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~UYWQW/ IN JOHN 12:31-33: A REFERRENCE OF THE JUDGMENT OF SATAN ON THE CROSS AND BEYOND Dindo C.

Paglinawan Introduction Just before the event of the Last Supper, Jesus presents an utterance of judgment concerning the ruler of this world (Satan)1 (John 12:31). This judgment is rooted in the death of Jesus (vv. 32-33). With this, the Biblical interpreters agree that Satan is judged on the cross.2 However, a consideration of the word u`ywqw/ to lift up or to exalt is an invitation to look at the judgment of Satan on the cross and beyond. With this topic, the questions arise: how does the cross pronounce judgment against Satan? What is the nature of this judgment? How is it carried beyond the cross? The expression ruler of this world appears three times in the book of John (12:31; 14:30; 16:11). All of these occurrences refer to Satan. In John, Satan is also identified as the devil (8:44a; 13:2), a murderer (8:44b), the evil one (17:15). Outside Johns gospel (NT), Satan is called as the god of this world (2 Cor 4:4), the ruler of the kingdom of the air (Eph 2:2), a roaring and devouring lion (1 Pet 5:8), and the dragon, the ancient serpent, the Devil, the deceiver, and the accuser (Rev 12:7; 20:2). For more descriptions of Satan, see S. H. T. Page, Power of Evil: A Biblical Study of Satan and Demons (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1995). In John 12:31, the defeat of Satan is described by the verb evkblhqh,setai from the word evkba,llw to cast out. It is seen as the judgment of Satan with reference to the cross. See for e.g., John Paulien, John, The Abundant Life Bible Amplifier, ed. George R. Knight (Oshawa, Ontario, Canada: Pacific Press, 1995), 201; E. W. Hengstenberg, Commentary on the Gospel of John (Minneapolis, MN: Klock & Klock Christian Publishers, 1980), 115-116; J. Carl Laney, Moody Gospel John Commentary, ed. Paul Enns (Chicago: Moody), 231-232. Andreas J. Kostenberger, John, Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, vol. 4 (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2004), 383-385; William H. Van Doren, Gospel of John: Expository and Homiletical Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1981), 1027; David Thomas, The Gospel of John: An Expository and Homiletical Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1980), 361.
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This study does not offer an in depth discussion on the various scholarly views and opinions about the judgment of Satan,3 but primarily attempts to offer a biblical confirmation of the judgment of Satan on the cross and beyond. To deal with the topic under study, the method of exegesis particularly the historico-grammatical method is applied:4 the text and translation, background, literary context, linguistics analysis, allusion, and theological implication. Text and Translation To clearly understand the topic under study, it is necessary to render a translation of the passage. Below is the Greek5 text of John 12:31-33 and its literal translation. nu/n kri,sij evsti.n tou/ ko,smou tou,tou, nu/n o` a;rcwn tou/ ko,smou tou,tou evkblhqh,setai e;xw) 32 kavgw eva.n u`ywqw evk th/j gh/j pa,ntaj6 e`lku,sw pro.j evmauto,n) 33 tou/to de, e;legen shmainwn poi,w| qana,tw| h;mellen avpoqnh|,skein)
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For a review of views, see for e.g., George R. Beasly-Murray, John, World Biblical Commentary (WBC), vol. 36, ed. David A. Hubbard (Waco, TX: Word Books, 1987), 213-214; Raymond E. Brown, The Gospel According to John, The Anchor Bible, vol. 29, John I-XII, ed. William Foxwell Albright (Garaden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966), 477-479; J. Martin C. Scott, John, Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible, ed. James D. G. Dunn (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003), 1193; Merill C. Tenney, The Gospel of John, The Expositors Bible Commentary, vol. 9, John-Acts, ed. Frank E. Gaebelein (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1981), 130-131; Gerald Borchert, John, The New American Commentary: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of the Holy Scriptures, vol. 25B, John 12-21 (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 2002), 59-60.
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A thorough discussion of this method is provided by Richard Davidson in his lecture note on Hermeneutics. See Richard M. Davidson, Principles of Biblical Interpretation (Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Theological Seminary, 1995).
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This is an Alexandrian Text based on Novum Testamentum Graece (BNT), Nestle-Aland 27th edition (Stuttgart, Germany: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993).
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There is a variant to read pa,ntaj e`lku,sw with pa,nta evlku,sw.The reading of pa,ntaj finds evidences in the following manuscripts: 75 (3rd cent.) , Alexandrinus 2

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Now is (the) judgment of this world now the ruler of this world will be cast out. 32 And I, if I am lifted up from the earth, I will draw all men to Myself. 33 But He was saying this, signifying by what sort (of) death He was about to die. The Background of the Root `Uyo,w/ in John The root u`yo,w to lift up appears five times in the gospel of John (3:14 [2x]; 8:28; 12:31-34 [2x]). Its first use is applied to the lifting up (u[ywsen) of the serpent in the wilderness (3:14a), and the rest of its use is linked to the lifting up of Jesus (3:14b; 8:28; 12:32, 34).7 The lifting up of the serpent in the wilderness seemed to
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5 cent.), Washington (5th cent.), Vaticanus (6th cent.), Cambridge (8th century). This is supported by the early fathers such as: Origen (A. D. 254), Ignatius (ca. A. D. 110), Athanasius (A. D. 373), Chrysostom (A. D. 407), and Jerome (A. D. 420). Meanwhile, the reading of pa,nta is supported by 66 (A. D. 200) and Sinaiticus (4th cent.) manuscripts. The Latin early fathers support this reading: e.g., Irenaeus (A. D. 2nd cent.), Augustine (A. D. 455), Ambroiaster (ca. A. D. 384), Ambrose (A. D. 397), and Vigilius (ca. A. D. 484). Based on the information provided, the reading of pa,nta indicates an earlier dating compared to pa,ntaj. However, Committee oft for the reading of pa,ntaj. See Bruce M. Metzger. See Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, 2nd ed. (Stuttgart, Germany: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2002), 202. Nevertheless, the reading of pa,ntaj should not be taken for it affects the theological idea as to the scope of the entities that Jesus had drawn (evlku,sw). If the reading of pa,ntaj all men would be considered, the object of evlku,sw I will draw would then be limited to human beings. In the death of Jesus, human beings are not the only entity who is the object in Jesus act of drawing. It must be noted that in the birth of Jesus, there was multitude of heavenly hosts (perhaps angels and exalted beings) praising God, because Jesus has been was born (Luke 2:13, 14). If the heavenly hosts were interested in the birth of Jesus, how much more they would be interested to witness the event on the cross, which is purpose of Jesus coming to this world (John 3:16; Rom 5:8)? Thus, the entities that Jesus had drawn to Himself are not only of human beings, but it includes other beings, such as angels and exalted beings. For this reason, the reading of pa,nta all things (all rational creatures in universe who have faith in Jesus) is deemed appropriate for it suggests inclusivity. The study of the background of u`yo,w in John is delimited to the first occurrence of the foregoing word which is tied to the serpent in the wilderness (3:14a), for it is in this usage that the second occurrence of u`yo,w with reference to Jesus is linked (3:14b). 3

furnish the backdrop of the use of the root u`yo,w with reference to Jesus. It is evident that it is in the lifting up of the serpent in the wilderness (3:14a) where Jesus linked the lifting up of the Son of Man (3:14b). In this respect, the background of the lifting up of the serpent in the wilderness provides understanding of the lifting up of Jesus on the cross. The mention of u`yo,w with reference to the serpent in John 3:14a is a reminiscent of Num 21:4-9. This passage recounted the complaint of the Israelites against God and Moses, and it was considered as unbelief (v. 5). In such complaint, God responded and sent the fiery serpents to punish His people for their unbelief (v. 6).8 When the Israelites suffered the bite of the serpents, they became aware of their sins, so they asked Moses to beg God for healing (v. 7). With that God responded and commanded Moses to set up )9)a bronze serpent as an antidote for death (v. 8), so that as the people will look at it, they may live (vv. 8-9). The bronze serpent, however, does not guarantee life in itself, but is just an emblem of life which is determined by the act of looking. It means that there is perpetuation of life if they would look at the bronze serpent, and there is death if they would remain on their unbelief. Since the rest of the occurrences of u`yo,w is applied to Jesus (8:28; 12:32, 34), it follows that its background is no other than the u`yo,w with reference to the serpent.
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God reimburses the sins of the people, but behind the motive of this act is Gods intention to single out a people who are loyal to Him. Note that when God judges, it means first of all that He justifies, delivers, saves, vindicates, and protects. See F. Brown, S. Driver, and C. Briggs, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996), 192, 936, 1047; William L. Holladay, ed., A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988), 70, 338, 380. See also Gerhard F. Hasel, Divine Judgment, Handbook of the Seventh-day Adventist of Theology (Hagerstown, MD: Review & Herald, 2000), 829-830. See Benjamin Davidson, The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon (AHCL) (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1979), s. v. .
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The incident of the fiery serpents graphically illustrates that God is active in dealing with the unbelief of the people. At the same time, it portrays that He is willing to afford life to those who respond to Him in faith. In this sense, God has been graciously dealing the rebellious Israelitesgiving them with adequate mercy, and showing them with unquestionable justice. In view of background, the theme of life and death which carry the notion of salvation and judgment is delineated. It is within this light that the occurrence of the root u`yo,w in John 3:14b and the rest of its appearance in John (8:28; 12:32, 34) with reference to the lifting up of Jesus must be understood. Literary Context of John 12:31-33 The literary analysis of the entire chapter portrays a balanced structure which gives a proper perspective of the judgment of Satan. The narrative begins with the anointing of Jesus at Bethany (John 12:1-11). The event foreshadowed in the act of anointing is the imminent death of Jesus on the cross (v. 7). Immediately before the section about the lifting up of Jesus, the triumphal entry of Jesus in Jerusalem (vv. 12-19) is mentioned is mentioned first, and directly after it is a section recounting the unbelief of the Jews (vv. 36b-43).10 In between these two sections (vv. 12-19; 36b-43), there is a statement of judgment for Satan (v. 31) which is enclosed by the idea of Jesus death (vv. 27; 32-33). Finally, the chapter is closed with a section that relates the purpose of Jesus coming to this world, which is to save (vv. 44-50). Putting these sections in an outline form, it forms a chiasm that centers on the death of Jesus. A. vv. 1-11 The Anointing of Jesus at Bethany (foreshadowing His death). It must be noted that at this point, there have been seven miracles that Jesus performed (chap. 2:1-11; 4:46-54; 5:1-18; 6:5-14; 6:16-21; 9:1-7; 11: 38:44), yet the Jews (comprised mostly of religious leaders) remained on their unbelief. However, it must be noted this unbelief has been prophesied in Isa 53:1; 6:10.
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B. vv. 12-19 The Triumphal Entry in Jerusalem (highlighting acceptance). C. vv. 20-36a The Lifting up of Jesus (connotes salvation and judgment). B1. vv. 36b-43 The Unbelief of the People (highlighting rejection). A1. vv. 44-50 The Intent of Jesus in Coming to the World (to save). The announcement of the death of Jesus is emphasized in the chiastic structure. Accordingly, the theme of life and judgment is associated in Jesus death. Within this section, there seemed to be an invitation to believe in Jesus (vv. 25-26; 35-36). It was given before and after Jesus made a public announcement of His forthcoming death. This invitation accentuates that the salvation of men was the primary concern of His death (John 3:16). In addition to it, the judgment of Satan is mentioned in particular (John 12:31). Therefore, the cross projects that while it accomplished the salvation of men, it also passed the verdict on Satan. As to the nature of the judgment of Satan, Jesus did not leave it ambiguous. There are clues provided in the text which shade light on it. Linguistics Analysis There are words/phrases that offer a biblical confirmation with respect to the nature of the judgment of Satan on the cross and beyond. Also, these words somehow explain how the judgment of Satan is carried beyond the cross. VEkblhqh,setai will be cast out John 12:31 states, Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince (o` a;rcwn) of this world be cast out (evkblhqh,setai). The word evkblhqh,setai comes from evkba,llw to cast out. In this passage, evkblhqh,setai is used to describe the judgment of o` a;rcwn the ruler (Satan) of this world (John 12:31). To 6

understand the nature of the casting out of Satan, it is necessary to consider briefly the fall of Lucifer and to understand the phrase o` a;rcwn the ruler. Lucifer fell when he sought to be like God (Isa 14:13-14).11 From being perfect, he became corrupt and iniquity was found in him (Ezek 28:12-18), and he became Satan or the Devil (Job 1:6; Matt 4:1). In his rebellion against God, there were angels whose sympathy he had won and they joined with him, and they were expelled together from heaven (2 Pet 2:4; Jude 6). Nevertheless, although they were already thrown down from heaven, it does not imply that Satan had no more access in it. The book of Job provides an account of Satan who presented himself before the heavenly council (Job 1:6-12; 2:16).12 It indicates that until then, he still had access in heaven. But Satans access in heaven was somehow interrupted. Jesus said, now will the ruler of this world be cast out (v.31). However, how is the casting out (evkba,llw) of o` a;rcwn of this world be understood? As noted above, Satan and his angels were expelled from heaven as a result of their rebellion against God, yet Satan had still access in heaven as recorded in Job. In this sense, the casting out of Satan as described by evkba,llw could not refer to the casting out with reference to his expulsion from heaven, after all Satan and his angels have been thrown from heaven down to earth when they rebelled against God, and he carries out his deceptive activities against human beings (1 Pet 5:8; Rev 12:12). For a detailed explanation of Lucifers rebellion and his fall, see Ellen G. White, Patriarchs and Prophets (Hagerstown, MI: Review & Herald, 1890), 34-44. See also War in Heaven, (Revelation 12:7), SDABC, 7:809.
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Satan is depicted as one who comes up and down from earth to heaven, presenting himself before the heavenly council (Job 1:6; 2:1). He is described here as one who always desires harm for Gods people (1:10-11a; 2:4-5a). Perhaps, this is his tactics to war against God as implied by Satans statement he (Job) will curse you (God) to your face (1:11b; 2:5b).
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Preferably, the casting out of Satan refers to the restriction of his access in heaven, this is the most likely idea of evkba,llw in v. 31.13 Satan had lost his access in heaven when Jesus died at the cross as indicated by lifted up from the earth (v. 32, 33). Ellen White notes, By shedding the blood of the Son of God, he had uprooted himself from the sympathies of the heavenly beings. Henceforth his work was restricted.14 Moreover, the word evkba,llw also suggests a removal of Satans position as o` a;rcwn of this world. The phrase o` a;rcwn conveys that Satan is assuming an authority or rulership. For sure, this authority does not belong to him. Perhaps, it belongs to Adam (Gen 1:28), but he usurped it when he overcame him.15 Thus, when Jesus said, the ruler (o` a;rcwn) of this world will be cast out, aside from being restricted of his access in heaven, it also means that he is removed from a position as o` a;rcwn of this world. In fact, the word evkba,llw does not only mean to cast out, it could also mean remove from a position.16 For this reason, the death of Jesus becomes a symbol of Christ victory and it marks the defeat of Satan. It pictures the dethronement of Satan as See also Ranko Stefanovic, Revelation of Jesus Christ: Commentary on the Book of Revelation (Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press, 2002), 386-388.
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See Ellen G. White, The Desire of Ages (Hagerstown, MI: Review & Herald, 1898), 761.
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The phrase the ruler (Satan) of this world is mentioned three times in John (12:31; 14:30; 16:11), but no explanation furnished as to how Satan became the ruler of this world. Perhaps, he assumed this title when he triumphed over Eve and Adam, tempting them to sin (Gen 3). Because Adam (first) is the head of the humanity (1 Cor 15:45-47), all who descended from him even those who are yet to descend in the future are made sinners, thus all are bound to die (Rom 5:12-14, 17). Probably, it is within this light that Satan became the ruler of this world. 16 The word evkba,llw means to drive out, to expel, or to remove from a position. See Walter A. Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (BAGD), trans. and adapted by William F. Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich, 3rd ed., rev. and edited by Frederick W. Danker (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 2000), s. v. evkba,llw.
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o` a;rcwn of this world, while it illustrates the new rulership of Jesus.17 However, all of these were not ended at the cross, because Satans dethronement is not completed not until Jesus is installed as the new ruler. The Usage of Nu/n Now The usage of nu/n now in the NT is broad and profound.18 It may function as a mark tone of address (Acts 7:34; 13:11; Jam 5:1), and a temporal marker with focus on the moment (Mark 10:30; Luke 1:48) or later at the given moment (Matt 26:65, John 11:8, John 12:31). The word nu/n is utilized three times in vv. 20-36. It appears only in some verses where the death of Jesus is mentioned emphatically. In v. 27, it is used in connection to the phrase this hour, and in v. 31, it is utilized twice in relation to the utterance of judgment: the judgment of the world and the judgment of Satan. In this context, nu/n draws attention to the death of Jesus, and highlights what it could bring to Satan. At the same time, it functions as a temporal marker both for the forthcoming death of Jesus on the cross as indicated by the phrase this hour19 and the judgment of Satan (vv. 31-33). Interestingly, there are still events that can be pointed out beyond the event covered by nu/n. There is a close connection between vv. 23 and 27-28. The relationship
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See also John P. M. Sweete, Revelation, TPI New Testament Commentaries (Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1990), 201.
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For a thorough discussion of the usage of nu/n in the NT, see Gerhard Kittel, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (TDNT), translated and edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1978), s. v. nu/n. The phrase this hour in John 12:27 is linked to the idea that Jesus is being troubled. It alludes to Jesus feeling of intense trouble or sorrow with reference to His death on the cross (Matt 26:38-39; Mark 14:34-36; Luke 22:42-44).
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of these verses is explained for two reasons. Firstly, the phrases this hour and the hour has come imply a common event, the cross.20 Secondly, these phrases are associated with an idea of an act of glorifying. That is to say, the phrases the hour has come in v. 23 and this hour in vv. 27-28 is coupled with the word glorified. It is surprising to note that vv. 27-28 mention not only the word glorified (evdo,xasa), it also mention of the word glorify (doxa,sw). It is believed that there must have been a point of emphasis regarding the mention of evdo,xasa and doxa,sw. The Significance of vEdo,xasa glorified and Doxa,sw will glorify In John 12:28, being aware that Jesus was drawing to His death, He said, Father glorify your name. Then a voice came from heaven: I have glorified (evdo,xasa) it, and I will glorify (doxa,sw) it again. The passage is clear that the Father mentioned about evdo,xasa glorified and doxa,sw will glorify in response to the request of Jesus to glorify His (Father) name. The previous verb uses an aorist tense and the latter verb uses a future tense. As had been noted, the phrases the hour has come (v. 23) and this hour (v. 27-28) are closely related to an act of glorifying. Accordingly, it must have been a clue in understanding the distribution of evdo,xasa and doxa,sw into specific details. The table below is provided to illustrate which event the foregoing terms are linked with. Table 1The Possible Event that vEdo,xasa and Doxa,sw May Refer to What is common between the phrases this hour (vv. 27-28) and the hour has come (v. 23) is the word hour (w[ra). The word w[ra appears 26 times in John in different context, and 9 times of its occurrences are used with reference to the w[ra hour of Jesus, His death (John 2:4; 7:30; 8:20; 12:23, 27 [2x]; 13:1; 16:32; 17:1).
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Passage v. 23

Phrase and the Event it Pointed to The hour has come... (death of Christ) This hour... [2x] (death of Christ)

Act of Glorifying The Son of Man to be doxasqh/| glorified evdo,xasa glorified, doxa,sw will glorify

vv. 27-28

The table shows that the verbs doxasqh/| glorified (v. 23) and evdo,xasa glorified (vv. 27-28) are interrelated in terms of tense. Both verbs use aorist tense indicating a past action.21 Although, the action of these verbs is already past, however the context tells that the event that could be associated in the act of glorifying is the impending death of Jesus. Note that doxasqh/| (v. 23) and evdo,xasa (vv. 27-28) are attached to the phrases the hour has come and this hour, respectively. According to the intertextual understanding of these expressions in John, it points to the death of Jesus (16:32; 17:1, 5). Based on the tense-relationship of doxasqh/| (v. 23) and evdo,xasa (vv. 2728) and its thematic connection to the death of Jesus,22 it shows that there is no point of Within the context of vv. 27-28, the aorist use of evdo,xasa is in the constative senseone of the uses of aorist which describes an action in summary fashion. The constative aorist itself has three applications: (1) a momentary action, (2) an action which has durative effect, and (3) an action which is iterative in nature. In this context, evdo,xasa carries a durative effect climaxing to the death of Jesus, though the action is already past. This is evident that evdo,xasa is linked to the phrase this hour an expression which points to the cross (16:32; 17:1). For the uses of aorist, Daniel B. Wallace, The Basics of New Testament Syntax (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000), 241-243. 22 The word doxa,xw (root of evdo,xasa) occurs 23 times in the book of John. The application of this word is depending on the context: during the ministry of Jesus (e.g., 8:4; 11:4), at His death (e.g., 12:23, 27-28; 13:1, 2; 17:1), and at His ascension or after His ascension (e.g., 7:39; 12:16; 16:14; 21:19).
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merging evdo,xasa glorified and doxa,sw will glorify (vv. 27-28) into a single event. In this context, inasmuch as the tense is concerned, if the verb evdo,xasa (aorist) is linked to an event on the cross (vv. 28), then the verb doxa,sw (future) must be associated to an event beyond the cross (v. 28). It is very probable that evdo,xasa highlights the earthly ministry of Jesus which is culminated on the cross,23 while the verb doxa,sw may accentuates the resurrection and ascension of Jesus. In relation to the judgment of Satan, so long as the ascension or enthronement of Jesus is concerned, it continues to offer an idea that the judgment of Satan is carried beyond the cross. The Meaning of `Uywqw/ lifted up The lifting up of Jesus in John 12:32 is described by the verb u`ywqw/, a word derived from the root u`yo,w which means to lift up or to exalt. This word appears 20 times in the NT,24 and it carries an idea of exaltation except that in the book of John, it is used with reference to the lifting up of Jesusillustrating His death (3:14;

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So long as the earthly ministry of Jesus is concerned, the cross had been His focus (Rom 5:8; Heb 9:22; 10:4-7; Rev8:13). See Matt 11:23; 23:12 [2x]; Luke 1:52; 10:15; 14:11 [2x]; 18:14 [2x]; John 3:14 [2x]; 8:28; 12:32, 34; Acts 2:33; 5:31; 13:17; 2 Cor 11:7; Jam 4:10; 1 Pet 5:6. For more information of u`yo,w, see BAGD, s. v. u`yo,w. See also TDNT, s. v. u`yo,w; C. L. Wilibald Grimm, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, translated revised and enlarged by Joseph Henry Tayer (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1977), s. v. u`yo,w; William D.
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8:28; 12:32-34).25 Although, John used u`yo,w with reference to the death of Jesus, there might a possibility that u`yo,w may include Jesus enthronement in heaven, after all u`yo,w generally carries an idea of exaltation in the NT. Interestingly, this discussion shades light whether or not the judgment of Satan is carried from the cross to heaven. The first two occurrence of the root u`yo,w is found in John 3:14. It reads, And as Moses lifted up (u[ywsen) the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up (u`ywqh/nai). In this verse, the connection between the serpent and Jesus was the act of lifting up (u`yo,w). Moses lifted up the bronze serpent so that the snake bitten-Israelites may live (v. 14a, cf. Num 21:8-9). Similarly, the Son of Man must be lifted up so that everyone may have eternal life (John 3:14b-15). Intriguingly, the rest of the occurrences of the root u`yo,w in John consistently carry the notion of Jesus being physically lifted up (8:28; 12:32, 34). In John 8:28, Jesus said, When you have lifted up (u`yw,shte) the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he Apparently, the lifting up of Jesus on the cross is in view in this passage. The agent who lifts up the Son of Man is the Pharisees as indicated by the you (v. 28, cf. v. 13). They are responsible for the execution of Jesus death. Nonetheless, the text states that they will come to know Him when they will lift Him up. Indeed, this recognition happened when Jesus gave up His last breath, and they (some of them) acknowledged Him as the Son of God (Matt 27:29-54). Mounce, The Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1993), s. v. u`yo,w.
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See Stanley D. Toussaint, New Testament, Bible Knowledge Commentary, in PC Study Bible 5 (Biblesoft, 2006). 13

In another instance, Jesus spoke, And I, when I am lifted up (u`ywqw) from the earth, will draw all people to myself (v. 32). He said this after He announced the judgment of Satan as described by evkblhqh,setai in v. 31. Clearly, the event conveyed by the lifting up in v. 32 is the crucifixion of Jesus. V. 33 make it vivid that Jesus has to die this kind of death (cf. 3:14a). Lastly, the root u`yo,w appears in v. 34. It is only in this passage that the agent of speech is not Jesus, but the crowd. They said, We have heard from the Law that the Christ remains forever. How can you say that the Son of Man must be lifted up? Who is this Son of Man? (v. 34). Again, this passage applies the lifting up to the death of Jesus, although the Pharisees did not understand who the Son of Man was. It is believed that they were acquainted as to what lifted up meant; otherwise, they would have asked Jesus what it is all about. In view of the occurrences of the root u`yo,w in John (except 3:14a), it always brings to front the idea of Jesus death. Hence, it is beyond question that u`yo,w primarily refers to the crucifixion of Jesus. However, since Jesus had been using u`yo,w with reference to His death on the cross, it follows that He must have been giving particular emphasis on salvation. Inasmuch as salvation is concerned, the cross is not its end process. It necessitates Jesus resurrection and ascension to heaven. After all, there could have been no victory over death if Christ was not raised from the dead (1 Cor 15: 14, 17, 19),26 no forgiveness available to human beings without His mediation (Heb 4:1416; 7:25; 8:1-2), and His reign could not have been properly established if He is not enthroned (Mark 16:19; Acts 2:33). For this reason, the secondary idea carried by u`yo,w is the exaltation of Jesus in heaven. This supposition is also evident in Acts 2:33; 5:31, where u`yo,w is used with reference to Jesus being exalted in the right hand
26

See White, The Desire of Ages, 780. 14

of God, receiving power and authority and affording forgiveness to Gods people. In this way, the death of Jesus presupposes His resurrection and ascension to heaven.27 It serves as the gateway or launching pad of His exaltation to heaven.28 Surprisingly, the exaltation or enthronement of Jesus in the throne of God does only convey the benefits of the atoning sacrifice of Jesus (1 Tim 2:5; 1 Jon 2:1-2; Heb 7:25; 8:1-3). It also confirms that the judgment of Satan is carried beyond the cross. As already noted, on the cross, Satan was restricted of his access in heaven, and he was removed as o` a;rcwn of this world. Nevertheless, he was officially dethroned from his usurping authority when Jesus sits at the right hand of God (Acts 2:33; cf. Mark 16:19). Allusion in Revelation 12:7-12 The judgment of Satan in John 12:31 is a decisive pronouncement of His defeat. It is well elaborated in Rev 12:7-12. The structure of the passage which follows an ABCC1B1A1 pattern is presented to elaborate the judgment of Satan. A. There was war in heaven which is participated by Michael29 and His angels and the dragon30 and his angels (Rev 12:7). B. Satan and his angels were defeated and there was no longer any place them in heaven (v. 8). The book of John seems to show that resurrection and ascension is anticipated after His death (John 2:19; 3:14-15; 10:17, 18; 12:32-33; 14:1-3).
28 27

Kim G. Papaioannou, class notes for NTST 561 Selected Exegesis of the Gospels, Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies, Silang, Cavite, Philippines, 28 February 2011. For a review of this discussion concerning Micheal, see Greg K. Beale, The Book of Revelation: A Commentary on the Greek Text (Gran Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1999), available in Libronix Digital Library System.
29

No doubt, the dragon is Satan Himself (12:9) and the angels who sided with him were those whom he deceived as indicated in v. 3.
30

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C. Satan was thrown down to earth along with the angels who gave their allegiance to him (v. 9). 1 C . Salvation was accomplished, the power and the kingdom of God is built, and The authority of Christ was established after Satan was cast out (v. 10). 1 B . Satan was defeated by them (saints) who have confidence in the blood of the Lamb (v. 11). 1 A . There was no more war in heaven; Satan concentrates his deceptive activities on earth for his time is already short (v. 12). The structure presents a threefold parallelism: A and A1, B and B1, and C and C1. The A segment, emphasizes that there was a controversy in heaven, between Michael and His angels and the dragon and his angels (v. 7). This controversy was carried not with physical armaments, but in verbal manner.31 Because Satan and angels were not strong enough, they lost their place in heaven and they were thrown down to earth (vv. 8, 9). That is why the section is ended with summon for the heavens (heavenly beings) to rejoice (v. 12a). It indicates that the war in heaven is over, but on earth it is still going on,32 this is the emphasis of A1 segment. The cessation of the battle in heaven must be understood in the light of the triumph of Christ on the cross. It must be noted that the sin of Lucifer brought disunity among the heavenly inhabitants as described in the war in heaven (v. 7). The fact that there was discord in heaven and Satan won one third of the angels (v. 4), it means that his protest was loudly heard by the entire hosts of heaven, only that one third of angels sided The dialogue of God and Satan in the case of Jobs uprightness and blamelessness may suggest of a verbal war (Job 1:6-12; 2:1-6). See also Stefanovic, 386. Ellen White, Patriarchs and Prophets, 38, explains the nature of this war eloquently. She said, Leaving his place in the immediate presence of the Father, Lucifer went forth to diffuse the spirit of discontent among the angels. He worked with mysterious secrecy, and for a time concealed his real purpose under an appearance of reverence for God. He began to insinuate doubts concerning the laws that governed heavenly beings, intimating 32 that though laws might be necessary for the inhabitants of the worlds, angels, being more exalted, needed no such restraint, for their own wisdom was a sufficient guide. See also A. Yarbo Collins, The Apocalypse: New Testament Message, vol. 22 (Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1979), 141. 16
31

with him. For the angels who remained loyal to Jesus, Ellen White notes, there is a degree of obscurity in their minds concerning the protest of Satan.33 However, this was made clear when Jesus died on the cross (Rom 5:8; Eph 5:2; 1 Thess 5:10). What they saw in Jesus hanging on the cross was His infinite love, because He took upon Himself the death which is not His, but for human beings (Rom 6:23a; 2 Cor 5:14; Gal 3:13). This recognition, conversely, led them to see the true identity of Satan and his selfishness in contrast to the redeeming love of Jesus. Because of this, Satans purposes and ways are no longer concealed in their eyes. This idea could be one of the implications of what Paul said, and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross (Col 1:20). The B segment, underscores the defeat of Satan and heaven is no longer opened for him and his angels (v. 8). This restriction must be associated in the event on the cross. The B1 segment seems to support this supposition, because it highlights that Satan was conquered by the saints through the blood of the Lamb (v. 11), an event on the cross. As noted already, the book of Job depicted Satan as one who had access in heaven (Job 1:6: 2:1). But he had lost this access on the cross. In Luke 10:18, Jesus said, I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven. This fall is more often associated with the cross (John 12:3133).34 Thus, at the death of Jesus, Satan was restricted of his access in heaven. The C segment, deals with Satan being cast down along with his angels (v. 10). Corresponding to the expulsion of Satan and his angels is the accomplishment of salvation, establishment of the power and kingdom of God, and the reception of the
33

For a more detailed discussion, see Ellen White, The Desire of Ages, 750-778.

34

See David E. Aune, WBC, vol 52b, 700-704 17

authority of Jesus (v. 12); this is the highlight of the C1 segment. The mention of authority in v. 12 must be linked to Jesus sitting at the right hand of God (e. g., Matt 26:64; Mark 14:32; Luke 22:69; Acts 7:55b). In the NT, the depiction of Jesus sitting at the right hand (evn dexia/|35) of God carries an idea of His exaltation,36 and associated with it is power and authority or rulership. Thus, it gives a picture that Jesus received His authority and exercises His rule when He was exalted. Accordingly, based on this parallelism, the C and C1 segments reveal that the judgment of Satan includes the event on the cross and the exaltation of Jesus. It is evident that the casting out of Satan (v. 9) corresponds to the accomplishment of salvation, establishment of the power and the kingdom of God, and reception of the authority of Jesus (v. 10). In this sense, the judgment of Satan was carried beyond the cross. Theological Implications The humiliating death of Jesus on the cross demonstrated His infinite love and His unquestionable justice (Gal 3:13). By this, He defeated Satan on the cross, and at His exaltation, Satan was fully remove as the ruler of this world (Rev 12:9, 11). With this idea, the implication of victory over sin/Satan is delineated. An assurance of victory is utmost necessity in the sense that a woe is uttered on the earth and seas. The devil uses his full strength to deceive the people for he knew his time is short (Rev 12:12b). However, it is interesting to know that Satan has been a defeated foe (Luke 10:18; John 12:31). John wants to impress upon his audience that, When the root dexio/j right hand is used with reference to Jesus, it becomes a symbol of power or authority and honor. See TDNT, s. v. dexio/j; BAGD, s. v. dexio/j.
35

36

After the ascension of Jesus, Christians acknowledge Him being exalted at the right hand of God (Acts 2:34; 5:31; 7:56; Rom 8:34; Eph 1:20; Col 3:1; Heb 1:3,13; 8:1; 10:12; 12:2; 1 Pet 3:22). 18

although Satan is obviously stronger than man who is made lower that the angel (Heb 2:7, 8), yet he is conquered by human beings who are weaker than him. They conquered him by the blood of the Lamb (Rev 12:10). Gods people can have share with Him in His victory over Satan. Apart from Christs victory, there would be no victory people could expect in the Christian warfare. There is a strong assurance of victory accentuated in the reception of Jesus authority in the right hand of God, where it implies that Satan is dethroned from his usurping authority. To have share in this victory, it needs total submission to Jesus authority, not just to accept Him as personal Savior.37 The battle which we have to fightthe greatest battle that was ever fought by manis the surrender of self to the will of God, the yielding of the heart to the sovereignty of love.38 Paul said that Gods people war not with flesh and blood, but against the rulers, power of this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places (Eph 6:12). This battle is supposed to be fought between spirits against spirits, not by man against spirits. But then, Paul identified such battle as the battle that Gods people engaged with. With this battle, it is only when Gods people will acknowledge their helplessness (Rom 7:24), realize their utter nothingness (Rom 7:25a), and ask the Holy Spirit to help them, that God will fight for them (Rom 8:28a).

Jack J. Blanco, Essentials for the New Millennium, Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, 11/1-2 (2000), 307-314, exposes the need of accepting the authority of Jesus Lord, not just as personal Savior. In the Lukan gospel, the seventy-two disciples were sent by Jesus and with them was Christ authority (Luke 10:19). With this authority, the demons became subject to them in the name of Jesus (Luke 10:17). Ellen G. White, Thoughts on the Mount of Blessings (Ontario, Canada: Pacific Press, 1896), 141.
38

37

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In the Christian warfare, sin and Satan is overcome only through faith in Jesus. John said, this is the victory that has overcome the worldour faith (1 John 5:4). Faith, however, does not come apart from knowing God (2 Tim 1:12). Therefore, a daily surrender of the will to God and an earnest desire to learn of Him (Matt 11:29) is needed, for this will afford an awareness of self in contrast to Gods perfect character. In our weakness, when we cling to God for power, we are made strong (2 Cor 12:10). Conclusion In this study, the judgment of Satan has become clear. The death of Jesus as described by u`ywqw/ lifted up pronounces judgment against Satan (John 12:31-33). This is the primary idea carried by the root u`yo,w in vv. 31-33. The judgment of Satan is indicated by evkblhqh,setai to cast out (v. 31). There are two perspectives behind the casting out (evkba,llw) of Satan. Firstly, it conveys that on the cross, Satan was restricted of his access in heaven which he had enjoyed as described in Job (Job 1:6-12; 2:1-6). Secondly, he was removed from a position as o` a;rcwn (the ruler) of this world (John 12:31). In this aspect, the judgment of Satan was carried beyond the cross, because Satans dethronement as the ruler of this world formally happened when Jesus was enthroned (Rev 12:9-10). Hence, the secondary idea carried by the root u`yo,w in vv. 31-33 is the exaltation or enthronement of Jesus. This is also evident in Acts 2:33; 5:31. At first glance, the death, resurrection and ascension/exaltation of Jesus highlight the accomplishment of salvation (John 12:32; Rev 12:10). However, it is a judgment of Satan (John 12:31-33; Rev 12:9-10). During the death of Jesus, Satan was cast out (evkba,llw), meaning he had lost his access to heaven, and was removed from the 20

position as o` a;rcwn (the ruler) of this world (v. 31). Nevertheless, he was formally dethroned when Jesus was exalted in heaven (Rev 12:10, cf. Acts 2:33; 5:31). Since, the judgment of Satan is confirmed or culminated at Jesus enthronement in heaven, it certifies that Jesus rules, no longer Satan, as he used to assume the rulership. For Gods people it stresses a strong assurance of victory. In fact, Christ victory is the victory of His people. Gods people can have share in this victory by complete surrender of self to His will; eventually they will conquer sin and Satan, because God will fight for them.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY All Men. (John 12:32). Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary. Rev. ed. Edited by Francis D. Nichol. Washington, DC: Review & Herald, 1976-1980. 5:1024. Aune, David E. World Biblical Commentary. Vol 52B. Edited by David A. Hubbard. Waco, TX: Word Books, 1987. Bauer, Walter A. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Translated and adapted by William F. Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich. 3rd ed. Rev. and edited by Frederick W. Danker. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 2000. S. v. dexio/j, evkba,llw, e;xw, and u`yo,w) Beale, Greg K. The Book of Revelation: A Commentary on the Greek Text. Gran Rapids, MI:Eerdmans, 1999. Beasly-Murray, George R. John. World Biblical Commentary. Vol. 36. Edited by David A. Hubbard. Waco, TX: Word Books, 1987. BibleWorks 8. Norfolk, VA: BibleWorks, 2009. Blanco, Jack J. Essentials for the New Millennium. Journal of the Adventist Theological Society.11/1-2 (2000). Borchert, Gerald. John. The New American Commentary: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of the Holy Scriptures. Vol. 25B, John 12-21. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 2002. Brown, F., S. Driver, and C. Briggs. The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996. Brown, Raymond E. The Gospel According to John. The Anchor Bible. Vol. 29, John I-XII. Edited by William Foxwell Albright. Garaden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966. Davidson, Benjamin. The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1979. S. v. . Davidson, Richard M. Principles of Biblical Interpretation. Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Theological Seminary, 1995. Hasel, Gerhard F. Divine Judgment. Handbook of the Seventh-day Adventist of Theology. Edited by Raoul Dederen. Hagerstown, MD: Review & Herald, 2000.

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Hengstenberg, E. W. Commentary on the Gospel of John. Minneapolis, MN: Klock & Klock Christian Publishers, 1980. Holladay, William L., ed. A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. John P. M. Sweete. Revelation. TPI New Testament Commentaries. Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1990. Kittel, Gerhard. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Translated and edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1978. S. v. dexio/j, nu/n, and u`yo,w. Kostenberger, Andreas J. John. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Vol. 4. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2004. Laney, J. Carl. Moody Gospel John Commentary. Edited by Paul Enns. Chicago: Moody, 1978. Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. 2nd ed. Stuttgart, Germany: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2002. Moskala, Jiri The God of Job and Our Adversary. Journal of the Adventist Theological Society. 15/1 (Spring 2004).104-117. Mounce, William D. The Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1993. S. v. u`yo,w. Novum Testamentum Graece. Nestle-Aland 27th edition. Stuttgart, Germany: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993. Toussaint, Stanley D. T. New Testament, Bible Knowledge Commentary. PC Study Bible 5. Biblesoft, 2006. Page, S. H. T. Power of Evil: A Biblical Study of Satan and Demons. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1995. Paulien, John John. The Abundant Life Bible Amplifier. Edited by George R. Knight. Oshawa, Ontario, Canada: Pacific Press, 1995. Scott, Martin C. John. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Edited by James D. G. Dunn. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003. Stefanovic, Ranko. Revelation of Jesus Christ: Commentary on the Book of Revelation. Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press, 2002. Tenney, Merill C. The Gospel of John. The Expositors Bible Commentary. Vol. 9, John-Acts. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1981. 23

Thomas, David. The Gospel of John: An Expository and Homiletical Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1980. Van Doren, William H. Gospel of John: Expository and Homiletical Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1981. Wallace, Daniel B. The Basics of New Testament Syntax. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000. War in Heaven, (Revelation 12:7). Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary. Rev. ed. Edited by Francis D. Nichol. Washington, DC: Review & Herald, 19761980.7:809. White, Ellen G. Patriarchs and Prophets. Ontario, Canada: Pacific Press, 1890. ______ The Desire of Ages. Ontario, Canada: Pacific Press, 1898. ______ Thoughts on the Mount of Blessings. Ontario, Canada: Pacific Press, 1896.

Wilibald Grimm, C. L. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. Translated revised and enlarged by Joseph Henry Tayer. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1977. S. v. u`yo,w.

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