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Introduction Factors that determine the type of promotional tools used (1) Resource availability and the cost of each promotional tool Advertising (particularly on television and in the national newspapers can be very expensive). The overall resource budget for the promotional campaign will often determine which tools the business can afford to use. (2) Market size and concentration If a market size is small and the number of potential buyers is small, then personal selling may be the most cost-effective promotional tool. A good example of this would be businesses selling software systems designed for supermarket retailers. On the other hand, where markets are geographically disperse or, where there are substantial numbers of potential customers, advertising is usually the most effective. (3) Customer information needs Some potential customers need to be provided with detailed, complex information to help them evaluate a purchase (e.g. buyers of equipment for nuclear power stations, or health service managers investing in the latest medical technology). In this situation, personal selling is almost always required - often using selling teams rather than just one individual Advertising Advertising is defined as any form of paid communication or promotion for product, service and idea. Advertisement is not only used by companies but in many cases by museum, government and charitable organizations. However, the treatment meted out to advertisement defers from an organization to an organization. Advertising development involves a decision across five Ms Mission, Money, Message, Media and Measurement. Mission looks at setting objectives for advertising. The objectives could be to inform, persuade, remind or reinforce. Objective has to follow the marketing strategy set by the company. Money or budget decision for advertising should look at stage of product life cycle, market share and consumer base, competition, advertising frequency and product substitutability.

Messages development further is divided into four steps, message generation, message evaluation and selection, message execution, and social responsibility review. Once the message is decided the next step is finalizing the media for delivering the message. The choice of depends on reach of media, frequency of transmission and potential impact on customer. Based on this choice of media types are made from newspaper, television, direct mail, radio, magazine and the internet. After which timing of broadcast of the message is essential as to grab attention of the target audience. Advertising is a non-personal form of communication which a seller employs to persuade his target consumers. Through advertisements seller tries to woo his consumers into buying the product or increase usage of product. So through advertising he tries to lure the buyer by highlighting the benefits that can be derived from his product. It is a method of mass promotion as it reaches out to numerous people at once. This method single handly aims at creating and maintaining a brand name, helping in increasing the sale of existing product/services and spreading awareness about launches of new products/services or changes in the product line. Huge sum of money is spent on advertising. Objectives of advertising in Telkom Orange Kenya i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. To provide information. To remind the public. To change social Attitude. To induce the public. To convince customers for direct purchase. To encourage salesman

ORANGE KENYA Values i. Friendly we take the time to listen. We treat everyone as individuals. We enjoy working and succeeding together. Straightforward we are direct and easy to understand. We keep things simple. We focus only on whats important.



Honest we are open. We say what we do and we do what we say. We are happy to share. Refreshing we are brave. We dare to do things differently, to find a better way. We give colour to all that we do. Dynamic we are passionate, confident and focused on the future. We push the boundaries. We make a difference to peoples lives.



Market research firm Zenith Optimedia estimates that worldwide spending on advertising exceeds (US) $400 billion. Revenue generated from advertising helps in the existence of radio, television, newspaper etc. There are numerous advertising mediums like human billboards or sign walkers. These are people who hold a sign which carries a promotional message. In earlier days there were town criers for the same purpose. We come across advertisements everywhere from magazines, newspapers, mobile screens to pop-ups on internet. Some of the major channels of advertising Telkom Orange Kenya is using are: i. Advertising through electronic media (television, internet etc) Television is one of the strongest mediums of promotion. It reaches out to millions of people at once. This explains the high price for commercial airtime during popular T.V shows. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during the news hour in our media houses is high. Jingles are a common element of T.V commercials. They are catchy and leave a long-lasting impact over the viewer. The words 'information' and 'commercial' is amalgamated to form 'infomercial', another form of advertising over T.V. These commercials are of longer time duration often stretching over 5 minutes. They display the product and explain its features through demonstrations. Feedback from consumers is also included to persuade the viewer into buying the product. GBS TV in Kenya has adopted an advertising platform where Toll-free numbers are displayed through which the consumer can easily buy the product and get it home delivered. Advertisement has found a new medium in internet. Advertisements are sent via e-mails to target customers to convince them into buying their product or continue using their products. Along with e-mail marketing there has also

been an increase in e-mail spam or junk e-mail. They are unsolicited identical e-mail sent to various people. Advertisements appear on social-networking sites like Facebook, twitter etc. The advertiser has access to information like age, sex, preferences etc. from user profiles. This helps him in finding their target audience. The Facebook beacon project is based on direct marketing based on your friend's activities. Every time a facebook user buys a product online all his friends are notified about his activity. His friends might be tempted to buy the same product and they might actually go ahead and buy it. ii. Advertising via mobiles have a far greater penetration power that internet advertising. Mobile ads are dominated by SMS (Short Message Service) advertising and MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) advertising. Telkom Orange Kenya has tried advertising through SMS. It has conducted a marketing campaign where Consumers are informed about their current products or services on offer. However like spam e-mails, spam SMS and MMS have created a nuisance and botheration for mobile users. iii. Advertising via Radio is another channel of advertising. Radio reaches more than 10 million Kenyans in a week. It is an effective medium which is also low on cost. Like television radio too has mass appeal. Radio advertising often evokes an emotional reaction from the listener. Listeners are more likely to buy a product if they hear about it on their favourite radio channel. Often DJs promote a certain product over the radio. Listeners are often emotionally attached to a DJ and trust him enough to go ahead and buy the product. Radio faces stiff competition from other electronic media like T.V, internet etc. Radio being mobile is another advantage; people can listen to it while they are driving or even at work. Limitation of radio advertising is that it is restricted to sound. However many believe that this is more of an advantage than a limitation. The number of ads on radio has increased incredibly and this often irritates listeners who choose to switch channels or turn off the radio set completely. This excessive broadcast of ads is also known as commercial clutter. iv. Advertising through print media (newspapers, magazines, brochures etc.) Advertising through newspapers, magazines, brochures is also known as press advertising. Classified advertising is common to newspapers. A small space can be bought for promotional purpose in this newspaper section. This ad can be as small as type of product for sale and the contact number for more information. It may have details of product but generally classified ads don't carry pictures or graphics v. Billboard Advertising

Billboards are huge structures located usually on roadsides with advertisements to catch the attention of passing traffic. Billboards are not restricted to roads they may be put up at any place with large viewership like shopping malls, railway stations etc. vi. Covert Advertising Covert advertising is also known as guerrilla advertising. Examples of covert advertising can be found in movies like Minority Report. Tom Cruise carries a cell phone with Nokia written on it. In October, staff across the country participated in a cleanup exercise in partnership with local councils in Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, Nyeri, Nakuru and Eldoret. The activity, which was planned as part of the celebrations to mark the first anniversary of Orange in Kenya, also allowed us to kick off our local Orange Community initiatives. In the movie Robot, the protagonist Will Smith promotes Converse shoes. vii. Celebrity Branding/ Advertisement Often celebrities appear on television promoting a product or service. They attend PR events supporting a charity or endorsing a product often using their name as a brand. Many celebrities now have their own line of product specially clothes and fragrances. Orange presents Cece Winans live in concert. American gospel music artiste CeCe Winans was in Kenya, courtesy of Orange, on November 19, 2010. What makes ads effective? i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. good visuals Attractive visuals Make the customer focus on it Retention of the ad Bring customers to enquire Persuasive and interesting Endorse via a celebrity Be fascinating and not overwhelming

Types of Advertisements a) Consumer Advertising These are basically nothing but product or service advertisements directed towards the consumer or the customer as such.

Such advertisements can be in the form of national or local advertisements also. Such kind of advertisements uses emotional or rational appeal in their advertisement. E.g. Orange maniacs animation series One of the highest quality and original animation series produced in Kenya by Kenyans, Orange maniacs animation series revolves around the life and thrills of two campus students 'Stevo' and 'Max'. Stevo is always switched-on through integrated, vast affordable and reliable data services while Max is always trying to be as cool as him! b) Advertising to business or profession This type of advertising is aimed at resellers and professionals. The media used here is direct mail or professional magazines. These are ads which are not directed towards the final consumers. Corporate ads are also a part of these types of ads. The target groups of corporate advertising are most often customers, stockholders, employees, financial institutions, political leaders and government. The objectives of the corporate or the institutional ads may be to establish or boost corporate identity and image, counter negative attitudes towards a company, industry or to promote and relate the company to some worthwhile social public interest cause. E.g. Giving changes with Orange Orange Kenya unveils unique art exhibition at Nairobi National Museum. The aim of this work is to promote cultural diversity, human heritage, respect for others, dialogue between civilizations and education in the culture of peace. I chose Kenya because it is universally seen as the cradle of humankind. In this unique country, the flora and fauna are spectacularly preserved, said Patrick. Telkom Kenya believes that cultural diversity remains a driving force for development, not only in respect of economic growth but also as a means of leading a more fulfilling, intellectual, moral and emotional life. Exhibition was to celebrate Kenyas unique cultural diversity.

c) Non- product advertising In this type of advertising advertisements depicting an idea, a social cause etc is included. Surrogate advertisements are also a part of such non- product advertisements.

Process of Setting Advertising Objectives

The advertising objectives must flow from prior decisions on target market, market positioning, and marketing mix. a) Informative advertising: It is heavily used in the pioneering stage of a product category, where the aim is to build primary demand. Orange unveils its new tagline Today changes with Orange, establishing itself as a digital coach for all its stakeholders in Kenya

Orange aims to be the operator which democratizes access to the digital future, in line with its Conquest 2015 industrial project Today changes with Orange reflects the companys commitment to making digital life easier for its customers each day

Giving changes with Orange Orange Kenya unveils unique art exhibition at Nairobi National Museum. The aim of this work is to promote cultural diversity, human heritage, respect for others, dialogue between civilizations and education in the culture of peace. I chose Kenya because it is universally seen as the cradle of humankind. In this unique country, the flora and fauna are spectacularly preserved, said Patrick. Telkom Kenya believes that cultural diversity remains a driving force for development, not only in respect of economic growth but also as a means of leading a more fulfilling, intellectual, moral and emotional life. Exhibition was to celebrate Kenyas unique cultural diversity. b) Persuasive advertising: It is generally used when the product is in the competitive stage, where the companys objective is to build selective demand for a particular brand. Orange partners with World Vision in famine relief initiative Orange is a people centric organisation; and therefore we endeavour to support the ongoing government and corporate initiatives aimed at addressing the famine situation both in the immediate and long term. said Ghossein, CEO Orange Kenya c) Reminder advertising: It is very important to use these when the product is in the maturity stage. They are intended to remind people to purchase your brand. Orange Kenya ads all these ads no more are shown to create awareness or persuasion because people are already aware of their presence and already have chosen the brand of their choice. These are just reminder ads to keep the brand or the company fresh in the minds of the consumers or have the brand top of mind.

d) Reinforcement advertising: It seeks to ensure the buyers that they have made the right choice by purchasing your brand. Functioning of Advertising As a form of mass communication Orange Kenya uses advertising deliver relevant messages to target audiences and by changing mental states, it can perform a number of functions. Advertising moves consumers from being unaware of a product or service to finally purchasing it. An ad is considered effective if it propels the consumer a step further in this process. This is how the function of advertising is viewed. The different functions of advertising used by Orange Kenya are viewed as follows:

STIMULATES DEMAND By informing consumers about the availability of a product in the market, advertising stimulates latent needs, and reinforces the aroused needs. There is a general agreement that advertising has some effect on aggregate consumption. STRENGTHENS OTHER PROMOTION MIX ELEMENTS Advertising does the pre selling of the product and makes the job of the sales people easier. Advertising reaches a relatively large audience and makes them favourably predisposed. Ads carry the sales, promotional messages and often produce quick sales response. DEVELOPS BRAND PREFERENCE Consistent and persuasive advertising often induces brand trial or purchase. When the product delivers the promised quality, service and value, it creates satisfied customers who become instrumental in spreading a favourable word-ofmouth. Satisfied customers also develop brand preference, which gets reinforced by repeated ads. Products with strong brand franchise offer some protection against the competition. Retailers develop confidence and do not hesitate in stocking strong brands. Brand loyal customers are an important asset for the company and are less likely to be influenced by competitive moves. CUTS COSTS Advertising may be instrumental in cutting down production and selling costs. Increasing unit sales decrease unit costs. Selling costs also may decrease because there could be fewer wasted calls and less strain on sales people. LOWERS PRICES In any market based and competitive economy, when unit cost of a product goes down, there are external and internal pressures which compel companies to lower prices to the advantage of consumers. This often leads to deeper market penetration.

COMPETITIVE WEAPON Advertising by itself and coupled with other promotion mix elements, may prove to be an extremely potent weapon to counter competitive moves. Advertising has an established role in creating brand personality and image. It helps differentiate a companys offer in a manner that the product may be considered as something with unique value having a definite identity of its own

Conclusion Importance of Advertising Today Advertising has been around ever since there were buyers and sellers. Only the nature and the means of communication have undergone a change. In fact advertising is responsible not only for the discovery and application of new media vehicles, but also often been the most significant means of survival for these media. Print, radio, television and now the internet, owe their all-pervasive presence to the fact that advertising provides a source of revenue which helps these media to prosper and be available to a large mass of people. Advertising, therefore, can legitimately claim to be the backbones of democracy as well. Good Advertising Claude Hopkins, a legendary copywriter and author of Scientific Advertising, once said, Frivolity has no place in advertising; spending money is serious business. If this was true in 1920s, it is even more so today; large sums are being invested in advertising and brand building. Clients and their brands are under unprecedented pressure from rising customer expectations, from the explosion of choices for the customer and from aggressive competition from rapidly changing market dynamics. It is in this environment that advertising has to significantly improve the chances of connecting in a relevant manner with the consumer and creating a preference for brands. Peter Drucker, the renowned management guru, once said, The man with a creative imagination will have more imaginative ideas for sure, but whether they will turn out to be more successful is by no means certain. Success, delivered consistently, is going to be the difference between good advertising and bad advertising; between a good advertising agency and average one; and between a good advertising or marketing professional and an average one.