS setup program Check the CMOS parameters or jumpers settings on the motherboard for the processor. Check to make sure the motherboard supports the processor. Update to the newest BIOS version.

CPU is not identified correctly by the operating system. Check the CMOS parameters or jumpers settings on the motherboard for the processor. Check to make sure the motherboard supports the processor. Update to the newest BIOS version. Since many programs detect the processor so that they can better utilize their features, the software may have been written before the processor existed. Therefore, check with the software manufacturer for a patch or update.

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Frequent processor failures. Make sure the motherboard supports the specific processor. Check the jumpers or BIOS setup program for the voltage settings of the processor. Check the jumpers or BIOS setup program for the operating frequency settings for the processor. Is the CPU fan working? Is the CPU heatsink clean? thus not allowing proper cooling from the fan. Is the chassis/case and power supply appropriate for the processor model and frequency and the motherboard? Check that the power supply fan is running properly and any other external case fans are running properly. Check that the air intakes for the external fans are unobstructed and have at least several inches away from walls and other items. Check that the power cable for the fan connected to the correct fan header specifically for the processor. Check that the thermal grease is applied properly. Check for power fluctuations. Use a voltmeter to verify that each output from the power supply is correct. If any output is very low (especially the +5 volt output), replace the power supply.

Processor is running hot Is the CPU fan working? Is the CPU heatsink clean? thus not allowing proper cooling from the fan. Is the chassis/case and power supply appropriate for the processor model and frequency and the motherboard? Check that the power supply fan is running properly and any other external case fans are running properly. Check that the air intakes for the external fans are unobstructed and have at least several inches away from walls and other items. Check that the power cable for the fan connected to the correct fan header specifically for the processor. Check that the thermal grease is applied properly.

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Identify tools, diagnostic procedures and troubleshooting techniques for personal computer components Part 2 > Memory Troubleshooting Common problems with memory: The computer wont boot, merely beeps. The computer boots but doesnt recognize all the installed memory. The computer boots but the screen is blank. The computer reports a memory error. Memory mismatch error Memory parity interrupt at xxxxx Memory address error at xxxxx Memory failure at xxxxx, read xxxxx, expecting xxxxx Memory verify error at xxxxx The computer intermittently reports errors, crashes frequently, or spontaneously reboots. Registry Errors General-protection faults, page faults, and exception errors The server system manager reports a memory error Serial Presence Detect (SPD) not detected

The fact that many computer problems manifest themselves as memory problems makes troubleshooting difficult. For example, a problem with the motherboard or software may produce a memory error message. Common Memory Problem Solutions: Improper Configuration including having the wrong memory module for your computer Make sure you have the right memory part for your computer. At the manufacturers Web site you can look up the part number. Many memory manufacturers have configurators, which indicate the compatibilities of your module. If not, phone the memory manufacturer, consult your computer manual, or phone the computer manufacturer.

Incompatibilities with memory modules from different manufacturers, different part numbers or different speeds. Confirm that you configured the memory correctly. Many computers require module installation in banks of equal-capacity modules. Some computers require the highest capacity module to be in the lowest labeled bank. Other computers require that all sockets be filled; still others require single-banked memory.

Improper Installation including the memory may not be seated correctly may need cleaning. Re-install the module. Push the module firmly into the socket. In most cases you hear a click when the module is in position. To make sure you have a module all the way in the socket, compare the height of the module to the height of other modules in neighboring sockets. Clean the socket and pins on the memory module. Use a soft cloth to wipe the pins on the module. Use a PC vacuum or compressed air to blow dust off the socket. Do NOT use solvent, which may corrode the metal or prevent the leads from making full contact.

Defective Hardware including a faulty motherboard or memory module. Swapping modules will reveal whether the problem is a particular memory module or socket, or whether two types of memory arent compatible. Remove the new memory and see whether the problem disappears.

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Remove the old memory, reinstall the new, and see whether the problem persists. Try the memory in different sockets.

For RDRAM systems All memory slots or sockets for a channel must contain a RIMM or a Continuity RIMM Check that the RIMM or Continuity RIMM is installed properly.

Update the BIOS. Computer manufacturers update BIOS information frequently and post revisions on their Web sites. Make sure you have the most recent BIOS for your computer. This applies especially when you have recently installed new software or you are significantly upgrading memory. Memory Problems Error Codes: (ahhhhhhhhhh! I can't take it anymore) Parity Error Reseat the memory. Make sure that the contacts on the memory and the socket are clean. Check the memory parameters in the BIOS setup program including the number of wait states. If the memory is too slow, you need to increase the number of wait states. Make sure that you have the right memory module for your system. Try removing one bank of memory modules at a time. Try using RAM chips from the same manufacturer with the same part number and speed. Check for a faulty memory module by trying the memory in a known good system. Trying known good memory in the system.

ROM Error displayed on the monitor during POST Try reflashing the System ROM BIOS (if possible). Some motherboards have a dual system ROM BIOS so that the second can be used to restore the first one when the first becomes corrupt. Replace the System ROM BIOS chip or the motherboard.

RAM error with fault addresses listed. For example: Memory address line failure at <XXXX>, read <YYYY>, expecting <ZZZZ> Memory read/write failure at <XXXX>, read <YYYY>, expecting <ZZZZ> Reseat the memory. Make sure that the contacts on the memory and the socket are clean. Check the memory parameters in the BIOS setup program including the number of wait states. If the memory is too slow, you need to increase the number of wait states. Try removing one bank of memory modules at a time. Try using RAM chips from the same manufacturer with the same part number and speed. Check for a faulty memory module by trying the memory in a known good system. Trying known good memory in the system. Check the power supply and check for power fluctuations.

HIMEM.SYS had Detected Unreliable XMS Memory at <address> Reseat the memory. Make sure that the contacts on the memory and the socket are clean. Check the memory parameters in the BIOS setup program including the number of wait states. If the memory is too slow, you need to increase the number of wait states. Try removing one bank of memory modules at a time. Try using RAM chips from the same manufacturer with the same part number and speed. Check for a faulty memory module by trying the memory in a known good system. Trying known good memory in the system.

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Check the power supply and check for power fluctuations. Replace the motherboard.

Limited Virtual Memory. (Your system is running without a properly sized paging file. Please use the virtual memory option of the System applet in the Control Panel to create a paging file, or to increase the initial size of your paging file.) 1. 2. 3. 4. Make sure that you have plenty of free disk space on your hard drive. Use the System applet in the Control Panel, access the virtual memory tool to set the paging file size to 0. Reboot the system and access the virtual memory tool again. Look for the recommended minimum and maximum sizes and set the values accordingly. Reboot the system.

TROUBLESHOOTING MEMORY PROBLEMS COMMON MEMORY PROBLEMS When you have a problem with memory, the cause is usually one of three things: Improper Configuration: You have the wrong part for your computer or did not follow the configuration rules. Improper Installation: The memory may not be seated correctly, a socket is bad, or the socket may need cleaning. Defective Hardware: The memory module itself is defective.

The fact that many computer problems manifest themselves as memory problems makes troubleshooting difficult. For example, a problem with the motherboard or software may produce a memory error message. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING The following basic steps apply to almost all situations: Make sure you have the right memory part for your computer. At the manufacturer's Web site you can look up the part number. Many memory manufacturers have configurators, which indicate the compatibilities of your module. Confirm that you configured the memory correctly. Many computers require module installation in banks of equal-capacitymodules. Some computers require the highest capacity module to be in thelowest labeled bank. Other computers require that all sockets be filled; stillothers require single-banked memory. Re-install the module. Push the module firmly into the socket. In most cases you hear a click whenthe module is in position. To make sure you have a module all the way in thesocket, compare the height of the module to the height of other modules inneighboring sockets. Swap modules. Remove the new memory and see whether the problem disappears. Remove theold memory, reinstall the new, and see whether the problem persists. Try thememory in different sockets. Swapping reveals whether the problem is a particularmemory module or socket, or whether two types of memory aren't compatible. Clean the socket and pins on the memory module. Use a soft cloth to wipe the pins on the module. Use a PC vacuum or compressedair to blow dust off the socket. Do NOT use solvent, which may corrode themetal or prevent the leads from making full contact. Flux Off is a cleanerused specifically for contacts. You can purchase it at electronics or computerequipment stores.

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Update the BIOS. Computer manufacturers update BIOS information frequently and post revisionson their Web sites. Make sure you have the most recent BIOS for your computer.This applies especially when you have recently installed new software or you aresignificantly upgrading memory. WHEN THE PROBLEM OCCURS When the problem occurs is a clue as to the cause. YOU'VE JUST BOUGHT A NEW COMPUTER: If you have just purchased a new computer and it is producing memory errors, the problem could be related to anything, including a bad computer board. In this case, you need to troubleshoot the entire computer, including memory. Because the computer dealer will have configured memory and run system tests before shipping, they can best help. YOU'VE JUST INSTALLED NEW MEMORY: If you have just installed new memory, the first possibility is that you installed incorrect parts. Double-check the part numbers. Confirm that you have configured and installed the memory correctly. YOU'VE INSTALLED NEW SOFTWARE OR OPERATING SYSTEM: Newer software or operating systems tend to push memory harder than older operating systems. Sometimes memory that worked fine prior to a software installation begins producing errors once it runs memory-intensive software. New software also has bugs, and beta versions are notorious for producing memory errors. In these cases, your first step should be to ensure you have the latest BIOS and service patches for your software. Otherwise contact the memory vendor. A technical support representative may have experience with other software incidents and can walk you through more-detailed troubleshooting. YOU'VE INSTALLED OR REMOVED HARDWARE: If you have just installed or removed hardware and suddenly receive memory error messages, the first place to look is in the computer itself. A connection may have come loose during the installation or the new hardware may be defective; in either case the errors are manifesting themselves as memory problems. Make sure you have the latest drivers and firmware. Most hardware manufacturers will post updates on their Web sites. UNEXPECTED PROBLEMS: If your system has been running fine, but suddenly starts to produce memory errors, and crash or lock up frequently, the chance of a hardware failure is more likely, since configuration and installation problems show up as soon as the computer turns on. Sometimes you can get memory problems if your computer is overheating, if you are having a problem with your power supply, or if corrosion has developed between the memory module and the socket, weakening the connection. HANDLING SPECIFIC PROBLEMS Here is a list of the most common ways the computer informs you of a memory problem. The computer won't boot, merely beeps. Computer boots but doesn't recognize all the installed memory. The computer boots but the screen is blank. The computer reports a memory error. o Memory mismatch error o Memory parity interrupt at xxxxx o Memory address error at xxxxx o Memory failure at xxxxx, read xxxxx, expecting xxxxx o Memory verify error at xxxxx The computer has other problems caused by memory. o The computer intermittently reports errors, crashes frequently, or spontaneously reboots. o Registry Errors o General-protection faults, page faults, and exception errors The server system manager reports a memory error.

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The following translations help you understand what the computer means when it gives you one of these signals. Computer won't boot, merely beeps. Every time the computer starts, it takes inventory of hardware. Inventory consists of the computer BIOS recognizing, acknowledging, and in some cases, assigning addresses to, the components in the computer. If the computer won'tboot, the CPU is unable to communicate with hardware. The cause can beimproper installation or failure of the BIOS to recognize hardware. Follow basic troubleshooting, paying special attention to whether the memorymodule is completely installed and that you have the latest version of the BIOS. Computer boots but doesn't recognize all the installed memory. When the computer boots, a part of the process is counting memory. On somemachines the count appears on the screen and on others is masked. If thecount is masked, from the computer set-up menu see how much memory thecomputer thinks it has. If the computer counts to or lists a number less thanthe memory you installed, the computer hasn't recognized all the memory. Sometimes the computer will recognize only part of a module. This is almostalways due to using the wrong kind of memory. For example, if your computeraccepts only single-banked memory and you have installed dualbanked, thecomputer will read only half the memory on the module. Sometimes thecomputer will accept only modules containing memory chips with specificorganizations. For example, the VX chipset doesn't work well with 64 Mbit chips. In many computers the maximum amount of memory the computer canrecognize is lower than the maximum amount you can physically install. Forexample, your computer may have three sockets, each of which can hold a128MB module. If you filled every socket with 128MB, you would have 384MBof memory. However, your computer may recognize a maximum of 256MB. Inmost cases you can avoid this problem by consulting your computer manual ora memory configuration Web site before purchasing memory. Or visit theKingston Web site. The computer boots but the screen is blank. The most common reason for a blank screen is a dislodged card, memorynot fully seated, or memory the computer doesn't support. Confirm that thememory is installed properly and that other components in the computer werenot accidentally disconnected or dislodged while you installed memory. Double-check that you have the right part number for the computer. If you havenonparity memory in a computer that requires error-checking memory, orSDRAM memory in a computer that supports only EDO, the screen may beblank at boot up. The computer reports a memory error. Memory mismatch error: This is not actually an error. Some computers requireyou to tell them that it's OK to have a new amount of memory. Use the set-upmenu to tell the computer. Follow the prompts, enter the new amount, selectSave, and exit. Computer memory or address errors: All of the following errors, and those similar to them, indicate that the computer has a problem with memory: Memory parity interrupt at xxxxx Memory address error at xxxxx Memory failure at xxxxx, read xxxxx, expecting xxxxx Memory verification error at xxxxx

Typically the computer will perform a simple memory test as it boots. Thecomputer will write information to memory and read it back. If the computerdoesn't get what it was expecting, then it will report an error and sometimesgive the address where the error occurred. Such errors normally indicate a problem with a memory module but cansometimes indicate a defective motherboard or incompatibility between oldand new memory. To verify that the new memory is causing the problem, remove the new memory and see whether the problem goes away. Thenremove the old memory and install only the new memory. If the error persists,phone the memory manufacturer and ask for a replacement.

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The computer has other problems caused by memory. The Computer Intermittently Reports Errors, Crashes Frequently, orSpontaneously Reboots: Because of the large number of causes, these problemsare difficult to diagnose. Possible causes are ESD (Electro-static Discharge), overheating, corrosion, or a faulty power supply. If you suspect ESD damage, contact the memory manufacturer and ask for a replacement. Before you installnew memory, see page 85 for information on how to prevent ESD. If you suspectcorrosion, clean the memory contacts and the sockets as explained on page 96.If you suspect the power supply, you will have to do overall computertroubleshooting with a focus on the power supply. Registry Errors: Windows writes a large portion of the registry to RAM. Sometimes defective memory will cause registry errors. Windows reports aregistry error and prompts you to restart and restore. If the prompts repeat, remove your newly installed memory and restart the computer. If the errorsdisappear, ask the memory manufacturer for replacement modules. General-Protection Faults, Page Faults, and Exception Errors: The most commoncause is software. For example, one application may not have released thememory after quitting or occupies the same memory addresses as another. Inthese cases, rebooting should solve the problem. If the computer suddenlydisplays general-protection faults, exception errors, or page faults after youhave installed new memory, remove the new memory and see whether theerrors stop. If they occur only when the new memory is installed, contact thememory manufacturer for assistance. The server system manager reports a memory error. Most servers ship with system managers that monitor component utilizationand test for abnormalities. Some of these system managers count soft errors inmemory. Soft errors have been corrected by ECC memory. If the rate of softerrors is higher than specifications, however, the system manager issues apre-failure warning. This warning enables the network administrator to replacethe memory and prevent system downtime. If the system manager on your server issues a pre-failure warning or othermemory error, ask your memory manufacturer for a replacement. If the systemmanager continues to issue errors after memory replacement, make sure youhave the latest BIOS, software service patches, and firmware. The chance ofreceiving two bad memory modules in a row is low. Contact the memorymanufacturer for compatibility troubleshooting. Sometimes the server does notwork well with certain types of memory chips or certain memory designs.

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Identify tools, diagnostic procedures and troubleshooting techniques for personal computer components Part 3 > Display Device Troubleshooting CRT Monitor Troubleshooting No power: Make sure power button (or switch) is ON. Make sure A/C power cord is securely connected to the back of the monitor and to a power outlet. Plug another electrical device into the power outlet to verify that the outlet is supplying proper voltage.

Power is ON but no screen image: Make sure the video cable supplied with the monitor is tightly secured to the video output port on the back of the computer. If the other end of the video cable is not attached permanently to the monitor, tightly secure it to the monitor. Adjust brightness and contrast. Verify whether an adapter is required for proper signal continuity between graphics card and monitor.

Flickering: Not enough power supplied. Connect the monitor to a different outlet. If using a surge protector, reduce the number of devices plugged in. Check the refresh rate (vertical frequency) is set correctly for that specific monitor. Remove any devices from the area around the monitor that emit magnetic fields such as radios, surge protectors, unshielded speakers, fluorescent lights, AC power converters, desk fans, etc. Make sure the graphics card in your computer can use non-interlaced mode at the desired frequencies. To enable your graphics card to support higher refresh rates, try selecting fewer colors or running lower resolutions.

Wrong or abnormal colors: If any colors (red, green, or blue) are missing, check the video cable to make sure it is securely connected. Loose or broken pins in the cable connector could cause an improper connection. Connect the monitor to another computer. Select Degauss from the Monitors Menu. Do this only once.

Screen image rolls vertically: Make sure video input signals are within the monitor's specified frequency range. Try the monitor with another power source, graphics card, or computer system. Connect the video cable securely.

LCD Monitor Troubleshooting No power: Make sure power button (or switch) is ON. Make sure A/C power cord is securely connected to the back of the monitor and to a power outlet. Plug another electrical device into the power outlet to verify that the outlet is supplying proper voltage.

Power is ON but no screen image:

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Make sure the video cable supplied with the LCD display is tightly secured to the video output port on the back of the computer. If the other end of the video cable is not attached permanently to the LCD display, tightly secure it to the LCD display. Adjust brightness and contrast.

Wrong or abnormal colors: If any colors (red, green, or blue) are missing, check the video cable to make sure it is securely connected. Loose or broken pins in the cable connector could cause an improper connection. Connect the LCD display to another computer.

> Adapter Card Troubleshooting Optional XXXX Optional ROM Bad, Checksum=YYYY error message. (ROM chip on an expansion card is having problems.) Remove one card at a time until you can isolate which card is causing the conflict. Check to see if you have a memory address conflict with another card, especially if you just installed another device recently. Replace the expansion card with the faulty ROM chip.

Modems: No dial tone for modem: If it is a modem built into the motherboard, check the CMOS setup program to ensure that the modem is enabled. Ensure that the appropriate drivers are loaded and working correctly. If it is an external modem, make sure the modem has power and is connected properly to the PC. Check that the phone line is active. Replace the phone cable. Replace the modem.

Receive an error message such as Could not open port.: Check for resource conflicts such as I/O addresses and IRQs. A program is loading in the Windows Startup folder that opens a COM port for some other use other than the modem. Try rebooting to see if the port was opened by another program. Rebooting may correct the problem.

PC or communication software refuses to recognize the modem. If it is an external modem, make sure the modem has power and it is turned on. In addition, make sure the cables are connected to the serial port. If it is an internal modem, make sure the modem is seated properly in the slot. Check in the BIOS setup program that the modem and/or serial port is enabled. Check for resource conflicts such as I/O addresses and IRQs. Try the modem in another system. Try the modem in another system. Replace the modem.

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Sound Problems: Speakers do not produce any sound Check the volume control in Windows and the volume control in the application to see if the sound has been muted or has been adjusted low. Check the volume control on speakers. Make sure the speakers are turned on and have power. Check the speaker cable is installed into the correct port on the back of the sound card. Check that the sound drivers are installed and functioning properly. Swap the speaker cables and power cable one at a time.

No audio when playing an Audio CD Check the volume control (specifically Master Volume and CD Player) in Windows and the volume control in the application to see if the sound has been muted or low. Check the volume control on speakers. Make sure the speakers are turned on and have power. Check to see if the four-wire CD audio cable is connected between the CD drive and the sound card.

When trying to play a high-quality audio file through a USB speaker system, you get an error message saying Out of bandwidth Disconnect extraneous USB devices such as joysticks, scanners, and others. Purchase an additional USB controller and attach the speakers to it so that they can have sole access to all of its bandwidth. Play the audio file at a lower playback quality or use a lower-quality version of the file.

When an expansion card is inserted into a system, it must be configured to use the proper resources. The resources include I/O addresses (including COMx/LTPx), IRQs, DMAs and Memory addresses. When configuring a card, one general rule should apply. No two devices can use the same resource. Therefore, two expansion cards should not be set to use the same DMA channel or the same I/O address. If two devices are using the same setting, the devices will not work properly or not work at all. To determine what the available resources are, use utilities, which come with the operating system such as Windows Device Manager located within the control panel. Access Device Manager Under Windows 2000 / XP There are two different methods that can be used to access the device Manager under Windows XP: Click the START button on the Windows taskbar. Select CONTROL PANEL from the menu. Select PERFORMANCE AND MAINTENANCE. Select SHOW BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR COMPUTER. Select the HARDWARE tab. Click on the DEVICE MANAGER button.

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After determining which resources the card can use, the card itself can be configured one of several ways: DIP switches and/or Jumpers A software setup program Using Plug and Play (PnP)

Normally, the BIOS assigns unique IRQs to PCI devices. If your system supports PCI IRQ Steering, and it is enabled, the BIOS will assign the IRQs to the PCI devices and Windows will typically only change the IRQ settings if it detects a conflict. If there are free IRQs to go around, IRQ Steering allows Windows to assign multiple PCI devices to a single IRQ, thus enabling all the devices in the system to function properly. Trouble Shooting Input Devices Keyboards Keyboard fails to be recognized during boot up or the keyboard is completely dead and no keys appear to function. Swap the keyboard, reboot the system when a keyboard is replaced. Use a multimeter to check the +5 V supply at the keyboard connector. Check to see if the motherboard has a fuse to protect the +5 V supply feeding the keyboard connector.

> Recognize the names, purposes, characteristics and appropriate application of tools for example: BIOS, self-test, hard drive self-test and software diagnostics test

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Power-on self-test (POST) is the common term for a computer's pre-boot sequence. The same basic sequence is present on all computer architectures. It is the first step of the more general process called initial program load (IPL), booting, or bootstrapping. Duties of the main BIOS during POST are as follows: verify the integrity of the BIOS code itself determine the reason POST is being executed find, size, and verify system main memory discover, initialize, and catalog all system buses and devices pass control to other specialized BIOSes (if and when required) provide a user interface for systems configuration identify, organize, and select which devices are available for booting construct whatever system environment that is required by the target OS

The BIOS will begin its POST duties when the CPU is reset. The first memory location the CPU tries to execute is known as the reset vector. In the case of a hard reboot, the northbridge will direct this code fetch (request) to the BIOS located on the system flash memory. For a warm boot, the BIOS will be located in the proper place in RAM and the northbridge will direct the reset vector call to the RAM. During the POST flow of a contemporary BIOS, one of the first things a BIOS should do is determine the reason it is executing. For a cold boot, for example, it may need to execute all of its functionality. If, however, the system supports power savings or quick boot methods, the BIOS may be able to circumvent the standard POST device discovery, and simply program the devices from a preloaded system device table. The POST flow for the PC has developed from a very simple, straightforward process to one that is complex and convoluted. During POST, the BIOS must integrate a plethora of competing, evolving, and even mutually exclusive standards and initiatives for the matrix of hardware and OSes the PC is expected to support. However, the average user still knows the POST and BIOS only through its simple visible memory test and setup screen. The following POST beep codes were sometimes found on the CompTIA A+ Core Hardware Exam: Beeps Steady, short beep Long continuous beep tone Steady, long beeps No beep No beep One long, two short beeps Meaning Power supply may be bad Power supply bad or not plugged into motherboard correctly Power supply bad Power supply bad, system not plugged in, or power not turned on If everything seems to be functioning correctly there may be a problem with the 'beeper' itself. Video card failure

S.M.A.R.T. stands for Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology. S.M.A.R.T. is reliability prediction technology for both ATA/IDE and SCSI environments. Pioneered by Compaq, S.M.A.R.T. is under continued development by the top five disc drive manufacturers in the world: Seagate Technology Inc., IBM, Conner Peripherals Inc., Western Digital Corporation, and Quantum Corporation.

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Generations of Computer First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client. Vacuum Tubes

Punch Card

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First Generation Computers

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Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry. Transistors

Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. Integrated Circuits

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Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computerfrom the central processing unit and memory to input/output controlson a single chip. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and selforganization.

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Classification of Computers According to Size According to Technology According to Purpose

According to size Supercomputers Mainframe Computers Minicomputers Workstations Microcomputers, or Personal Computers

Supercomputers : are widely used in scientific applications such as aerodynamic design simulation, processing of geological data. Supercomputers are the most powerful computers. They are used for problems requiring complex calculations. Because of their size and expense, supercomputers are relatively rare. Supercomputers are used by universities, government agencies, and large businesses.

Mainframe Computers: are usually slower, less powerful and less expensive than supercomputers. A technique that allows many people at terminals, to access the same computer at one time is called time sharing. Mainframes are used by banks and many business to update inventory etc. Mainframe computers can support hundreds or thousands of users, handling massive amounts of input, output, and storage. Mainframe computers are used in large organizations where many users need access to shared data and programs. Mainframes are also used as e-commerce servers, handling transactions over the Internet.

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Minicomputers: are smaller than mainframe, general purpose computers, and give computing power without adding the prohibitive expenses associated with larger systems. It is generally easier to use. Minicomputers usually have multiple terminals. Minicomputers may be used as network servers and Internet servers.

Workstations Workstations are powerful single-user computers. Workstations are used for tasks that require a great deal of number-crunching power, such as product design and computer animation. Workstations are often used as network and Internet servers.

Microcomputers or Personal Computers: is the smallest, least expensive of all the computers. Micro computers have smallest memory and less power, are physically smaller and permit fewer peripherals to be attached. Microcomputers are more commonly known as personal computers. The term PC is applied to IBM-PCs or compatible computers. Desktop computers are the most common type of PC. Notebook (laptop) computers are used by people who need the power of a desktop system, but also portability. Handheld PCs (such as PDAs) lack the power of a desktop or notebook PC, but offer features for users who need limited functions and small size.

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Personal Computers (PC) Desk Top Lap Top Palm Top PDA According to Technology: Analog Computers Digital Computers Hydride Computers Analog Computers:- These computers recognize data as a continuous measurement of a physical property ( voltage, pressure, speed and temperature). Example: Automobile speedometer Digital Computers:- These are high speed programmable electronic devices that perform mathematical calculations, compare values and store results. They recognize data by counting discrete signal representing either a high or low voltage state of electricity. Hybrid Computers:-A computer that processes both analog and digital data. According to Purpose 1. 2. General purpose Computers Special Computers

General purpose Computers Most computers in use today are general purpose computers Those built for a great variety of processing jobs Simply by using a general purpose computer and different software, various tasks can be performed, including writing and editing, manipulating facts in a database, tracking manufacturing inventory, making scientific calculations to even controlling an organizations security system, Electricity consumption etc.

Special purpose Computers A special computer as the name implies is designed to perform a specific operation and usually satisfies the needs of a particular type of problem Special purpose computers are also known as dedicated computers, because they are designed to perform a particular job Such a computer would be useful in games, control traffic lights, weather prediction, satellite tracking or programming a video cassette recorder. While a special purpose computer may have many of the same features found in a general purpose computer, its applicability to a particular problem is a function of its design rather than to a stored program.

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