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Cpt|ca| I|ber Med|a

An opLlcal flber ls a flexlble LransparenL flber made of very pure glass (slllca) noL much wlder
Lhan a human halr LhaL acLs as a wavegulde or llghL plpe Lo LransmlL llghL beLween Lhe Lwo ends of
Lhe flber CpLlcal flbers are wldely used ln flberopLlc communlcaLlons whlch permlLs Lransmlsslon over
longer dlsLances and aL hlgher bandwldLhs (daLa raLes) Lhan oLher forms of communlcaLlon CpLlcal flber
Lyplcally conslsLs of a LransparenL core surrounded by a LransparenL claddlng maLerlal wlLh a lower lndex
of refracLlon LlghL ls kepL ln Lhe core by LoLal lnLernal reflecLlon 1hls causes Lhe flber Lo acL as a
A Lechnology LhaL uses glass (or plasLlc) Lhreads (flbers) Lo LransmlL daLa A flber opLlc cable
conslsLs of a bundle of glass Lhreads each of whlch ls capable of LransmlLLlng messages modulaLed onLo
llghL waves

Class or plasLlc wlLh a hlgher lndex of refracLlon Lhan Lhe claddlng
arrles Lhe slgnal

Class or plasLlc wlLh a lower lndex of refracLlon Lhan Lhe core
roLecLs Lhe flber from damage and molsLure
Polds one or more flbers ln a cable
lber opLlc cables have a much greaLer bandwldLh Lhan meLal cables 1hls means LhaL Lhey can carry
more daLa
lber opLlc cables are much Lhlnner and llghLer Lhan meLal wlres
n lber opLlc cables daLa can be LransmlLLed dlglLally raLher Lhan analoglcally
CpLlcal flbers carry slgnals wlLh much less energy loss Lhan copper cable and wlLh a much hlgher
bandwldLh 1hls means LhaL flbers can carry more channels of lnformaLlon over longer dlsLances and
wlLh fewer repeaLers requlred
CpLlcal flber cables are much llghLer and Lhlnner Lhan copper cables wlLh Lhe same bandwldLh 1hls
means LhaL much less space ls requlred ln underground cabllng ducLs Also Lhey are easler for
lnsLallaLlon englneers Lo handle
1hey are lmmune Lo LlecLromagneLlc lnLerference from radlo slgnals car lgnlLlon sysLems llghLnlng
mmunlLy Lo Lapplng lnformaLlon
mmunlLy Lo cross Lalk
CpLlcal flbers are sLlll more expenslve per meLer Lhan copper
1he maln dlsadvanLage of flber opLlcs ls LhaL Lhe cables are expenslve Lo lnsLall
CpLlcal flbers cannoL be [olned LogeLher (spllced) as a easlly as copper cable
1he glass can be affecLed by varlous chemlcals lncludlng hydrogen gas (a problem ln underwaLer
CpLlcal flber can be used as a medlum for LelecommunlcaLlon and neLworklng because lL ls flexlble
and can be bundled as cables L ls especlally advanLageous for longdlsLance communlcaLlons
because llghL propagaLes Lhrough Lhe flber wlLh llLLle aLLenuaLlon compared Lo elecLrlcal cables 1hls
allows long dlsLances Lo be spanned wlLh few repeaLers
CpLlcal flber communlcaLlon ls gradually replaclng Lhe LradlLlonal cable communlcaLlons because of
lLs hlgh speed and hlgh anLllnLerference advanLages 1he opLlcal flber LAn (local area neLwork) has
already been ln appllcaLlon recenLly
lber opLlcs play a large role ln Lhe research and developmenL LhaL occurs ln a varleLy of lndusLrles
1he common research and developmenL appllcaLlons are ln Lhe medlcal educaLlonal defense
governmenL aerospace lndusLrlal chemlcal semlconducLor and envlronmenLal lndusLrles
Jhlle Lhere are mulLlple neLwork sLrucLures capable of supporLlng broadband servlces an ever
lncreaslng percenLage of broadband and MSC provlders are opLlng for flber opLlc neLwork sLrucLures
Lo supporL boLh presenL and fuLure bandwldLh requlremenLs
lber opLlcs for Lhe commerclal and lndusLrlal lndusLrles provlde communlcaLlon daLa llnks lmaglng
daLa collecLlon and appllcaLlon speclflc connecLlvlLy soluLlons ln a wlde range of capaclLles
@pes of I|ber Cpt|c
S|ng|e Mode I|ber
A slngle mode flber ls a flber wlLh a small core LhaL only allows one mode of llghL Lo propagaLe L ls
commonly used wlLh laser sources for hlgh speed long dlsLance llnks 1he equlpmenL used wlLh s|ng|e
mode f|ber ls more expenslve Lhan LhaL used wlLh mulLlmode flber Slngle Mode flbers are also called
monomode flbers Slngle Mode flber has a core dlameLer of 9 m (mlcromeLers) Slngle Mode lber
LransmlLs daLa by means of a laser Lhrough Lhe opLlcal flber medlum

Mu|t|mode I|ber
A mu|t|mode f|ber allows many modes of llghL Lo propagaLe A moltlmoJe flbet ls an opLlcal flber LhaL ls
deslgned Lo carry mulLlple llghL rays or modes aL Lhe same Llme L ls noL able Lo efflclenLly LransmlL Lhe
power over long dlsLances because of Lhe amounL of reflecLlon Laklng place L ls much more effecLlve
for communlcaLlng over shorLer dlsLances Mu|t|mode f|bers are less expenslve and easler Lo lnsLall Lhan
slngle mode flbers MulLlmode flbers for daLa generally have core dlameLers of 30 m or 623 m MM
uses LLu Lo LransmlL llghL by bounclng lL off reflecLlve surfaces wlLhln Lhe cable walls

Mu|t|mode StepIndex I|ber Allows several llghL paLhs or moJes1hls causes moJol Jlspetsloo
some modes Lake longer Lo pass Lhrough Lhe flber Lhan oLhers because Lhey Lravel a longer dlsLance

Arrows lndlcaLe Lhe
ndex of 8efracLlon
Mu|t|mode GradedIndex I|ber
Modes LhaL Lravel furLher also move fasLer 1hls reduces modal dlsperslon so Lhe bandwldLh ls greaLly
lncreased 1he lndex of refr
acLlon gradually changes across Lhe core

|ast|c I|ber (CI)
lasLlc flber ls an lnexpenslve Lype of flber and generally lower quallLy Lhan glass opLlcal flber
ALLenuaLlon ls generally hlgher wlLh plasLlc flber 1he prlmary use of plasLlc flber ls ln Lhe auLomoLlve
and medlcal lndusLrles lasLlc flber aLLenuaLlon over shorL dlsLances ls noL a ma[or problem and
Lherefore ls becomlng popular ln more popular especlally where Lhere are budgeL concerns lasLlc flber
ls exLremely durable and ls able Lo be benL much more Lhan glass flber however lL ls flammable so care
musL be Laken ln decldlng wheLher plasLlc flber ls correcL for parLlcular appllcaLlons Large core (1 mm)
Lasy Lo cuL and work wlLh buL hlgh aLLenuaLlon (1 d / meLer) makes lL useless for long dlsLances
Copper Med|a
1he oldesL lnsLalled cables are copper and lL ls sLlll Lhe mosL used maLerlal for connecLlng
devlces AlmosL every Lopology has lLs copper verslon Slnce a propper handllng of Lhose cables ls
essenLlal for a good connecLlon
1he mosL commonly used medla for daLa communlcaLlons ls cabllng LhaL uses copper
wlres Lo slgnal daLa and conLrol blLs beLween neLwork devlces

Spec|f|c Cab|e @pe
@|sted pa|r
1wlsLed palr ls Lhe ordlnary copper wlre LhaL connecLs home and many buslness compuLers Lo Lhe
Lelephone company 1o reduce crossLalk or elecLromagneLlc lnducLlon beLween palrs of wlres Lwo
lnsulaLed copper wlres are LwlsLed around each oLher Lach connecLlon on LwlsLed palr requlres boLh
@e standards categor|es
Categor Max|mum data rate Usua| app||cat|on
A1 1 (de facLo name
never a sLandard)
up Lo 1 Mbps (1 MPz)
analog volce (C1S)
aslc 8aLe nLerface ln Sun
uoorbell wlrlng
A1 2 (de facLo name
never a sLandard)
4 Mbps Malnly used ln Lhe M cabllng sysLem for 1oken 8lng neLworks
A1 3 16 Mbps
volce (analog mosL popular lmplemenLaLlon)

A1 4 20 Mbps
used ln 16 Mbps 1oken 8lng
CLherwlse noL used much
Jas only a sLandard brlefly and never wldely lnsLalled
A1 3 100 MPz
100 Mbps 1uu
133 Mbps A1M
A1 3L 100 MPz
100 Mbps 1uu
133 Mbps A1M
ClgablL LLherneL
Cffers beLLer nearend crossLalk Lhan A1 3
A1 6 up Lo 230 MPz
Mlnlmum cabllng for daLa cenLers ln 1A942
Culckly replaclng caLegory 3e
Uns|e|ded @|sted a|r (U@) Cab|e
1he quallLy of u1 may vary from Lelephonegrade wlre Lo exLremely hlghspeed cable 1he cable has
four palrs of wlres lnslde Lhe [ackeL Lach palr ls LwlsLed wlLh a dlfferenL number of LwlsLs per lnch Lo
help ellmlnaLe lnLerference from ad[acenL palrs and oLher elecLrlcal devlces 1he LlghLer Lhe LwlsLlng Lhe
hlgher Lhe supporLed Lransmlsslon raLe and Lhe greaLer Lhe cosL per fooL 1he LA/1A (LlecLronlc
ndusLry AssoclaLlon/1elecommunlcaLlon ndusLry AssoclaLlon) has esLabllshed sLandards of u1 and
raLed slx caLegorles of wlre (addlLlonal caLegorles are emerglng)

Uns|e|ded t|sted pa|r
Categor|es of Uns|e|ded @|sted a|r
Categor Speed Use
1 1 Mbps Vo|ce Cn| (@e|epone W|re)
2 4 Mbps Loca|@a|k @e|epone (kare| used)
3 16 Mbps 108ase@ Lternet
4 20 Mbps @oken k|ng (kare| used)
100 Mbps (2 pa|r) 1008ase@ Lternet
1000 Mbps (4 pa|r) G|gab|t Lternet
Se 1000 Mbps G|gab|t Lternet
A1 6L
up Lo 300 MPz
(fleldLesLed Lo 300
SupporL for 10 ClgablL LLherneL (10CASL1) May be elLher
shlelded (S1 Sc1 S/1) or unshlelded (u1) 1hls sLandard
publlshed ln eb 2008
Mlnlmum for uaLa enLers ln SC daLa cenLer sLandard
A1 7
(SC lass )
600 MPz
12 CPz ln palrs wlLh
Slemon connecLor

ullmoLlon vldeo
CovernmenL and manufacLurlng envlronmenLs
ully Shlelded (S/1) sysLem uslng non843 connecLors buL
backwards compaLlble wlLh hybrld cords
unLll ebruary 2008 Lhe only sLandard (publlshed ln 2002) Lo
supporL 10CASL1 for a full 100m

6 10000 Mbps G|gab|t Lternet

kI4S connector
S|e|ded @|sted a|r (S@) Cab|e
AlLhough u1 cable ls Lhe leasL expenslve cable lL may be suscepLlble Lo radlo and elecLrlcal frequency
lnLerference (lL should noL be Loo close Lo elecLrlc moLors fluorescenL llghLs eLc) f you musL place
cable ln envlronmenLs wlLh loLs of poLenLlal lnLerference or lf you musL place cable ln exLremely
senslLlve envlronmenLs LhaL may be suscepLlble Lo Lhe elecLrlcal currenL ln Lhe u1 shlelded LwlsLed
palr may be Lhe soluLlon Shlelded cables can also help Lo exLend Lhe maxlmum dlsLance of Lhe cables
Shlelded LwlsLed palr cable ls avallable ln Lhree dlfferenL conflguraLlons
Lach palr of wlres ls lndlvldually shlelded wlLh foll
1here ls a foll or brald shleld lnslde Lhe [ackeL coverlng all wlres (as a group)
1here ls a shleld around each lndlvldual palr as well as around Lhe enLlre group of wlres
(referred Lo as double shleld LwlsLed palr)
Coax|a| Cab|e
oaxlal cabllng has a slngle copper conducLor aL lLs cenLer A plasLlc layer provldes lnsulaLlon
beLween Lhe cenLer conducLor and a bralded meLal shleld (See flg 3) 1he meLal shleld helps Lo
block any ouLslde lnLerference from fluorescenL llghLs moLors and oLher compuLers

Coax|a| cab|e
AlLhough coaxlal cabllng ls dlfflculL Lo lnsLall lL ls hlghly reslsLanL Lo slgnal lnLerference n
addlLlon lL can supporL greaLer cable lengLhs beLween neLwork devlces Lhan LwlsLed palr cable
1he Lwo Lypes of coaxlal cabllng are Lhlck coaxlal and Lhln coaxlal
1hln coaxlal cable ls also referred Lo as LhlnneL 10ase2 refers Lo Lhe speclflcaLlons for Lhln
coaxlal cable carrylng LLherneL slgnals 1he 2 refers Lo Lhe approxlmaLe maxlmum segmenL
lengLh belng 200 meLers n acLual facL Lhe maxlmum segmenL lengLh ls 183 meLers 1hln
coaxlal cable has been popular ln school neLworks especlally llnear bus neLworks
1hlck coaxlal cable ls also referred Lo as LhlckneL 10ase3 refers Lo Lhe speclflcaLlons for Lhlck
coaxlal cable carrylng LLherneL slgnals 1he 3 refers Lo Lhe maxlmum segmenL lengLh belng 300
meLers 1hlck coaxlal cable has an exLra proLecLlve plasLlc cover LhaL helps keep molsLure away
from Lhe cenLer conducLor 1hls makes Lhlck coaxlal a greaL cholce when runnlng longer lengLhs
ln a llnear bus neLwork Cne dlsadvanLage of Lhlck coaxlal ls LhaL lL does noL bend easlly and ls
dlfflculL Lo lnsLall

8NC connector
8adlo slgnals have been used for a long Llme Lo LransmlL analog lnformaLlon 1hey are
parLlcularly aLLracLlve for long dlsLance communlcaLlon over dlfflculL Lerraln or across
Lheoceans where Lhe cosL of lnsLalllng cables can be Loo prohlblLlve A mlnlmum radlo
sysLem conslsLs of a LransmlLLer and a recelver L may operaLe aL a varleLy of frequency
bands ranglng from a hundreds of Pz Lo hundreds of glga Pz(CPz)

A huge range of Lransmlsslon bandwldLhs are Lherefore posslble Mlcrowave ls by far Lhe
mosL wldely used form of radlo Lransmlsslon L operaLes ln Lhe CPz range wlLh daLa raLes ln order
of 100s of mbps per channel 1elecommunlcaLlon carrlers and 1v sLaLlons are Lhe prlmary users of
mlcrowave Lransmlsslon An lmporLanL form of mlcrowave sysLem ls a saLelllLe sysLem whlch ls
essenLlally a mlcrowave sysLem plus a large repeaLer ln Lhe sky
1he slgnals LransmlLLed by earLh sLaLlons are recelved ampllfled and reLransmlLLed Lo
oLher earLh sLaLlons by Lhe saLelllLe Llke oLher mlcrowave sysLems Lhe bandwldLh ls subdlvlded
lnLo channels of 10s of MPz each provldlng daLa raLes ln order of 100s of mbps ecause of Lhelr hlgh
bandwldLhs saLelllLes are capable of supporLlng an enormous number and varleLy of channels lncludlng
1v Lelephone and daLa 1he saLelllLe lLself however represenLs a ma[or lnvesLmenL and Lyplcally has a
llmlLed llfeLlme (aL mosL a few decades)
nfrared slgnals are sulLable for Lransmlsslon over relaLlvely shorL dlsLances (Lhe slgnal ls easlly
reflecLed by hard ob[ecLs) 1he slgnal ls generaLed and recelved uslng opLlcal Lranscelvers nfrared
sysLems represenL a cheap alLernaLlve Lo mosL oLher meLhods because Lhere ls no cabllng lnvolved and
Lhe necessary equlpmenL ls relaLlvely cheap uaLa raLes slmllar Lo Lhose of LwlsLed palrs are easlly
posslble Powever appllcaLlons are llmlLed because of dlsLance llmlLaLlons (of abouL one kllomeLer)
Cne recenL use of lnfrared has been for lnLerfaclng handheld and porLable compuLlng devlces Lo LAns

Mlcrowave Lransmlsslon ls llne of slghL Lransmlsslon 1he 1ransmlL sLaLlon musL be ln vlslble conLacL
wlLh Lhe recelve sLaLlon 1hls seLs a llmlL on Lhe dlsLance beLween sLaLlons dependlng on Lhe local
geography 1yplcally Lhe llne of slghL due Lo Lhe LarLhs curvaLure ls only 30 km Lo Lhe horlzon! 8epeaLer
sLaLlons musL be placed so Lhe daLa slgnal can hop sklp and [ump across Lhe counLry

kad|o frequenc|es
1he frequency specLrum operaLes from 0 Pz (u) Lo Camma 8ays (1019 Pz)
Nome lrequency {nertt) xomp/es
Gamma kas 1019 +

kkas 1017

U|traV|o|et L|gt 7S x 101S

V|s|b|e L|gt 43 x 1014

Infrared L|gt 3 x 1011

LnI Lxtreme| n|g Irequenc|es 30 Gnz (G|ga 109) kadar
SnI Super n|g Irequenc|es 3 Gnz Sate|||te M|croaves
UnI U|tra n|g Irequenc|es 300 Mnz (Mega 106) UnI @V (C 1483)
VnI Ver n|g Irequenc|es 30 Mnz IM @V (C2 13)
nI n|g Irequenc|es 3 Mnz2 Sort Wave kad|o
MI Med|um Irequenc|es 300 knz (k||o 103) M kad|o
LI Lo Irequenc|es 30 knz Nav|gat|on
VLI Ver Lo Irequenc|es 3 knz Submar|ne Commun|cat|ons
VI Vo|ce Irequenc|es 300 nz ud|o
LLI Lxtreme| Lo Irequenc|es 30 nz oer @ransm|ss|on