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GE Marine Engines GEK 105162

PROPULSION GAS TURBINE OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS


7LM2500-PZ-MLG01 (RCCL) (P & O) 7LM2500-PZ-MLG02 (SNCM) 7LM2500-PZ-MLG03 (NEL) 7LM2500-PZ-MLG04 (TSL)
The information (including technical data) contained in this document is the property of GE. It is disclosed in confidence and the technical data therein is exported under a United States Government license. Therefore, none of the information may be disclosed to other than the recipient, or used for purposes other than to render services to GE, without the express written authorization of GE. In addition, the technical data therein, and the direct product of the data, may not be diverted, transferred, re-exported or disclosed in any manner not provided for by the license without the prior written approval of the United States Government.

GE Marine Engines Mail Drop S-156 One Neumann Way PO Box 156301 Cincinnati, Ohio 45215-6301, USA

GE Marine Engines GEK 105162

PROPULSION GAS TURBINE OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS


7LM2500-PZ-MLG01 (RCCL) (P & O) 7LM2500-PZ-MLG02 (SNCM) 7LM2500-PZ-MLG03 (NEL) 7LM2500-PZ-MLG04 (TSL)
The information (including technical data) contained in this document is the property of GE. It is disclosed in confidence and the technical data therein is exported under a United States Government license. Therefore, none of the information may be disclosed to other than the recipient, or used for purposes other than to render services to GE, without the express written authorization of GE. In addition, the technical data therein, and the direct product of the data, may not be diverted, transferred, re-exported or disclosed in any manner not provided for by the license without the prior written approval of the United States Government.

GE Marine Engines Mail Drop S-156 One Neumann Way PO Box 156301 Cincinnati, Ohio 45215-6301, USA

Original - 1 September 1999 Change 2 - 20 APRIL 2001

GEK 105162

List of Effective Pages


Dates of issue for original and changed pages are: Original . . . 0 . . . 1 September 1999 Change . . . 1 . . . 21 March 2000 Change . . . 2 . . . 20 April 2001 Total number of pages in this manual is 74 consisting of the following: Page No. Title A i to v vi 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 to 1-5 1-6 to 1-7 1-8 1-9 to 15/(1-16 Blank) 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 to 2-7 2-8 to 2-9 2-10 to 2-11/(2-12 Blank) 3-1 to 3-2 Change No. 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 0 2 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 Page No. 3-3 3-4 3-5/(3-6 Blank) 4-1 to 4-3 4-4 4-5 to 4-8 4-9 4-10 to 4-11 4-12 4-13 4-14 to 4-16 4-17 to 4-18 4-19 4-20 4-21 to 4-24 4-25 4-26 to 4-32 Change No. 2 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 2 1 0 1 2 0 2 0

Change 2

GEK 105162

Table of Contents
Page Chapter 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NOTES, CAUTIONS, AND WARNINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHANGES TO TECHNICAL MANUAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EQUIPMENT POINTS OF REFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY OF TERMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MEASUREMENT UNITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAFETY PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical Hazards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Environmental Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Turbine Operational Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-13 1-13 1-13 1-13 1-14 1-14 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-5 2-7 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1

1-8.1 1-8.2 1-8.3 1-8.4 1-8.5 Chapter 2

General System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2-2 PURPOSE AND SCOPE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Equipment and Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-2.1 2-2.2 2-2.3 2-3 Chapter 3

PACKAGE DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Controls and Indicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-2 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SENSORS AND INDICATING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Generator Speed Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Turbine Speed Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vibration Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-2.1 3-2.2 3-2.3

GEK 105162

Table of Contents - (Cont) Page 3-2.4 Pressure/ Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Pressure Compressor Total Pressure Probe/Inlet Air Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HPC Discharge Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Turbine Inlet Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lube Supply and Scavenge Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-3 4-3 4-3 4-3 4-3 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-9 4-9 4-9 4-9 4-9

3-2.4.1 3-2.4.2 3-2.4.3 3-2.4.4 3-2.4.5 3-2.4.6 3-2.5 3-2.6 Chapter 4

Chip Detectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable-Geometry Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Operation and Operating Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4-2 PURPOSE AND SCOPE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAFETY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Turbine Maintenance/Inspection Precautions . . . . . . . . . .

4-2.1 4-3

INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Site Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inlet Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exhaust Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical, Fluid, and System Interface Covers . . . . . . . . .

4-3.1 4-3.2 4-3.3

4-3.3.1 4-3.3.2 4-3.3.3 4-3.4

Gas Turbine Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating Oil Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating Oil Pressure Corrections . . . . . . . . . Lubricating Oil Supply Pressure at Pressure Tap vs. Gas Generator/Gas Turbine Speed . . . . .

4-3.4.1

4-3.4.1.1 4-3.4.1.2 4-3.4.2 4-3.4.3 4-3.4.4 4-3.4.5

Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjustment of Gas Turbine High Pressure Recoup Cavity Pressure Within Preferred Operating Range . . . . Adjustment of Power Turbine Thrust Balance Cavity Pressure Within Preferred Operating Range . . . .

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GEK 105162

Table of Contents - (Cont) Page 4-3.5 4-3.6 4-3.7 4-4 Initial Prestart Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initial Operational Checkout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verification Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 4-12 4-18 4-18 4-19 4-19 4-20 4-21 4-21 4-22 4-22 4-22 4-23 4-24 4-24 4-24 4-24 4-25 4-25 4-26 4-26 4-26 4-26 4-26 4-26 4-27 4-27 4-27 4-28 4-28

GAS TURBINE OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Component Life/Repair Intervals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prestart Checks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motoring Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting and Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Starting Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hot Starts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-4.1 4-4.2 4-4.3 4-4.4

4-4.4.1 4-4.4.2 4-4.5

Shutdown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Post-Shutdown Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-4.5.1 4-4.5.2 4-4.5.3 4-4.6 4-4.7

Starter Duty Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hot Restarts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-4.7.1 4-4.8 4-4.9 4-5 4-6 4-7

Windmilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Records and Running Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ABNORMAL OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTROL ACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Cutback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shutdowns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step Deceleration to IDLE/Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slow Deceleration to IDLE/Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aborted Start/Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-7.1 4-7.2 4-7.3

4-7.3.1 4-7.3.2 4-7.3.3 4-7.3.4 4-7.3.5

iii

GEK 105162

Table of Contents - (Cont) Page 4-8 OPERATOR ACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Gas Turbine Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overtemperature During Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating Oil Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Speed Stall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restart Following High Power Trip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No Power Turbine Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28 4-29 4-29 4-29 4-29 4-30 4-30 4-30 4-31 4-32

4-8.1

4-8.1.1 4-8.1.2 4-8.1.3 4-8.1.4 4-8.1.5 4-9 4-10 4-11

TEST NO. 1 AND NO. 2 FUEL SHUTDOWN VALVE OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEST POWER TURBINE OVERSPEED SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEST POWER TURBINE SPEED LIMITING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . .

iv

GEK 105162

List of Illustrations
Figure 1-1 1-2 2-1 2-2 3-1 3-2 3-3 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 Publication Change Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Position Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propulsion Gas Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Propulsion Gas Turbine Input/Output Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Generator Speed (NGG) Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Turbine Speed (NPT) Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermocouple Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating Oil Pressure Correction for LM2500+ SAC Gas Turbines using Lubricating Oil, MIL-L-23699 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating Oil Pressure Correction for LM2500+ SAC Gas Turbines using Lubricating Oil, MIL-L-7808 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LM2500+ SAC Gas Turbine Oil Supply Pressure at Pressure Tap vs. GG Speed using Lubricating Oil, MIL-L-7808 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LM2500+ SAC Gas Turbine Oil Supply Pressure at Pressure Tap vs. GG Speed using Lubricating Oil, MIL-L-23699 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transient Temperature Limits (Typical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1-3 1-4 2-4 2-9 3-2 3-3 3-5 4-6 4-8 4-10 4-11 4-17

GEK 105162

List of Tables
Table 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metric and SI Unit Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Conversion Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conversion Table - Fractions to Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propulsion Gas Turbine Service Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LM2500-PZ-MLG01/G02/G03/G04 Installation Drawings and Schematics . . LM2500-PZ-MLG01/G02/G03/G04 Reference Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propulsion Gas Turbine Input Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propulsion Gas Turbine Output Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating Oil Pressure Correction for LM2500+ SAC Gas Turbines using Lubricating Oil, MIL-L-23699 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating Oil Pressure Correction for LM2500+ SAC Gas Turbines using Lubricating Oil, MIL-L-7808 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Operating Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limits and Operating Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective Function Causes Requiring Resolution Prior to Restart or Motoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1-5 1-8 1-10 1-11 1-12 2-2 2-3 2-3 2-6 2-8 2-10 4-5 4-7 4-14 4-16 4-23

vi

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GEK 105162

Chapter 1 Introduction
1-1 GENERAL INFORMATION GEK 105165, Illustrated Parts Breakdown (IPB), identifies and lists parts for the LM2500+ SAC GT and ancillary equipment in IPB format. NOTES, CAUTIONS, AND WARNINGS

This manual provides operating procedures and limits for the LM2500-PZ-MLG01/G02/ G03/G04 gas turbine (GT), designed and manufactured by GE Marine Engines, Cincinnati, Ohio 45215-6301, USA. Information in this manual is to be used by shipboard personnel assigned to the equipment. 1-2 REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS

1-3

This manual is one in a series of five technical manuals that contains data pertinent to the LM2500-PZ-MLG01/G02/G03/G04 GT. A description of the contents of the other manuals is as follows: GEK 105056 provides depot repair procedures for the LM2500+ Single Annular Combustor (SAC) GT and identifies component life cycle limits. GEK 105163 provides a physical and functional description of the LM2500+ SAC GT and components, troubleshooting procedures, systems schematics, wiring diagrams, and scheduled maintenance procedures for shipboard maintenance. GEK 105164 provides corrective maintenance tasks in work package format for accomplishing specified alignment/adjustment, inspection, repair, and component replacement procedures.

Notes, cautions, and warnings are found throughout this publication. It is important that the significance of each is thoroughly understood by user personnel. Their definitions are as follows: WARNING Warnings refer to procedures or practices that may result in injury or death if not followed correctly. CAUTION Cautions refer to procedures or practices that may damage or destroy equipment if not followed correctly. NOTE Notes highlight an essential procedure or a condition that requires emphasis.

Change 2

1-1

GEK 105162

1-4

CHANGES TO TECHNICAL MANUAL

1-5

EQUIPMENT POINTS OF REFERENCE

A manual change is defined as the reissue of selected pages of the manual. A revision is defined as the reissue of the entire manual. Changes are indicated by a vertical bar in the margin, alongside the text change. Changes to illustrations, diagrams, and schematics are indicated in the same manner. Since previous change symbols are deleted when a page is subsequently changed, the symbols show the latest changes only. Manual changes and revisions are mailed to all authorized LM2500+ SAC marine manual holders at the time issues are published. When changes are received, insert the latest change pages and dispose of superseded pages. Page changes are designated by the change number of the effective change at the bottom of each affected page. Refer to List of Effective Pages for current change page applicability. Changes or additions deemed necessary for proper operation, maintenance, and safety improvements should be submitted to: GE Marine Engines Marine Service and Factory Technical Support Mail Drop S-156 One Neumann Way PO Box 156301 Cincinnati, Ohio 45215-6301, USA Sample form shown in figure 1-1 may be reproduced and used for this purpose.

All GT references to left, right, forward, aft, and clock positions apply when viewing the gas turbine from aft (exhaust end) looking forward (figure 1-2). References do not relate to ship fore and aft directions or other ship points of reference. 1-6 GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Table 1-1 lists and defines the abbreviations most commonly used in this manual. 1-7 MEASUREMENT UNITS

Systeme International dUnites (SI) or metric system is being adopted throughout the world. For this reason, SI unit conversions are shown in tables 1-2, 1-3, and 1-4. Fractions and decimal equivalents are shown in table 1-5. Introduction of torque wrenches calibrated in Newton-meters (Nm) has been commensurate with the adoption of the SI system. These will eventually replace torque wrenches calibrated in kilogram-meters (kg m). A quick method to convert kg m to Nm is to move the decimal point one place to the right. For example, 3.5 kg m would become 35 Nm. Although this technique is not mathematically precise (3.5 kg m actually equals 34.3 Nm), it is considered adequate for general purposes. To convert kilogram-centimeters (kg cm) to Nm, move the decimal point one place to the left. For example, 50 kg cm would become 5.0 Nm.

1-2

GEK 105162

Figure 1-1. Publication Change Request Change 2 1-3

GEK 105162

Figure 1-2. Position Orientation

1-4

GEK 105162

Table 1-1. Abbreviations Abbreviation abs AC ALF amp Assy atm b b (beta) bhp Blisk Btu C cc CCW CDP CFF CG cm cm2 cm3 CRF CRFV Definition Absolute Alternating Current Aft Looking Forward Ampere Assembly Standard Atmosphere Bar Variable Stator Position Brake Horsepower Blade/Disk Combination British Thermal Unit Degrees Centigrade (Celsius) Cubic Centimeter Counterclockwise Compressor Discharge Pressure Compressor Front Frame Center of Gravity Centimeter Square Centimeters Cubic Centimeters Compressor Rear Frame Compressor Rear Frame Flange Accelerometer Clockwise Direct Current Diameter HPCR FMP FOD ft ft2 ft3 FWD g gal GEK GG GT Hg Horiz hp HP HPC F FIR ECU EMU Abbreviation Dim -dPS3/dt Definition Dimension Negative Rate of Change of Compressor Discharge Static Pressure Electronic Control Unit Engine Maintenance Unit Degrees Fahrenheit Full Indicator Reading Fuel Manifold Pressure Foreign Object Damage Foot or Feet Square Foot or Feet Cubic Foot or Feet Forward Gram Gallon GEAE Publication Identification Number Gas Generator Gas Turbine Mercury Horizontal Horsepower High Pressure High Pressure Compressor High Pressure Compressor Rotor

CW DC Dia

1-5

GEK 105162

Table 1-1. Abbreviations - (cont.) Abbreviation HPCS HPRCP HPT HPTR hr Hz ID IGB IGHP IGKW IGV in. in.2 in.3 IPB J kcal kg kg cm kg m kg/sec kJ kPa kW l lpm l/sec 1-6 Change 2 Definition High Pressure Compressor Stator High Pressure Recoup Cavity Pressure High Pressure Turbine High Pressure Turbine Rotor Hour Hertz Inside Diameter Inlet Gearbox Isentropic Gas Horsepower Isentropic Gas Kilowatt Inlet Guide Vane Inch Square Inch Cubic Inch Illustrated Parts Breakdown Joules Kilocalorie Kilogram Kilogram-centimeter Kilogram-meter Kilogram per Second Kilojoules Kilopascal Kilowatt Liter Liters per Minute Liters per Second OD OGV oz P0 P2 Pa Pamb PCB Abbreviation lb lb/ft2 lb/sec LVDT Definition Pound Pound per Square Foot Pound per Second Linear Variable Differential Transformer Meter Cubic Meter Milliampere Maximum Minimum Millimeter Millivolt Megawatt Newton Newton-meter Gas Generator Speed Number Oxides of Nitrogen Power Turbine Speed Outside Air Temperature Outside Diameter Outlet Guide Vane Ounce Gas Turbine Inlet Pressure Compressor Inlet Total Pressure Pascals Ambient Pressure Printed Circuit Board

m m3 mA Max Min mm mv MW N Nm NGG No. NOx NPT OAT

GEK 105162

Table 1-1. Abbreviations - (cont.) Abbreviation PCR PN ppm PS3 Definition Publications Change Request Part Number Parts per Million High Pressure Compressor Discharge Static Pressure Power Turbine Power Turbine Balance Piston Pressure Power Turbine Inlet Total Pressure Quart Revolutions per Minute Resistance Temperature Detector Shutoff Single Annular Combustor Second Specific Gravity Shaft Horsepower Metric System Surface Subordinate Work Package Thermocouple Compressor Inlet Total Temperature TMF TRF TRFV V VA Vac Vdc VG VRMS vs. VSV W WP T5.4 (T48) Tamb TAN TBP Temp TGB theta 2 Abbreviation T3 Definition Compressor Discharge Temperature Power Turbine Inlet Temperature Ambient Temperature Total Acid Number To Be Provided Temperature Transfer Gearbox Ratio of Measured Absolute Gas Turbine Inlet Absolute Temperature to Standard Day Absolute Temperature Turbine Mid Frame Turbine Rear Frame Turbine Rear Frame Flange Accelerometer Volt Volt-ampere Volts, Alternating Current Volts, Direct Current Variable-Geometry Volts, Root Mean Square Versus Variable Stator Vane Watt Work Package

PT PTB PT5.4 (PT48) qt rpm RTD S/O SAC sec SG shp SI Surf SWP T/C T2

Change 2

1-7

GEK 105162

Table 1-2. Metric and SI Unit Conversion Factors To Convert From bhp Btu Btu/hr Btu/hr Btu/kW-hr Btu/kW-hr Btu/kW-hr Btu/lb cm cm cm cm/sec Degrees Fahrenheit 32 ft2 ft3/hr ft3/hr ft3/min ft3/min ft ft ft lb (lb ft) ft lb (lb ft) ft lb (lb ft) ft lb/min ft/min ft/sec ft/sec To kW Joules (J) kJ/hr kcal/hr Btu/hp-hr kcal/kW-hr kJ/kW-hr kcal/kg in. m mm ft/sec Degrees Celsius m2 l/hr m3/hr l/min m3/min cm m kg m Nm Btu ft lb/sec km/hr cm/sec m/sec Multiply By 0.7457142 1054.8 1.0548 0.2520 1.341 0.25198 1.0548 0.5555 0.3937 0.01 10 0.03281 0.5555 0.0929 28.32 0.02832 28.32 0.02832 30.48 0.3048 0.1383 1.356 0.001286 0.016667 0.018288 30.48 0.3048

1-8

Change 1

GEK 105162

Table 1-2. Metric and SI Unit Conversion Factors - (cont.) To Convert From g g/cm3 gal gal/min in.2 in.3 in. in. in. in. Hg (60F) in. water (60F) kg kg cm kg m kg/m2 km kW lb lb lb lb/ft2 lb/gal lb in. lb in. lb/in.2 lb/in.2 lb/in.2 To oz lb/in.3 l l/sec m2 cm3 mm m cm pascal (Pa) pascal (Pa) lb lb in. lb ft lb/ft2 miles bhp g kg N kg/m2 kg/l kg cm Nm kg/cm2 Pa kPa Multiply By 0.03527 0.03613 3.785 0.06309 645.16 16.387 25.4 0.02540 2.540 0.3377 248.8 2.2046 0.867 7.233 0.2048 0.6214 1.3409961 453.59 0.4536 4.4482 4.8828 0.11982 1.1532 0.1129848 0.0703 6894.76 6.8948

1-9

GEK 105162

Table 1-2. Metric and SI Unit Conversion Factors - (cont.) To Convert From lb/hr m2 m3 m m m microinches micrometers mile (statute) mm N Nm Nm oz oz/gal psi qt U.S. horsepower U.S. horsepower To kg/hr ft2 in.3 cm ft in. micrometers microinches km in. lb lb in. lb ft g g/l kPa l metric horsepower kW Table 1-3. Pressure Conversions Standard Atmosphere (atm) 0.987 1.0 0.968 0.068 Kilograms per square centimeter (kg/cm2) 1.020 1.033 1.0 0.0703 Pounds per square inch (lb/in.2) 14.504 14.696 14.22 1.0 Multiply By 0.4536 10.76426 61,023 100 3.2808 3937 0.0254 39.37 1.6093 0.03937 0.2248 8.850748 0.73756 28.3495 7.49 6.894757 0.9463 1.014 0.7457

Bar (b) 1.0 1.013 0.981 0.0689 1-10

Pascals (Pa)

100,000 101,325 98,067 6,895

GEK 105162

Table 1-4. Temperature Conversion Chart


To convert indicated temperature between Fahrenheit and Celsius, find indicated temperature (either Celsius or Fahrenheit) in middle column and read Fahrenheit equivalent in the right column or the Celsius equivalent in the left column. For example, a temperature of 32F, when selected from the center column, shows a corresponding temperature of 0C in the left column. A temperature of 0C, when selected from the center column, shows a corresponding temperature of 32F in the right column. Temperature Conversion Formulas Temperature (C) = (Temperature F - 32) 1.8 Temperature (F) = (1.8 x Temperature C) + 32 61 to 350 360 to 1050 1060 to 1750 1760 to 2450 2460 to 3000 F C F C F C F C F C -76 16.1 61 141.8 182 360 680 571 1060 1940 960 1760 3200 1349 2460 -58 16.7 62 143.6 188 370 698 577 1070 1958 966 1770 3218 1354 2470 -40 17.2 83 145.4 193 380 716 582 1080 1976 971 1780 3236 1360 2480 -22 17.8 64 147.2 199 390 734 588 1090 1994 977 1790 3254 1366 2490 -4 18.3 65 149.0 204 400 752 593 1100 2012 982 1800 3272 1371 2500 14 18.9 66 150.8 210 410 770 599 1110 2030 988 1810 3290 1377 2510 32 19.4 67 152.6 216 420 788 604 1120 2048 993 1820 3308 1382 2520 33.8 20.0 68 154.4 221 430 806 610 1130 2066 999 1830 3326 1388 2530 35.6 20.6 69 156.2 227 440 824 616 1140 2084 1004 1840 3344 1393 2540 37.4 21.1 70 158.0 232 450 842 621 1150 2102 1010 1850 3362 1399 2550 39.2 21.7 71 159.8 238 460 860 627 1160 2120 1016 1860 3380 1404 2560 41.0 22.2 72 161.6 243 470 878 632 1170 2138 1021 1870 3398 1410 2570 42.8 22.8 73 163.4 249 480 896 638 1180 2156 1027 1880 3416 1416 2580 44.6 23.3 74 165.2 254 490 914 643 1190 2174 1032 1890 3434 1421 2590 46.4 23.9 75 167.0 260 500 932 649 1200 2192 1038 1900 3452 1427 2600 48.2 24.4 76 168.8 266 510 950 654 1210 2210 1043 1910 3470 1432 2610 50.0 25.0 77 170.6 271 520 968 660 1220 2228 1049 1920 3488 1438 2620 51.8 25.6 78 172.4 277 530 986 666 1230 2246 1054 1930 3506 1443 2630 53.6 26.1 79 174.2 282 540 1004 671 1240 2264 1060 1940 3524 1449 2640 55.4 26.7 80 176.0 288 550 1022 677 1250 2282 1066 1950 3542 1454 2650 57.2 27.2 81 177.8 293 560 1040 682 1260 2300 1071 1960 3560 1460 2660 59.0 27.8 82 179.6 299 570 1058 688 1270 2318 1077 1970 3578 1466 2670 60.8 28.3 83 181.4 304 580 1076 693 1280 2336 1082 1980 3596 1471 2680 62.6 28.9 84 183.2 310 590 1094 699 1290 2354 1088 1990 3614 1477 2690 64.4 29.4 85 185.0 316 600 1112 704 1300 2372 1093 2000 3632 1482 2700 66.2 30.0 86 186.8 321 610 1130 710 1310 2390 1099 2010 3650 1488 2710 68.0 30.6 87 188.6 327 620 1148 716 1320 2408 1104 2020 3668 1493 2720 69.8 31.1 88 190.4 332 630 1166 721 1330 2426 1110 2030 3686 1499 2730 71.6 31.7 89 192.2 338 640 1184 727 1340 2444 1116 2040 3704 1504 2740 73.4 32.2 90 194.0 343 650 1202 732 1350 2462 1121 2050 3722 1510 2750 75.2 32.8 91 195.8 349 660 1220 738 1360 2480 1127 2060 3740 1516 2760 77.0 33.3 92 197.6 354 670 1238 743 1370 2498 1132 2070 3758 1521 2770 78.8 33.9 93 199.4 360 680 1256 749 1380 2516 1138 2080 3776 1527 2780 80.6 34.4 94 201.2 366 690 1274 754 1390 2534 1143 2090 3794 1532 2790 82.4 35.0 95 203.0 371 700 1292 760 1400 2552 1149 2100 3812 1538 2800 84.2 35.6 96 204.8 377 710 1310 766 1410 2570 1154 2110 3830 1543 2810 86.0 36.1 97 206.6 382 720 1328 771 1420 2588 1160 2120 3848 1549 2820 87.8 36.7 98 208.4 388 730 1346 777 1430 2606 1166 2130 3866 1554 2830 89.6 37.2 99 210.2 393 740 1364 782 1440 2624 1171 2140 3884 1560 2840 91.4 37.8 100 212.0 399 750 1382 788 1450 2642 1177 2150 3902 1566 2850 93.2 43 110 230 404 760 1400 793 1460 2660 1182 2160 3920 1571 2860 95.0 49 120 248 410 770 1418 799 1470 2678 1188 2170 3938 1577 2870 96.8 54 130 266 416 780 1436 804 1480 2696 1193 2180 3956 1582 2880 98.6 60 140 284 421 790 1454 810 1490 2714 1199 2190 3974 1588 2890 100.4 66 150 302 427 800 1472 816 1500 2732 1204 2200 3992 1593 2900 102.2 71 160 320 432 810 1490 821 1510 2750 1210 2210 4010 1599 2910 104.0 77 170 338 438 820 1508 827 1520 2768 1216 2220 4028 1604 2920 105.8 82 180 356 443 830 1526 832 1530 2786 1221 2230 4046 1610 2930 107.6 88 190 374 449 840 1544 838 1540 2804 1227 2240 4064 1616 2940 109.4 93 200 392 454 850 1562 843 1550 2822 1232 2250 4082 1621 2950 111.2 99 210 410 460 860 1580 849 1560 2840 1238 2260 4100 1627 2960 113.0 104 220 428 466 870 1598 854 1570 2858 1243 2270 4118 1632 2970 114.8 110 230 446 471 880 1616 860 1580 2876 1249 2280 4136 1638 2980 116.6 116 240 464 477 890 1634 866 1590 2894 1254 2290 4154 1643 2990 118.4 121 250 482 482 900 1652 871 1600 2912 1260 2300 4172 1649 3000 120.2 127 260 500 488 910 1670 877 1610 2930 1266 2310 4190 122.0 132 270 518 493 920 1688 882 1620 2948 1271 2320 4208 123.8 138 280 536 499 930 1706 888 1630 2966 1277 2330 4226 125.6 143 290 554 504 940 1724 893 1640 2984 1282 2340 4244 127.4 149 300 572 510 950 1742 899 1650 3002 1288 2350 4262 129.2 154 310 590 516 960 1760 904 1660 3020 1293 2360 4280 131.0 160 320 608 521 970 1778 910 1670 3038 1299 2370 4298 132.8 166 330 626 527 980 1796 916 1680 3056 1304 2380 4316 134.6 171 340 644 532 990 1814 921 1690 3074 1310 2390 4334 136.4 177 350 662 538 1000 1832 927 1700 3092 1316 2400 4352 138.2 543 1010 1850 932 1710 3110 1321 2410 4370 140.0 549 1020 1868 938 1720 3128 1327 2420 4388 554 1030 1886 943 1730 3146 1332 2430 4406 560 1040 1904 949 1740 3164 1338 2440 4424 566 1050 1922 954 1750 3182 1343 2450 4442

-60 to 60 C -51 -46 -40 -34 -29 -23 -17.8 -17.2 -16.7 -16.1 -15.6 -15.0 -14.4 -13.9 -13.3 -12.8 -12.2 -11.7 -11.1 -10.6 -10.0 - 9.4 - 8.9 - 8.3 - 7.8 - 7.2 - 6.7 - 6.1 - 5.6 - 5.0 - 4.4 - 3.9 - 3.3 - 2.8 - 2.2 - 1.7 - 1.1 - 0.6 0.0 0.6 1.1 1.7 2.2 2.8 3.3 3.9 4.4 5.0 5.6 6.1 6.7 7.2 7.8 8.3 8.9 9.4 10.0 10.6 11.1 11.7 12.2 12.8 13.3 13.9 14.4 15.0 15.6 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

F 4460 4478 4496 4514 4532 4550 4568 4586 4604 4622 4640 4658 4676 4694 4712 4730 4748 4766 4784 4802 4820 4838 4856 4874 4892 4910 4928 4946 4964 4982 5000 5018 5036 5054 5072 5090 5108 5126 5144 5162 5180 5198 5216 5234 5252 5270 5288 5306 5324 5342 5360 5378 5396 5414 5432

1-11

GEK 105162

Table 1-5. Conversion Table - Fractions to Decimals Fraction 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 5/64 3/32 7/64 1/8 9/64 5/32 11/64 3/16 13/64 7/32 15/64 1/4 17/64 9/32 19/64 5/16 21/64 Decimal 0.0156 0.0312 0.0469 0.0625 0.0781 0.0938 0.1094 0.1250 0.1406 0.1563 0.1719 0.1875 0.2031 0.2188 0.2344 0.2500 0.2656 0.2813 0.2969 0.3125 0.3281 Fraction 11/32 23/64 3/8 25/64 13/32 27/64 7/16 29/64 15/32 31/64 1/2 33/64 17/32 35/64 9/16 37/64 19/32 39/64 5/8 41/64 21/32 43/64 Decimal 0.3438 0.3594 0.3750 0.3906 0.4063 0.4219 0.4375 0.4531 0.4688 0.4844 0.5000 0.5156 0.5313 0.5469 0.5625 0.5781 0.5938 0.6094 0.6250 0.6406 0.6563 0.6719 Fraction 11/16 45/64 23/32 47/64 3/4 49/64 25/32 51/64 13/16 53/64 27/32 55/64 7/8 57/64 29/32 59/64 15/16 61/64 31/32 63/64 1 Decimal 0.6875 0.7031 0.7188 0.7344 0.7500 0.7656 0.7813 0.7969 0.8125 0.8281 0.8438 0.8594 0.8750 0.8906 0.9063 0.9219 0.9375 0.9531 0.9688 0.9844 1.0000

1-12

GEK 105162

1-8

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

1-8.2

Fire Hazards WARNING

This manual provides safe procedures and processes for accomplishing operation of the LM2500+ SAC. It is important all warnings and cautions be clearly understood and observed by users of this manual. This paragraph describes general safety precautions not related to specific procedures and therefore, do not appear elsewhere in this manual. The precautions should be clearly understood and applied wherever appropriate in all phases of gas turbine operation. 1-8.1 Material Hazards WARNING Use all cleaning solvents, fuels, oils, adhesives, epoxies, and catalysts in a well-ventilated area. Avoid frequent and prolonged inhalation of fumes. Concentrations of fumes of many cleaners, adhesives, and esters are toxic and will cause serious adverse health effects and possible death if inhaled frequently. Avoid frequent or prolonged exposure to the skin. Wear protective clothing and wash thoroughly with soap and warm water as soon as possible after exposure to such materials. Take special precautions to prevent materials from entering eyes. If exposed, rinse eyes in an eye bath fountain immediately and report to a physician.

Keep all cleaning solvents, fuels, oils, esters, and adhesives away from open flame space heaters, exposed element electric heaters, sparks, or flame. Do not smoke when using flammables, in the vicinity of flammables, or in areas where flammables are stored. Provide adequate ventilation to disperse concentrations of potentially explosive fumes or vapors. Provide approved containers for bulk storage of flammable materials and approved dispensers in the working areas. Keep all containers tightly closed when not in use. 1-8.3 Electrical Hazards WARNING Use extreme care when working with electricity. Electricity can cause shock, burns, or death. Electrical power shall be off before connecting or disconnecting electrical connectors. Lethal output voltages are generated by ignition exciter. Do not energize exciter unless output connection is properly isolated. Be sure all leads are connected, plug is installed, and all personnel are cleared to at least 5 ft (2.0 m) before energizing exciter for firing plug. If exciter is removed, fire it only in isolation chamber of the tester.

1-13

GEK 105162

1-8.4

Environmental Hazards WARNING

The disposal of many cleaning solvents, fuels, oils, adhesives, epoxies, and catalysts are regulated and, if mismanaged, could cause environmental damage. Review the material safety data sheet, other product information, and applicable local, state, and federal disposal requirements for proper waste management practices. 1-8.5 Gas Turbine Operational Hazards

The GT is a high speed machine. In the remote case of component failure, casing would contain compressor blade and turbine blade failures, but might not contain major compressor or turbine disk failures. Operating personnel should not be permanently stationed in or near the plane of rotating parts. Starter rotating parts operate at a very high speed. Personnel should not be stationed in the plane of starter during start cycle. Low pressure, high velocity airflow created by the compressor can draw objects and/or personnel into the engine. Although use of an inlet screen or other protective measure is required, personnel should not stand in front of inlet while engine is operating.

WARNING Outside surfaces of GT are not insulated. Adequate precautions should be taken to prevent operating personnel from inadvertently coming in contact with hot surfaces. WARNING The LM2500+ SAC GT is a source of considerable noise. It is necessary for personnel working on the engine or in its vicinity to wear proper ear protection equipment when it is operating.

1-14

GEK 105162

WARNING Suitable fire protection equipment is required for each installation. Carbon dioxide, halides, fog, water, or chemical fire extinguishing systems may be used. In the event that the fire protection system is discharged while personnel are inside enclosure, all personnel should immediately exit enclosure to prevent ingestion of extinguishing medium. Discharge of fine chemical or water mists directly on gas generator casings is permissible. The use of chemical fire extinguishing media will require disassembly of engine for cleaning. Explosive mixture sensing devices should be provided to sense any leakage of fuel (into the packagers enclosure). These devices should shutdown GT if leakage is present. If this occurs, exercise caution, determine and correct the cause of leakage before continuing operation. Enclosure and surrounding area should also be properly ventilated to clear any explosive fumes prior to restarting. WARNING When entering GT enclosure, the following requirements must be met: GT must be shut down or limited to IDLE power. Fire extinguishing system must be made inactive according to packagers/customers procedures.

Secondary air to enclosure must be shut off. High secondary airflow may prevent opening or closing enclosure door. Enclosure door should be kept open. If GT is operating, an observer should be stationed at enclosure door and confined space entry procedures must be followed. Allow GT to cool down. Avoid contact with hot parts, and wear thermally insulated gloves as necessary. WARNING

Ear protection must be worn if GT is operating. Do not remain in enclosure or in plane of rotation of starter when starting or motoring the GT. When performing maintenance on electrical components, avoid shocks and burns by turning off electrical power to those components, except when power is required to take voltage measurements. Lock out all controls and switches, if possible; otherwise, tag electrical switches, out of service, to prevent inadvertent activation. Tag engine operating controls, do not operate, to prevent starting during a desired shutdown condition.

1-15/(1-16 Blank)

GEK 105162

Chapter 2 General System Description


2-1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE 2-2.2 Standard Equipment and Features a. The GT comes fully assembled with the following standard equipment installed and tested at the factory: GG with 17-stage high pressure compressor (HPC), SAC combustor, and 2-stage high pressure turbine (HPT) Six-stage PT Inlet duct and centerbody Transfer gearbox (TGB) assembly and inlet gearbox (IGB) assembly TGB driven lube pump, scavenge pump, hydraulic pump, variable stator vane (VSV) servovalve, and air/oil separator Variable geometry (VG) control system for the VSV system Specified fuel system (nozzles and manifolds) Ignition system (igniter and exciter) Engine lubrication system (less oil tank, cooler, and filters) Set of instrumentation sensors Forward adapter (for connecting with flex coupling and driven equipment) GT

This chapter provides a general description of the LM2500+ Single Annular Combustor (SAC) gas turbine (GT) and basic design features, and standard and optional equipment. It also summarizes G01/G02/G03/G04 model configurations, and provides a brief summary of GT heritage. 2-2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND FEATURES

2-2.1 General Description The LM2500+ SAC GT operates as part of the ships main propulsion system. The GT may be connected mechanically to an electrical generator or to the ships reduction gear and electrically to the ships control panels. Refer to table 2-1 for a listing of GT service requirements. Control of the power train is accomplished through a buyer-provided electronic control monitoring system. The GT is a two-shaft GT consisting of a gas generator (GG), power turbine (PT), inlet duct, and centerbody. The GG exhaust drives the PT, which turns a shaft that supplies power to the ships drive system. The GT generates power and transmits power through a coupling shaft to the ships reduction gearbox and propeller shaft or waterjet or electrical generator for electric drive applications. Refer to table 2-2 for installation drawings and schematics and table 2-3 for reference documents. See figure 2-1.

Change 2

2-1

GEK 105162

Table 2-1. Propulsion Gas Turbine Service Requirements Parameter Inlet Air Temp Fuel Shutoff Values Fuel Temperature Value/Range -65 to 130F (-53.9 to 54.4C) 18-32 Vdc, 40 watts max at 29 Vdc ISO 8217-ISO-F-DMA (MGO) Shall be the greater of 20F (-6.7C) above wax point temperature or temperature to achieve required viscosity of maximum temperature 160F (71.1C) 6 centistrokes maximum - start 12 centistrokes maximum - operation MIL-L-7808 MIL-L-23699, NATO CODE 0-156 6 psig (41.4 kPa) minimum 4,500 < NGG < 8,000 15 psig (103.4 kPa) minimum NGG > 8,000 Max scavenge discharge temperature 300F (148.9C)

Viscosity

Lubricating Oil Supply Pressure

Hydraulic Starter Flow Pressure Inlet Differential Temperature Hydraulic Fluid Ambient Contamination Electrical Power Ignition Units

0-55 gpm (0-208.2 lpm) starting 0-22 gpm (0-83.3 lpm) low-speed motoring 0-5,300 psig (0.0-36,542.2 kPa) 0-4,200 psid (0.0-28,958.0 kPa) 32 to 200F (0.0 to 93.3C) -40 to 140F (-40.0 to 60.0C) Filtered to 25 microns absolute (10 microns nominal)

115 V, single phase, 50/60 Hz, in rush 350 Vac, in operation 120 Vac

Gas Turbine Water-Wash Pressure Flow

75 psig (517.1 kPa) 15 gpm at 45 psig (56.8 lpm at 310.3 kPa)

2-2

GEK 105162

Table 2-2. LM2500-PZ-MLG01/G02/G03/G04 Installation Drawings and Schematics Description Gas Turbine Installation Drawing Liquid Fuel System Schematic Gas Turbine Lubrication System Schematic Electrical System Schematic Drawing No. L50101 L50211 L43811 L50210 Description Inlet Bellmouth and Centerbody Hydraulic & Pneumatic Starter Hydraulic Start System Schematic Ignition System Drawing No. 537L372 682L531 L43632 682L511

Table 2-3. LM2500-PZ-MLG01/G02/G03/G04 Reference Documents Subject Liquid Fuel Specification Compressor Cleaning Water Purity Specification Compressor Cleaning Liquid Detergent Specification Lubricating Oil LM2500+ Steady State Performance Computer Program LM2500+ Control System Specification Low Noise Cable Specification Document No. MID-TD-0000-2 MID-TD-0000-4 MID-TD-0000-5 MID-TD-0000-6 G0166A with Card Pack 7NE M50TF3847 M50TF1756 Class C Subject Cable Assembly Specification Dual Channel Signal Conditioner Industrial Repair Manual Scheduled Maintenance Manual Corrective Maintenance Manual Illustrated Parts Breakdown Manual LM2500+ Engine System Mass Elastic Data Document No. M50TF1276 Class B M50TF1921 GEK 105056 GEK 105163 GEK 105164

GEK 105165 MID-TD-250031

Change 2

2-3

GEK 105162

Figure 2-1. Propulsion Gas Turbine b. The GT is completely assembled and factory tested. All items listed in paragraph 2-2.2 are mounted on the GT, except the ignition system exciter. These components are shipped loose for mounting by the packager/ buyer. The GG, PT, or GT is shipped as an assembled unit in a metal reusable container. The remainder of the equipment is shipped in wooden crates. NOTE Scheduled maintenance procedures are to be performed at specified intervals, reference Scheduled Maintenance Manual GEK 105163. c. The GT is designed to separate into major modules and structural units to provide maximum flexibility for maintenance programs. The GT can be disassembled into interchangeable modules which can then be individually replaced or repaired. d. The GT is constructed with high degree of accessibility. Detail features are specifically aimed at individual component replacements, most of which can be accomplished on an installed GT.

2-4

GEK 105162

e. Features of the GT include the following: Accessories/instrumentation externally mounted for ease of replacement Individually replaceable compressor rotor blades Individually replaceable compressor stator vanes Individually replaceable high pressure turbine rotor (HPTR) blades

2-2.3 Standard Instrumentation The GT is equipped with the sensors shown in table 2-4. Pressure taps are provided at the following locations for packager-supplied sensors: Lube oil supply line (one location) Lube oil scavenge return line (one location) HPC discharge static pressure (PS3) (two locations on compressor rear frame (CRF)) HPC inlet pressure and temperature (P2/T2) (one location on front frame) PT inlet pressure (PT5.4 [PT48]) (one location on turbine mid frame (TMF)). Probe is engine-supplied but transducer is purchaser-supplied High pressure (HP) recoup pressure (two available locations) Fuel manifold pressures VSV hydraulic supply oil pressure (one location) Hydraulic oil filter pressure differential (one location) PT balance piston pressure port (one location on PT rear frame) Eight individual PT inlet temperature T5.4 (T48) probes and two-piece harness (mounted on the TMF)

Individually replaceable stages 1 and 2 HPT stator vanes in pairs Horizontally split compressor stator and PT casings to facilitate repair and/or detailed inspection Externally replaceable gearbox bearings and seals Approximately 40 different ports, specifically located to facilitate borescope inspection. Using borescope procedure, complete inspection of GG gas path can be accomplished with GT installed

2-5

GEK 105162

Table 2-4. Standard Instrumentation Qty 2 1 8 1 1 6 6 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 Sensor Description GG speed sensors, magnetic pickup type PT speed transducer, dual output magnetic pickup/transformer type PT inlet temperature (T5.4 [T48]) sensors, dual element thermocouple probes GG mounted accelerometer PT mounted accelerometer GT oil supply and scavenge system temperature sensors GG oil scavenge electrical chip detectors GT oil supply pressure HPC discharge pressure (PS3) Pressure tap for any fuel manifold pressure PT5.4 (PT48) PT inlet pressure T3 sensor (T/C), dual element thermocouple probe Redundant P2/T2 sensor, duplex resistance temperature detector (RTD) VSV position provided by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) located on VSV actuator PT thrust balance cavity pressure

Additional instrumentation requirements are described in Chapter 3.

2-6

GEK 105162

2-3

PACKAGE DESCRIPTION

Fuel, lube, and hydraulic systems as applicable Instrumentation and condition monitoring systems Cooling systems Rear drive interfaces Noise and emission suppression systems Interconnecting wiring and piping Fire and safety systems Starter system Water-wash system Anti-icing system, if applicable

The GT package is a complete system built around the LM2500+ SAC GG and 6-stage PT. The package provides the structure, interfaces, service connections, and controls necessary to operate the GT and to utilize the energy and/or shaft output. This package needs only to be installed in the ship and connected to the appropriate interfaces and services (fuel, electric, etc.). Typical package components include: Gas turbine base

Mounting structure Sound enclosure Inlet and exhaust systems Controls and electrical systems Drains and vents

Tables 2-5 and 2-6 give the input and output functions of the GT.

2-7

GEK 105162

Table 2-5. Propulsion Gas Turbine Input Functions Figure No. Item No.

Nomenclature

Function

Operating range/condition NOTE NOTE

Models 7LM2500-PZ-MLG02/G03/G04 use one ignition exciter. Ignition exciters No. 1 and No. 2 Provide ignition for starting GT Characteristics of power input to ignition unit shall be as follows: Voltage: 115 V 8 percent Frequency: 60 Hz or 50 Hz 5 percent Phase: Single Phase Current Draw: 350 VA inrush per unit 120 VA operating per unit 2-2 13

NOTE NOTE Model 7LM2500-PZ-MLG01 has a packager supplied starter. Hydraulic starter Used to start or motor GT Ships hydraulic system supplies pressure to hydraulic starter 55 gpm (208.2 lpm), 4,200 psid (28,958.0 kPa), 5,300 psig (36,542.2 kPa) max inlet Power to fuel shutdown valves from buyer control system: 18-32 Vdc, 40 W max at 29 Vdc (each valve) 7.07 VRMS 3000 Hz 100 Hz 20 mA peak-to-peak 2-2 14

Fuel shutdown valves No. 1 and No. 2

Shuts off fuel to GT

2-2

VSV LVDT No. 1 and No. 2 excitation

Sinusoidal excitation of LVDT coils by purchaser control system

2-2

10

2-8

Change 2

GEK 105162

Figure 2-2. Typical Propulsion Gas Turbine Input/Output Diagram Change 2 2-9

GEK 105162

Table 2-6. Propulsion Gas Turbine Output Functions Operating range/ condition 0-4,980 Hz; 0-3,600 rpm, 100 percent speed 0-75 psia (0.0-517.1 kPa) Pressure range Fuel manifold pressure Lubricating oil pressure RTD provides resistance proportional to scavenge oil temperature in A-, B-, C-, and D-sumps, and transfer gearbox Provides signal proportional to NGG 0-16 psia (0.0-110.3 kPa) 0-1,500 psig (0.0-10,342.1 kPa) 0-100 psig (0.0-689.5 kPa) 84-178 ohms, -40 to 400F (-40.0 to 204.4C) 2 mA max Figure No. 2-2 Item No. 1

Nomenclature PT speed (NPT) signal input, channels A and B (2 signals) PT inlet pressure range gas pressure (PT5.4 [PT48]) signal GT inlet air pressure (PT2) signal GT fuel manifold pressure (FMP) GT lubrication supply pressure Lubricating oil scavenge temperature sensors

Function Each pickup provides signal proportional to PT speed

2-2

2-2 2-2 2-2 2-2

4 5 6 7

GG speed pickup (NGG)

1 rpm = 0.78329 Hz output frequency 0-12,000 rpm 0-142 V peak-to-peak (sinusoidal) 0-360 psig (0.0-2,482.1 kPa)

2-2

GT compressor discharge static pressure (PS3 or CDP)

CDP (PS3)

2-2

2-10

GEK 105162

Table 2-6. Propulsion Gas Turbine Output Functions - (cont.) Operating range/ condition -0.69 to 44.86 mV; 0 to 2000F (-17.8 to 1,093.3C) 40.55-42.13 mV/cm/sec (103-107 mV/in/sec) mean sensitivity at 75F (23.9C) 40.55-42.13 mV/cm/sec (103-107 mV/in/sec) mean sensitivity at 75F (23.9C) Figure No. 2-2 Item No. 2

Nomenclature PT inlet temperature (T5.4 [T48]) thermocouple GG vibration accelerometer

Function Provides signal proportional to T5.4 (T48) Provides signal proportional to GG vibration Provides signal proportional to PT vibration

2-2

11

PT vibration accelerometer

2-2

12

2-11/(2-12 Blank)

GEK 105162

Chapter 3 Controls and Indicators


3-1 GENERAL 3-2.3 Vibration Sensors The GT is equipped with two accelerometers, one on the compressor rear frame (CRF) and one on the TRF. The accelerometers provide protection against self-induced synchronous vibration. Each sensor is capable of monitoring vibration levels of both high and low rotor speeds. Each accelerometer sensor has an integral lead that is routed to one of the electrical panels. 3-2.4 Pressure/ Temperature Sensors 3-2.4.1 High Pressure Compressor Total Pressure Probe/Inlet Air Temperature

For ship-to-gas turbine (GT) control interface and indicators required for operation of the GT, refer to the applicable packagers manual. 3-2 SENSORS AND INDICATING SYSTEMS

This paragraph describes the various enginemounted sensors and indicating systems required for normal operation of the LM2500+ Single Annular Combustor (SAC). 3-2.1 Gas Generator Speed Sensor The GT is equipped with two magnetic-type gas generator speed (NGG) sensors mounted in the transfer gearbox (TGB) section for sensing NGG. The speed signal is produced by sensing passing gear teeth frequency on a spur gear in the TGB. See figure 3-1. 3-2.2 Power Turbine Speed Transducer The power turbine (PT) is equipped with one dual output magnetic-type power turbine speed (NPT) transducer mounted in the turbine rear frame (TRF) for sensing PT rotor speed. The assembly operates in conjunction with a toothed gear attached to the PT rear shaft. As gear teeth pass poles of the transducer, AC voltage is generated. See figure 3-2.

The GT is equipped with a dual purpose probe to measure high pressure compressor (HPC) inlet total pressure (P2) and HPC inlet total temperature (T2). The probe contains a dualelement resistance temperature detector (RTD). The probe is mounted on the compressor front frame (CFF). 3-2.4.2 HPC Discharge Temperature

Two HPC discharge temperature (T3) sensors are included as standard equipment. Each T3 sensor is a dual-element, chromel-alumel thermocouple with readout capability for each element via integral leads. The sensors are mounted on the CRF.

3-1

GEK 105162

Figure 3-1. Gas Generator Speed (NGG) Sensor 3-2

GEK 105162

Figure 3-2. Power Turbine Speed (NPT) Transducer Change 2 3-3

GEK 105162

3-2.4.3

Power Turbine Inlet Temperature

Fuel pressure at liquid fuel manifold inlets PT inlet pressure (PT5.4 [PT48]) (one location) PT balance piston pressure (PTB) (one location)

Eight separate, shielded chromel-alumel (type K) thermocouple probes are installed in the turbine mid frame (TMF). The dualelement power turbine inlet temperature (T5.4 [T48]) sensor has readout capability for each element via two cable harnesses. See figure 3-3. 3-2.4.4 Fuel Temperature Sensors

The gas generator (GG) is equipped with a single-element, chromel-alumel (type K) thermocouple probe mounted on the fuel manifold. 3-2.4.5 Lube Supply and Scavenge Temperature

The lubricating oil and fuel supply pressure indications can be used for condition monitoring or troubleshooting. PS3, Prcp, and PT5.4 (PT48) are vital to engine operation and are an integral part of the packager-supplied control system. Refer to the applicable packagers manual for sensors, leads, and readout devices. NOTE All sensing lines for flowpath pressure measurement must include provision for preventing water accumulation in the line. Line volume limits exist on the PS3 sensors.

Six dual-element platinum RTDs are provided as standard equipment on the engine for measurement of lubricating oil supply and scavenge oil temperatures. RTDs sense temperatures of bearing lubricating oil supply and scavenge oil from individual gearbox and sumps (TGB, A, B, C, D). Optional redundant RTDs may also be included. 3-2.4.6 Pressure Parameters

3-2.5 Chip Detectors The GT is equipped with electrical/magnetic remote-reading chip detectors. The chip detectors are located in the lube and scavenge pump at the scavenge line connections for the TGB, B-, C-, and D-sumps. Each chip detector indicates chip collection when resistance across the detector drops below 100 ohms. 3-2.6 Variable-Geometry Position The position of the HPC variable stator vane (VSV) is provided to the control and monitoring systems by independent linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs). The two actuators in the VSV system are equipped with LVDTs.

The LM2500+ SAC includes provisions for measurement of the following pressure parameters: Lubricating oil supply line (one location) Lubricating oil scavenge return line (one location) HPC discharge static pressure (PS3) (two locations) High pressure recoup pressure (Prcp) (two locations)

3-4

GEK 105162

Figure 3-3. Thermocouple Schematic Change 2 3-5/(3-6 Blank)

GEK 105162

Chapter 4 Operation and Operating Parameters


4-1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE 4-2 SAFETY

This chapter covers safety, installation, prestartup inspections, and verification test procedures for the gas turbine (GT) following initial installation and/or subsequent removal and replacement of the GT or major components. This chapter also covers general operating procedures that are typical of any LM2500+ Single Annular Combustor (SAC) powered package. The following topics are directed at ensuring that operating, maintenance, and support personnel have a source of technical information associated with the GT and its operation as installed in an enclosure. This chapter provides the operator with specific requirements about air, oil, and fuel used during normal operation and is intended to ensure that the GT is operating in the environment and under conditions for which it was designed. The information may not provide for every variation in installation, equipment, or contingency to be found in conjunction with GT operation. Configuration and system procedures may vary from package to package and with the packager-supplied control system. Before operating the GT, operators should be thoroughly trained in both normal and abnormal (emergency) operations. They must also be trained on the control system action/reaction to these conditions. Additional information can be provided by the packager or by General Electric Marine Engines.

General safety precautions are defined in Chapter 1. The following safety considerations should be observed by operators and support personnel working on the GT: Outside surfaces of the engine are not insulated. Adequate precautions should be taken to prevent personnel from inadvertently contacting hot surfaces. The GT is a source of considerable noise. It is necessary for personnel working on or in GT vicinity to wear proper ear protection equipment when the GT is operating. The GT has high speed rotating components. In the remote case of parts failure, the casing may not contain major compressor or turbine disk failures. Personnel should not be permanently stationed in, or near, the plane of rotating parts. Parts of the starter operate at a very high speed. To guard against the remote case of parts failure, personnel should not be stationed near the starter during start, motoring, or purge cycles.

4-1

GEK 105162

The low-pressure, high-velocity airflow created by the compressor can draw objects and personnel into the engine. The use of an inlet screen or other protective measure is strongly recommended. Suitable fire protection equipment should be provided for the installation. Carbon dioxide, halides, fog, water, or chemical fire extinguishing systems may be used. Discharge of fine chemical or water mists directly on engine casings is permissible. The use of chemical fire extinguishing media will require the disassembly of the GT for cleaning. Fire extinguishing media can be toxic or smothering. Care must be taken to ensure that all personnel are clear of enclosure prior to fire extinguisher system activation. Failure to comply may result in injury or death to personnel remaining inside enclosure. Suitable explosive mixture sensing devices should be provided to sense the leakage of fuel and to shut down the GT if leakage is present.

4-2.1 Gas Turbine Maintenance/ Inspection Precautions WARNING When entering the engine enclosure, the requirements listed below must be met. The GT shall be shut down or limited to IDLE power. Refer to the packagers manual. The fire extinguishing system shall be made inactive according to the packagers instructions. Secondary air to enclosure shall be shut off. Enclosure door shall be kept open. If GT is operating, an observer shall be stationed at enclosure door. Allow the GT to cool before entering enclosure. Avoid contact with hot parts; wear thermally insulated gloves if necessary. Ear protection shall be worn if the GT is operating. Do not remain in enclosure or in plane of rotation of starter when starting or motoring the GT. When performing maintenance on electrical components, avoid shocks and burns by turning off electrical power to those components, except when necessary to take voltage measurements.

Personnel entry into the engine enclosure during operation at engine speeds above IDLE should be prohibited. Signs or placards should be posted at enclosure access doors and should clearly state the hazardous conditions that exist in the enclosure during operation above IDLE.

4-2

GEK 105162

WARNING Tag electrical switches Out of Service to preclude inadvertent activation. Tag GT operating controls Do Not Operate to prevent starting during a desired shutdown condition. Do not use GT piping, cables, instrumentation leads, or other external hardware as hand or footholds when performing maintenance. These hardware items are not designed to support loads other than those associated with GT operation. INSTALLATION

b. Install starter onto transfer gearbox (TGB) per GEK 105164, WP 120 00, and configure the GT as required by the site and packagers instructions. c. Install ignition leads per GEK 105164, WP 107 00. 4-3.3 Equipment Protection The GT has covers to protect various operational interfaces during shipping, handling, installation, and maintenance activity. Covers are provided and used to protect the GT from potential foreign object damage (FOD) caused by handling and objects such as dirt, weld beads, tools, rags, nuts, and bolts. 4-3.3.1 Inlet Cover

4-3

If not already installed, the GT should be installed according to the packagers requirements and specifications. For specific details on GT installation procedures and tools, refer to, GEK 105164, work package (WP) 300 00, WP 301 00, WP 302 00, and WP 001 00 as well as the packagers manual. 4-3.1 Site Information Refer to the applicable packagers manuals and drawings for installation design details. 4-3.2 Installation Procedure NOTE Use new preformed packings, seals, or gaskets at all connections where required. Refer to the appropriate packagers manual for mounting points, interface locations, and component weights.

The GT is shipped with an inlet cover that should only be removed when the GT is installed in the package. This cover should be retained by the operator and installed for GT protection any time the inlet connection is broken. 4-3.3.2 Exhaust Cover

The GT is shipped with an exhaust cover which should be left in place until the GT is mated to its interface. This cover should be retained by the operator and installed any time the GT is disconnected. 4-3.3.3 Electrical, Fluid, and System Interface Covers

The GT is shipped with protective covers over all electrical, fluid, and system interfaces. These covers prevent handling damage (threads, pins, etc.) and fluid or system piping contamination.

a. Install and align GT per packagers instructions.

4-3

GEK 105162

A supply of covers should be maintained by the operator for use during maintenance activities electrical leads, fluid piping, or system piping to be disconnected. 4-3.4 Gas Turbine Protection The LM2500+ SAC is designed to operate in a marine atmosphere for extended periods of time. However, the operator must follow certain basic procedures to enhance the GT operational capability. Monitoring the power turbine (PT) thrust balance cavity pressure is required because seal leakage can change with operation. Leakage may cause thrust balance cavity pressure to fall outside of the preferred operating range. Refer to GEK 105164, WP 428 00, to measure and adjust cavity pressure with GT installed. 4-3.4.1 Lubricating Oil Requirements

f. Mixing of different types (Type I vs. Type II) of lubricating oils is not allowed. Mixing of lubricating oil brands of the same type is acceptable. Topping off when changing lubricating oil brands of the same type is the preferred method, but indiscriminate changing is not recommended. CAUTION Failure to properly maintain a clean lubrication system could result in premature failure of the GT or components. g. Before initial motoring and starting the GT in a new installation or following work on the lubrication system, the lubricating oil conditioning and storage system and all of the various circuits should be flushed to ensure cleanliness. CAUTION Following this flushing, the system filter elements should be removed or replaced to avoid GT contamination. h. In the event of a failure during ship operation that involves the GT lubrication system, the complete system should be disconnected, drained, and cleaned as described in step g. This procedure should be followed if the GT is removed and replaced or repaired on-board. i. Lubricating oil should be filtered to 10 microns, nominal. 4-3.4.1.1 Lubricating Oil Pressure Corrections

Lubricating oil is used to lubricate bearings, gears, and some splines. Lubricating oil is also used in the variable-geometry (VG) control actuation system. Lubricating oil must be temperature-controlled and kept clean per the following requirements: a. The requirements for GT lubricating oil are provided in GEK 105163, Appendix A4. b. Minimum temperature at start is 20F (-6.7C) for lubricating oil, MIL-L-23699, Type II, and -20F (-28.9C) for lubricating oil, MIL-L-7808. c. Minimum allowable temperature for operation at IDLE or above is 90F (32.2C). d. Normal supply temperature should be maintained between 140 to 160F (60.0 to 71.1C). e. Minimum supply pressure above 4,500 rpm or IDLE is 8-15 psig (55.2-103.4 kPa gage). Above 8,000 rpm, the supply pressure is > 15 psig (103.4 kPa gage). 4-4 Change 1

Tables 4-1 and 4-2 and figures 4-1 and 4-2 provide corrections and limits for lubricating oil supply pressure.

GEK 105162

Table 4-1. Lubricating Oil Pressure Correction for LM2500+ SAC Gas Turbines using Lubricating Oil, MIL-L-23699 NOTE NOTE The following values are for corrections to 9,000 rpm gas generator speed (NGG) and 150F (65.6C) lubricating oil inlet temperature. Read oil pressure and temperature, then algebraically add the pressure additive as indicated for that particular rpm and oil temperature to the observed oil pressure. Corrected oil pressure limit is 45-55 psig (310.3-379.2 kPa).
Oil Supply Temp F (C) 100 (37.8) 110 (43.3) 120 (48.9) 130 (54.4) 140 (60.0) 150 (65.6) 160 (71.1) 170 (76.7) 180 (82.2) 190 (87.8) 200 (93.3) 210 (98.9) 220 (104.4) Oil Supply Temp F (C) 100 (37.8) 110 (43.3) 120 (48.9) 130 (54.4) 140 (60.0) 150 (65.6) 160 (71.1) 170 (76.7) 180 (82.2) 190 (87.8) 200 (93.3) 210 (98.9) 220 (104.4) 9,100 -12.43 -16.30 -12.25 - 8.28 - 4.43 - 0.09 + 2.16 + 4.55 + 6.53 + 7.91 + 9.00 + 9.90 +10.76 9,200 -22.74 -17.52 -13.39 - 9.33 - 5.39 - 1.81 + 1.31 + 3.70 + 5.69 + 7.08 + 8.16 + 9.08 + 9.95 NOTE: Example: 9,300 -24.05 -18.74 -14.55 -10.38 - 6.36 - 2.72 - 0.46 + 2.84 + 4.84 + 6.23 + 7.31 + 8.25 + 9.14 9,400 -25.37 -19.99 -15.17 -11.43 - 7.33 - 3.64 - 0.40 + 1.99 + 3.99 + 5.38 + 6.45 + 7.42 + 8.33 8,000 - 7.74 - 3.52 - 0.02 + 2.91 + 5.82 + 8.60 +11.13 +13.35 +15.07 +16.53 +17.57 +18.40 +19.08 8,100 - 8.93 - 4.64 - 1.10 + 1.93 + 4.92 + 7.77 +10.34 +12.61 +14.33 +15.80 +16.84 +17.67 +18.36 8,200 -10.14 - 5.76 - 2.19 + 0.94 + 4.01 + 6.93 + 9.55 +11.87 +13.58 +15.06 +16.10 +16.93 +17.64 8,300 -11.35 - 6.89 - 3.30 - 0.06 + 3.11 + 6.09 + 8.75 +11.12 +12.83 +14.31 +15.35 +16.18 +16.90 Gas Generator Speed (rpm) 8,400 -12.58 - 8.03 - 4.42 - 1.07 + 2.19 + 5.24 + 7.95 +10.33 +12.07 +13.55 +14.60 +15.42 +16.16 8,500 -13.81 - 9.18 - 5.54 - 2.09 + 1.27 + 4.38 + 7.14 + 9.52 +11.31 +12.77 +13.83 +14.65 +15.41 8,600 -15.05 -10.34 - 6.64 - 3.12 + 0.33 + 3.52 + 6.32 + 8.71 +10.54 +11.98 +13.06 +13.88 +14.65 8,700 -16.31 -11.51 - 7.75 - 4.14 - 0.60 + 2.65 + 5.50 + 7.90 + 9.77 +11.18 +12.27 +13.10 +13.89 8,800 -17.57 -12.69 - 8.86 - 5.16 - 1.55 + 1.77 + 4.67 + 7.07 + 8.99 +10.38 +11.46 +12.31 +13.12 8,900 -18.85 -13.88 - 9.98 - 6.19 - 2.50 + 0.89 + 3.84 + 6.24 + 8.18 + 9.56 +10.65 +11.51 +12.34 9,000 -20.14 -15.08 -11.11 - 7.23 - 3.46 0 +3.00 +5.40 +7.36 +8.74 +9.83 +10.71 +11.55

Gas Generator Speed (rpm) 9,500 -26.70 -21.27 -16.87 -12.49 - 8.31 - 4.56 - 1.27 + 1.12 + 3.13 + 4.52 + 5.59 + 6.57 + 7.50 9,600 -28.04 -22.56 -18.05 -13.56 - 9.30 - 5.49 - 2.16 + 0.25 + 2.24 + 3.66 + 4.72 + 5.72 + 6.67 9,700 -29.39 -23.86 -19.23 -14.64 -10.29 - 6.53 - 3.09 - 0.62 + 1.34 + 2.77 + 3.85 + 4.86 + 5.83 9,800 -30.76 -25.18 -20.42 -15.72 -11.29 - 7.37 - 4.02 - 1.05 + 0.43 + 1.86 + 2.96 + 4.00 + 4.98 9,900 -32.13 -26.51 -21.62 -16.81 -12.30 - 8.32 - 4.96 - 2.39 - 0.48 + 0.95 + 2.07 + 3.12 + 4.13 10,000 -33.50 -27.85 -22.83 -17.91 -13.31 - 9.27 - 5.91 - 3.28 - 1.41 + 0.03 + 1.17 + 2.24 + 3.26

Oil MIL-L-23699 Observed NGG 8,700 rpm Observed Oil Pressure 56 psig (386.1 kPa) Oil Temperature 130F (54.4C) Pressure Additive -4.14 psig (28.5 kPa) Corrected Pressure 56 - 4.14 = 51.86 psig (357.6 kPa)

4-5

GEK 105162

Figure 4-1. Lubricating Oil Pressure Correction for LM2500+ SAC Gas Turbines using Lubricating Oil, MIL-L-23699 4-6

GEK 105162

Table 4-2. Lubricating Oil Pressure Correction for LM2500+ SAC Gas Turbines using Lubricating Oil, MIL-L-7808 NOTE NOTE The following values are for corrections to 9,000 rpm NGG and 150F (65.6C) lubricating oil inlet temperature. Read oil pressure and temperature then algebraically add the pressure additive as indicated for that particular rpm and oil temperature to the observed oil pressure. Corrected oil pressure limit is 37-45 psig (255.1-310.3 kPa).
Oil Supply Temp F (C) 100 (37.8) 110 (43.3) 120 (48.9) 130 (54.4) 140 (60.0) 150 (65.6) 160 (71.1) 170 (76.7) 180 (82.2) 190 (87.8) 200 (93.3) 210 (98.9) 220 (104.4) Oil Supply Temp F (C) 100 (37.8) 110 (43.3) 120 (48.9) 130 (54.4) 140 (60.0) 150 (65.6) 160 (71.1) 170 (76.7) 180 (82.2) 190 (87.8) 200 (93.3) 210 (98.9) 220 (104.4) 9,100 -15.44 -11.53 - 8.00 - 4.95 - 2.67 - 0.79 + 0.52 + 1.54 + 2.45 + 3.32 + 4.15 + 4.84 + 5.45 9,200 -16.46 -12.45 - 8.87 - 5.76 - 3.48 - 1.59 - 0.27 + 0.74 + 1.67 + 2.56 + 3.40 + 4.09 + 4.71 NOTE: Example: 9,300 -17.46 -13.37 - 9.74 - 6.57 - 4.29 - 2.41 - 1.08 - 0.07 + 0.88 + 1.79 + 2.64 + 3.34 + 3.96 9,400 -18.47 -14.31 -10.61 - 7.42 - 5.10 - 3.25 - 1.90 - 0.88 + 0.09 + 1.01 + 1.87 + 2.57 + 3.20 8,000 - 4.69 - 1.72 + 1.08 + 3.59 + 5.79 + 7.41 + 8.79 + 9.77 +10.55 +11.23 +11.89 +12.52 +13.08 8,100 - 5.36 - 2.58 - 0.29 + 2.84 + 5.08 + 6.70 + 8.09 + 9.07 + 9.85 +10.55 +11.22 +11.87 +12.43 8,200 - 6.58 - 3.45 - 0.51 + 2.08 + 4.34 + 6.00 + 7.38 + 8.37 + 9.14 + 9.86 +10.55 +11.21 +11.76 8,300 - 7.54 - 4.32 - 1.32 + 1.32 + 3.58 + 5.29 + 6.64 + 7.65 + 8.43 + 9.16 + 9.86 +10.54 +11.10 Gas Generator Speed (rpm) 8,400 - 8.51 - 5.20 - 2.13 + 0.56 + 2.82 + 4.57 + 5.90 + 6.92 + 7.71 + 8.46 + 9.17 + 9.86 +10.42 8,500 - 9.50 - 6.08 - 2.95 - 0.21 + 2.06 + 3.84 + 5.15 + 6.17 + 6.98 + 7.75 + 8.48 + 9.17 + 9.74 8,600 -10.48 - 6.97 - 3.77 - 0.99 + 1.28 + 3.11 + 4.40 + 5.42 + 6.24 + 7.03 + 7.78 + 8.47 + 9.05 8,700 -11.46 - 7.87 - 4.61 - 1.77 + 0.50 + 2.34 + 3.64 + 4.66 + 5.50 + 6.30 + 7.07 + 7.76 + 8.35 8,800 -12.44 - 8.78 - 5.44 - 2.56 - 0.28 + 1.57 + 2.87 + 3.89 + 4.75 + 5.57 + 6.35 + 7.04 + 7.64 8,900 -13.44 - 9.69 - 6.29 - 3.35 - 1.08 + 0.79 + 2.10 + 3.11 + 3.99 + 4.83 + 5.62 + 6.31 + 6.92 9,000 -14.43 -10.61 - 7.14 - 4.15 - 1.88 0 + 1.31 + 2.33 + 3.22 + 4.08 + 4.89 + 5.58 + 6.19

Gas Generator Speed (rpm) 9,500 -19.50 -15.24 -11.50 - 8.29 - 5.92 - 4.09 - 2.75 - 1.70 - 0.71 + 0.23 + 1.09 + 1.80 + 2.44 9,600 -20.52 -16.19 -12.39 - 9.17 - 6.75 - 4.95 - 3.59 - 2.53 - 1.52 - 0.56 + 0.29 + 1.02 + 1.66 9,700 -21.56 -17.14 -13.28 -10.05 - 7.58 - 5.80 - 4.45 - 3.37 - 2.34 - 1.36 - 0.51 + 0.23 + 0.88 9800 -22.60 -18.10 -14.18 -10.94 - 8.43 - 6.67 - 5.32 - 4.21 - 3.16 - 2.16 - 1.31 - 0.58 + 0.09 9,900 -23.65 -19.07 -15.08 -11.84 - 9.31 - 7.54 - 6.19 - 5.06 - 3.99 - 2.98 - 2.13 - 1.39 - 0.70 10,000 -24.70 -20.04 -15.99 -12.75 -10.19 - 8.42 - 7.07 - 5.92 - 4.83 - 3.80 - 2.95 - 2.20 - 1.51

Oil MIL-L-7808 Observed NGG 8,600 rpm Observed Oil Pressure 40 psig (275.8 kPa) Oil Temperature 140F (60.0C) Pressure Additive +1.28 psig (8.8 kPa) Corrected Pressure 40 + 1.28 = 41.28 psig (284.6 kPa)

4-7

GEK 105162

Figure 4-2. Lubricating Oil Pressure Correction for LM2500+ SAC Gas Turbines using Lubricating Oil, MIL-L-7808 4-8

GEK 105162

4-3.4.1.2

Lubricating Oil Supply Pressure at Pressure Tap vs. Gas Generator/Gas Turbine Speed

4-3.4.4

Adjustment of Gas Turbine High Pressure Recoup Cavity Pressure Within Preferred Operating Range NOTE

Figures 4-3 and 4-4 provide nominal oil supply pressures at pressure tap vs. GG/GT speed and lubricating oil supply temperature for LM2500+ SAC. 4-3.4.2 Air

High pressure recoup should be checked at initial startup and periodically thereafter. Refer to GEK 105163, Chapter 4, and GEK 105164, WP 415 00. Maintenance of GT high pressure recoup cavity pressure (HPRCP) in the preferred operating range is required to ensure No. 4B bearing life. During initial buildup of engine, HPRCP was adjusted to the preferred operating range with the proper size metering spacers. Periodic plotting of the HPRCP is required in service, because seal leakage can change with operation of the engine and may cause HPRCP to fall outside the preferred operating range. Refer to GEK 105164, WP 415 00, for procedure. 4-3.4.5 Adjustment of Power Turbine Thrust Balance Cavity Pressure Within Preferred Operating Range NOTE PT thrust balance cavity pressure should be checked at initial startup and monitored thereafter. Refer to GEK 105163, Chapter 4, and GEK 105164, WP 428 00. Maintenance of PT thrust balance cavity pressure in the preferred operating range is required to ensure No. 7B bearing life. During initial buildup of GT, PT thrust balance cavity pressure was adjusted into the preferred operating range with the proper size orifice plate.

Maximum airflow through the GT is approximately 185 lb/sec (83.9 kg/sec) filtered by the inlet system to meet the following requirements: 95 percent of the time: must not contain solid particles exceeding 0.004 grains/1,000 ft3 (0.0003 g/28.32 m3) 5 percent of the time: must not contain solid particles exceeding 0.04 grains/1,000 ft3 (0.003 g/28.32 m3) When operating in a marine environment, sodium (from air or water) entering the GT should not exceed 0.00045 parts/million (ppm) average, or 0.003 ppm maximum The maximum allowable liquid water content in the inlet air is 0.5 percent of the inlet airflow weight at inlet air temperatures of 42F (5.6C) and above. Below 42F (5.6C), no liquid water content is allowed Liquid Fuel

4-3.4.3

The requirements for liquid fuel are provided in GEK 105163, Appendix A3. Fuel shall be filtered to 20 microns absolute.

Change 2

4-9

GEK 105162

Figure 4-3. LM2500+ SAC Gas Turbine Oil Supply Pressure at Pressure Tap vs. GG Speed using Lubricating Oil, MIL-L-7808 4-10

GEK 105162

Figure 4-4. LM2500+ SAC Gas Turbine Oil Supply Pressure at Pressure Tap vs. GG Speed using Lubricating Oil, MIL-L-23699 4-11

GEK 105162

Monitoring of PT thrust balance cavity pressure is required in service because seal leakage can change with the operation of the GT. This may cause PT thrust balance cavity pressure to fall outside of the preferred operating range. Refer to GEK 105164, WP 428 00, for procedure. 4-3.5 Initial Prestart Inspections The GT and package should undergo a thorough prestart inspection during installation or after maintenance to ensure a trouble-free transition from installation to full operation. This inspection will help detect potential installation problems. The following inspections should be performed during installation into the enclosure: a. Inspect enclosure per packagers instructions. b. Perform external inspection. Ensure all connections are tight and that no binding or chafing is evident on flexible electrical cables, hoses, or tubes. c. Ensure bonding straps are in place and secure. d. Inspect GT inlet area. Thoroughly inspect inlet plenum for dirt and foreign objects. Clean, vacuum, and/or wash area, as necessary. e. Inspect exhaust system for foreign objects. f. Ensure lubrication system is properly serviced.

g. Inspect for leaks in fuel and lubrication oil lines. h. Ensure compressor rear frame (CRF) leakage ports, struts No. 7 and No. 10, are open (not capped). i. Ensure T5.4 (T48) thermocouple system functions properly. j. Ensure fire/alarm system is functional.

4-3.6 Initial Operational Checkout CAUTION If a questionable condition exists, do not operate GT until a thorough investigation has been made. Do not repeat hot starts, compressor stalls, or other recognized problems without prior thorough investigation. Failure to do so can result in undue stress on GT components, with immediate or subsequent destructive failure of the GT. The initial startup procedures described in this paragraph should be followed after any GT installation, GG replacement, or major system or GG maintenance. The GT should be operated at various speed/load conditions to establish baseline performance for the specific installation. Refer to paragraph 4-4.4.1c. a. Perform initial prestart inspection per paragraph 4-3.5. b. Perform normal prestart checks per paragraph 4-4.2.

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c. Motor GT for 2 minutes per packagers instructions and per paragraph 4-4.3. During motoring, check for the following: d. Oil pressure indication

f. Perform ignition system functional check as follows: WARNING Ignition system shall be inoperative for at least 2 minutes before disconnecting ignition leads. Ignition system could be charged with lethal high voltage. Ensure fuel shutdown valves are closed throughout this procedure.

Lube oil leaks Unusual noise during coastdown Perform false start as follows:

(1) With ignition leads disconnected and fuel shutdown valves closed, make automatic start of GG per packagers manual. (2) GG should go through normal start cycle and then abort because of lack of flame/ignition. e. Perform prestart as follows:

(1) Motor GG for 1.0 minute to clear combustor of residual fuel. Allow GG to coast down. NOTE Model 7LM2500-PZ-MLG01 has two ignition systems. (2) Disconnect ignition exciter input lead at exciter. Temporarily secure input lead away from exciter. (3) Turn on electrical power to ignition system. An audible report (approximately two sparks per second) should be heard when spark igniter fires. (4) Turn off electrical power to ignition system. Reconnect input lead to exciter. (5) Repeat steps (2), (3), and (4), disconnecting input lead to second exciter for Model 7LM2500-PZ-MLG01. (6) If audible report is not heard on first or second igniters, check out system to isolate problem, and take appropriate corrective action.

(1) With ignition system disabled, fuel shutdown valves open, and governing system operating, make automatic start of GG per packagers manual. (2) GG should accelerate to applicable light-off speed. Fuel shutdown valves should open and fuel manifold pressure should be verified. Start will then abort because of lack of flame/ignition. (3) Allow GG to coast to stop. Motor to purge any remaining fuel from GG or drain liquid fuel from manifolds. Continue to motor for minimum 60 seconds to purge fuel from GG. Consult packagers manual for necessary prestart purge time.

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WARNING When working inside or near the GT enclosure during operation, observe the safety precautions described in paragraph 4-2. g. Perform verification test per paragraph 4-3.7. h. Make normal start (paragraph 4-4.4, Starting and Operation) and set power at IDLE. When GT is stabilized at IDLE, do the following: Check GT and supply systems for leaks Check for loose parts, tubing, cabling, etc. Check all parameters and verify that values are within normal range per table 4-3 Observe and record all results Correct discrepancies prior to load application

i.

Operate to maximum power as follows:

(1) Slowly increase control setting (per packagers manual) to increase NGG. After each 500 RPM increase, log all instrument readings, paying particular attention to variable stator vane (VSV) position and vibration. If variable stator system is not within limits, inspect per GEK 105164, WP 416 00. If vibrations are not within limits, consult local General Electric Company representative. (2) Operate GG to rated power. Output will normally be limited by one of the following: compressor discharge temperature (T3), compressor discharge pressure (PS3), power turbine inlet temperature (T5.4 [T48]), or on extremely cold days, corrected core speed. Hold at this power setting until engine stabilizes. NOTE Normal operating parameter ranges and limits are shown in table 4-3, table 4-4, and figure 4-5. (3) Compare recorded readings to typical values in table 4-3 and troubleshoot as required. (4) stabilized. Log all instrument readings once

Table 4-3. Typical Operating Levels Max Operating Limit (Note 1) N/A N/A 10,100

Parameter T2, F (C) (Inlet temperature) P2, psia (kPa absolute) (Inlet pressure) NGG, rpm (Gas generator speed)

Idle -65 to 150 (-53.9 to 65.6) 14.5-14.8 (99.97-102.04) 6,800-7,400 (Note 2)

Max Power -65 to 150 (-53.9 to 65.6) 14.5-14.8 (99.97-102.04) 10,100

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Table 4-3. Typical Operating Levels - (cont.) Max Operating Limit (Note 1) Note 6 935 (501.6) N/A N/A

Parameter PS3, psia (kPa absolute) CDP T3, F (C) (Compressor discharge temperature) WF36, lb/hr (kg/hr) @ 18,400 BTU/lb (10,555 kcal/kg) PT5.4 (PT48), psia (kPa absolute) (Power turbine inlet pressure) T5.4 (T48), F (C) (see figure 4-4) (PT inlet temperature) PT speed for 60 Hz (rpm) PT speed for 50 Hz (rpm) VSV position, degrees Oil supply pressure, psig (kPa gage) Oil supply temperature, F (C) Oil scavenge pressure, psig (kPa gage) Oil scavenge temperature increase (A/TGB-sump), F (C) (Note 5) Lube scavenge temperature increase (B-sump), F (C) (Note 5) Lube scavenge temperature increase (C-sump), F (C) (Note 5) Lube scavenge temperature increase (D-sump), F (C) (Note 5)

Idle 40-55 (275.8-379.2) 285 to 365 (140.6 to 185.0) 1,200-1,500 (544.3-680.4) 17-19 (117.2-131.0) 1,150 to 1,350 (621.1 to 732.2)

Max Power 280-320 (1,930.5-2,206.3) 835 to 890 (446.1 to 476.7) 12,000-13,000 (5,443-5,896) 60-70 (413.7-482.6) 1,455 to 1,592 (790.6 to 866.7) 0 - 3600 0 - 3000

1,592 (Note 3) (866.7) 4,140 4,140 N/A N/A 200 (Note 4) (93.3) 100 (Note 4) (689.4) 340 (171.1) 340 (171.1) 340 (171.1) 340 (171.1)

30 to 34 8-15 (55.2-103.4) 140 to 160 (60.0 to 71.1) See appropriate packager manual 10 to 30 (5.6 to 16.7) 10 to 15 (5.6 to 8.3) 10 to 40 (5.6 to 22.2) 10 to 40 (5.6 to 22.2)

4 to 8 20-60 (137.9-413.7) 140 to 160 (60.0 to 71.1) 5-100 (34.4-689.4) 30 to 65 (16.7 to 36.1) 70 to 120 (38.9 to 66.7) 60 to 110 (33.3 to 61.1) 20 to 80 (11.1 to 44.4)

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Table 4-3. Typical Operating Levels - (cont.) Max Operating Limit (Note 1) 340 (171.1)

Parameter Lube scavenge temperature increase (TGB), F (C) (Note 5) Liquid fuel manifold pressure, psig (kPa gage) Liquid fuel manifold temperature, F (C) Recoup pressure, psig (kPa gage)

Idle 10 to 30 (5.6 to 16.7)

Max Power 20 to 50 (11.1 to 27.8) 900 psig (6,205.3)

Note 7 See GEK 105163, Chapter 4

Note 7 See GEK 105163, Chapter 4

160 (71.1) See GEK 105163, Chapter 4

NOTE 1: Unless otherwise noted, limits are shutdown limits. Reference GEK 105163, Chapter 3, Troubleshooting for complete electronic control alarm and shutdown limits. NOTE 2: For T2 temperatures between -30F (-34.4C) and 130F (54.4C). NOTE 3: Limited to 1,535F (834.9C) on a 3,600 rpm power turbine; shutdown limit 1,592F (866.7C). NOTE 4: Alarm only. NOTE 5: Increase in scavenge temperature over oil supply temperature. Alarm limit 300F (148.9C). NOTE 6: Governed by PS3/P2 schedule, application specific. NOTE 7: Range for all conditions is > 20F above wax point of fuel to < 160F (71.1C).

Table 4-4. Limits and Operating Requirements Event/Item Max time allowed for ignition Max time to reach starter cutout Max time to reach IDLE HP rotor vibrations PT rotor vibrations Max Limits/Requirements t 20 seconds after fuel/ignition application NGG > 4,500 rpm at t 90 seconds NGG 6,050 rpm at t 120 seconds > 4 mils - Alarm > 7 mils - Alarm > 7 mils - Shutdown > 10 mils - Shutdown

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Figure 4-5. Transient Temperature Limits (Typical) 4-17

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4-3.7 Verification Test If a verification test is not specified by packager, the verification test described below should be performed after initial operational checkout (paragraph 4-3.6) has been completed. Record abnormal condition and perform needed corrective action. a. Verify all service systems (electrical, air, fuel, lube oil, fire control, indicators, and controls) are checked out and ready for operation. b. c. Start gas turbine per paragraph 4-4.4. Hold at IDLE for 5 minutes minimum.

f. Stabilize at full power for 3 minutes. Observe and record data specified in table 4-3. g. Reduce power to IDLE.

h. Perform normal shutdown per paragraph 4-4.5.1. i. Inspect for leakage and loose parts. Take corrective action as required. j. Check lube and scavenge pump screens for evidence of contamination. 4-4 GAS TURBINE OPERATION

d. Perform PT overspeed shutdown test on each channel, with the PT unloaded, by slowly increasing power turbine speed (NPT) until automatic shutdown occurs. Shutdown should occur at appropriate trip speed for model. If automatic shutdown does not occur, shut down manually and check speed indication and automatic shutdown systems. e. Restart GT and slowly advance to full power. If acceleration follows cold start, rate should not exceed zero to maximum load in less than 5 minutes. A constant rate load increase should be maintained during acceleration.

Operational procedures are presented in this paragraph. Prior to operation of the GT, ship operators should be thoroughly trained in both normal and abnormal (emergency) operations and the control system action/reaction to these conditions. This section offers guidelines for tracking GT operation times and maintenance actions. A thorough history of GT performance will aid in further operations and maintenance decisions.

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4-4.1 Component Life/Repair Intervals Safe operation of the LM2500+ SAC is dependent on properly scheduled maintenance, repairs, and component replacement. To properly track these conditions, packager-supplied time and event counters provide data for the parameters. 4-4.2 Prestart Checks

Oil supply valves are open Lubricating oil temperature is above 20F (-6.7C) for lubricating oil, MIL-L-23699, or above -20F (-28.9C) for lubricating oil, MIL-L-7808 T5.4 (T48) less than 400F (204.4C) All switches and interlocks set for proper sequence to allow motoring Fuel metering valve at start position VSVs at scheduled position Liquid drain valves closed at liquid startup Fire alarm/extinguisher system activated Required checks and inspections for GT electronic control have been performed in accordance with packagers manual

Consult the packagers manual for mandatory prestart procedures to ensure that packagerfurnished systems are activated and operational. Prior to any motoring or start sequence, GE suggests the following checks as a minimum: All maintenance requirements or discrepancies are cleared and signed off Ensure that inlet and enclosure have been inspected and cleaned in accordance with instructions in packagers manual Fuel shutdown valves are closed Ignition system is off Oil tank level is full

Although not required as part of normal starting procedures, motoring is frequently used following maintenance to check GT prior to making a start. Motoring is performed with fuel shutdown valves closed.

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4-4.3 Motoring Procedures CAUTION If a questionable condition exists, do not operate the GT until a thorough investigation has been made. Do not repeat hot starts, compressor stalls, or other recognized problems without prior thorough investigation. Failure to do so can result in undue stress being imposed on GT components, with immediate or subsequent destructive failure of the GT. NOTE

(2) fuel skids.

Close manual shutoff valve(s) to

WARNING Lubricating oil, MIL-L-7808: Combustible. Do not inhale, ingest, or let this material touch you. If ingested, central nervous system damage/adverse effects. If ingested, can produce paralysis. Irritant. Thermal decomposition may release toxic by-products. Personal protective equipment required. Use in a well-ventilated area. If heated, use an approved respirator. Lubricating oil, MIL-L-23699, is toxic to skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Skin and eye protection is required. Avoid repeated or prolonged contact. Use in a well-ventilated area.

Be certain that checklists have been established for packager-furnished equipment. Consult the packagers manual for mandatory prestart procedures. Make certain that the packager-furnished oil supply subsystem is activated and operational prior to motoring or start sequence. After all preliminary checks have been completed and lines flushed, GG can be motored as follows: a. Make ignition and fuel supply systems inoperative as follows: NOTE Model 7LM2500-PZ-MLG01 has two ignition systems. (1) Disconnect power supply to ignition system(s).

b. Motor GG until NGG stabilizes and check for oil pressure. If there is no indication of oil pressure, stop motoring. Loosen oil fittings at lube pump inlet to bleed air from system and ensure pump is primed. Starter should motor GG to minimum of 2,200 rpm at full supply pressure to starter. c. Repeat motoring and bleeding procedure until indication of oil pressure appears.

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4-4.4 Starting and Operation 4-4.4.1 Normal Starting Sequence

b. Engage starter or initiate start sequence. The following should occur: Engine will begin to rotate and accelerate to greater than 1,700 rpm and stabilize Ignition will be energized 2 minutes after reaching 1,700 rpm Fuel shutoff valves will open Lightoff should occur in approximately 5 seconds PT rotor will start to rotate before GG reaches IDLE speed Engine will accelerate to IDLE (starter-assisted to 4,500 rpm, where starter-cutout occurs) Finish 5 minute warmup prior to loading Check parameters per table 4-2 Accelerate to desired load. Maintain constant rate of load increase during acceleration

WARNING For maximum safety, operating personnel should remain clear of the plane of the GG starter when starting unit and should remain clear of GG plane during operation, exercising the same care required in the vicinity of any high-speed rotating equipment. Entering the enclosure during operation above IDLE speed is not recommended. Prolonged exposure to GG sound levels may cause hearing loss. CAUTION If a questionable condition exists, do not operate GT until a thorough investigation has been made. Do not repeat hot starts, compressor stalls, or other recognized problems without prior thorough investigation. Failure to do so can result in undue stress on GT components, with immediate or subsequent destructive failure of the engine. a. Ensure all prestart checks have been completed. NOTE A start may be aborted at any time by closing fuel shutdown valves, allowing gas generator to motor for 60 seconds, then closing starter shutoff valve.

c. Check and record levels of operating parameters designated in tables 4-1 and 4-2. If all parameters shown in tables are normal, GT operation may continue. If GT parameters are outside normal operating limits shown in the tables, troubleshoot and correct problem per GEK 105163, Chapter 3, before continuing.

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4-4.4.2

Hot Starts

4-4.5.1

Normal Shutdown CAUTION

a. Starts indicating T5.4 (T48) value in excess of 1,300F (704.4C) are considered to be hot starts. Normal starts are 1,000 to 1,200F (537.8 to 648.9C). b. Hot starts are typically the result of insufficient starter power, excess starting fuel flow, excessively high acceleration fuel flow rate, or open VSVs. c. If hot start occurs, startup procedure should not be repeated without investigating cause of hot start. For troubleshooting procedures, refer to GEK 105163, Chapter 3. 4-4.5 Shutdown NOTE The information presented herein describes a typical sequence of events. However, for specific control sequencing modes and ship operation information, see the packagers manual. The following types of GT shutdowns may occur: Normal shutdown: GT is taken offline for a specific reason, annunciated fault, or other indication of problem which operator interprets as reason for taking GT off-line, or for reasons not necessarily related to GT. Emergency shutdown: GT is taken off-line by operator or control system to prevent damage or injury to equipment or personnel due to GT or system fault.

Thermal seizure of the PT rotor can occur when a hot GT is shut down and may cause engine damage. Thermal seizure is the condition where the PT rotor is prevented from rotating by hard contact between PT rotor blades and shrouds, interstage seals and other internal interference. It is most likely to occur within 30 to 40 minutes following GT operation. This condition is the result of unequal cooling rates of various PT components. The possibility of thermal seizures can be reduced by operating GT at IDLE power for at least 5 minutes before shutdown to achieve proper cooling of the PT. Ensure fuel manifold is drained when GT is shut down or GT damage could occur. The maximum temperature of the fuel will be 200 F (93.3 C). Refer to packagers manual for procedure.

Shutdown procedures are dependant on application. See packagers manual. Under normal operating conditions, GT is shut down in sequence described below: Power is reduced to minimum load (IDLE) or control sequencer is activated to accomplish shutdown HP rotor speed decreases to approximately 7,600 rpm (sync idle/min-load) over 2-3 minute period T5.4 (T48) decreases

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NOTE After shutdown, natural circulation of air through the GT must not be interrupted. GT should decelerate to IDLE speed, approximately 6,800 rpm, where GT should be allowed to cool for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes, fuel shutdown valves should be closed and drain valves opened Emergency Shutdown

b. Underspeed and oil pressure alarms are bypassed. c. Vent/drain valves are opened per control sequencing. CAUTION Ensure freedom of rotation of GT after emergency shutdown from high power settings. Seizure of GT rotor may occur due to tight clearances. Normally the rotor will free itself after a cooling period of 3-4 hours. Check for freedom of rotation by turning rotor by hand. Table 4-5 outlines the protection functions that require root cause resolution prior to GG motoring.

4-4.5.2

In an emergency, the GT can be shut down from any power setting. This action can be initiated by the operator or by the packager-supplied control system. An emergency shutdown automatically initiates the following actions: a. Fuel shutdown and metering valves are closed.

Table 4-5. Protective Function Causes Requiring Resolution Prior to Restart or Motoring Protective Function Excessive vibration alarm/shutdown Fire system shutdown and/or Halon release GT lubrication oil supply pressure low alarm/shutdown Lubrication scavenge alarm/shutdown Overspeed alarm/shutdown Oil filter pressure drop alarm/shutdown Enclosure high combustible gas level shutdown Lubrication scavenge pressure alarm Chip detector alarm Starter system failure Fail to crank indication Negative rate of change of PS3 (-dPS3/dT) shutdown (stall indication)

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4-4.5.3

Post-Shutdown Fire

During normal shutdown, GG T5.4 (T48) should decrease following closure of fuel shutdown valves. If T5.4 (T48) temperature increases after fuel shutdown valves are released, combustion is still continuing. (Slight temperature increase after rotation stops is normal.) Ensure fuel is shut off, and motor GG (paragraph 4-4.3) to extinguish combustion. When temperature decreases to normal, discontinue motoring. If condition persists refer to GEK 105163, Chapter 3, Troubleshooting. 4-4.6 Starter Duty Cycle NOTE Starter duty cycle applies only to GE supplied starters. There is no duty cycle limit on hydraulic starter as long as oil temperature is maintained below 200F (93.3C). 4-4.7 Restart CAUTION If a questionable condition exists, do not attempt to motor or operate GT until a thorough investigation of the condition has been completed. Do not restart GT until causes for emergency shutdowns or aborted operations are thoroughly investigated and corrected. Failure to do so can result in undue stress on engine components and may result in damage and ultimate failure.

This paragraph addresses requirements for restarts after operation at power. Restarts may be initiated at any time if prior shutdown sequence was normal. Restarts following emergency shutdown or trip from operation at power may be restricted, depending on cause. 4-4.7.1 Hot Restarts

A restart following emergency shutdown or trip from a power level where T5.4 (T48) is higher than 1,150F (621.1C) is considered a hot restart sequence and should not be attempted until fault or circumstance triggering shutdown is resolved. NOTE Conditions may not allow restarting or motoring in some situations, depending on the cause of the emergency shutdown or the status of the starting system. Reasons for not restarting or motoring the GT following an emergency shutdown are listed in table 4-3. If fault which caused an emergency shutdown is fully understood, resolved, cleared, and has been verified that no damage to the GT has occurred, restart or motoring sequence can be initiated.

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It is critical that the hot restart procedure follows a specific sequence to avoid major GT damage. The basic objective is to cool the high pressure turbine rotor (HPTR) and high pressure compressor rotor (HPCR) so blade tips maintain clearance with the more rapidly cooling cases. Restart procedure following a trip from power or an emergency shutdown (T5.4 [T48] greater than 1,150F (621.1C)) is as follows: a. If hot restart is performed within 2 hours following emergency shutdown, motor GT at 2000-2500 rpm NGG for 5 minutes. Prior to initiating motoring, ensure rotor is free to rotate and not seized. At the end of 5 minute motoring/purge cycle, perform normal restart and accelerate to IDLE. Acceleration to desired power setting can then be accomplished. b. After 2 hours following coastdown of HPCR, restart can be made using normal starting procedure. 4-4.8 Windmilling Windmilling is generally caused by air forced through the inlet, causing rotors to turn. Windmilling also occurs during shutdown as kinetic energy of the rotor is dissipated by pumping and rolling-element friction. Duration of GG windmilling is limited by the lubrication of the rotor bearings. The following defines these limits: a. GG may windmill for 2 weeks in duration at speeds below 100 rpm, provided each period is preceded by normal GT operation.

b. GG may windmill for periods up to 5 minutes at speeds between 100-1000 rpm, provided each period is preceded by normal GT operation. Extended windmilling of GG outside these limits may be carried out, but require additional equipment and protection. Contact GE Marine Customer Service, 1 Neumann Way, Mail Drop S-156, Cincinnati, Ohio 45215-6301, USA, for assistance. 4-4.9 Records and Running Logs A log should be kept of all GT operation and/or running time. It is recommended, as a suggested minimum, ship operators record the following: Time of all starts and shutdowns Total time for GT and ship Reading of all GT instrument recordings, taken twice daily at set-load point All changes of GT speed and load Brief statement of action taken in response to alarms or emergencies Any system modifications, adjustments, or parts removal/replacement Preventive or corrective maintenance activity Installation/removal dates and operating hours for any spare or lease pool GT

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4-5

ABNORMAL OPERATION

4-7.1 Alarms Alarms alert the operator to a condition that requires operator intervention. Alarms indicate that a condition has been reached that may lead to the initiation of a protective action, if not corrected immediately. Refer to GEK 105163, Chapter 3, for the problem events and system conditions that trigger alarms and protective functions. 4-7.2 Power Cutback

This paragraph covers abnormal operating conditions and procedures, and control-provided automatic protective features. It provides definitions, descriptions, and operator actions required for abnormal conditions resulting in alarms or protective action. It also covers other conditions that do not trigger alarms or protective action, but which require special action by the operator. 4-6 GENERAL DEFINITIONS

Abnormal operation is defined as any type of operating condition that: Deviates from normal operating limits Causes an alarm or other protective action to be initiated

There is a power cutback function in the control that initiates an alarm and a slow deceleration to minimum load (min-load). A slow deceleration to min-load is a controlled rate that allows all GT schedules and GT cooling to be maintained. Rather than decelerate all the way to IDLE, the GT decelerates to the min-load point. This allows the condition to be investigated without requiring a shutdown. There is no time limitation for remaining at min-load, unless the condition requiring this deceleration still persists, in which case, a normal shutdown sequence is initiated. 4-7.3 Shutdowns There are five shutdown functions in the controls as follows: Shutdown (GT motoring allowed) Emergency shutdown (GT motoring not allowed) Step deceleration to IDLE/shutdown Slow deceleration to IDLE/shutdown Abort start/shutdown

A protective action is defined as any action initiated automatically by the packagers control to: Prevent damage to GT or installation Prevent injury to personnel CONTROL ACTIONS

4-7

There are three levels of protection initiated by the packager-supplied control system when abnormal conditions are sensed: Alarms (alarm-only conditions) Power cutbacks Shutdowns

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These functions initiate an alarm and a shutdown, but vary in their shutdown sequence. 4-7.3.1 Normal Shutdown

4-7.3.3

Step Deceleration to IDLE/ Shutdown

A control-initiated shutdown is a controlled deceleration to IDLE, a 5-minute stabilization period, a closing of the fuel shutdown valves, and opening of drain or vent valves. 4-7.3.2 Emergency Shutdown

A control-initiated emergency shutdown occurs when the GT must be shut down immediately to prevent severe damage to the GT or installation. When an emergency shutdown occurs, the control initiates the following events: a. Fuel shutdown valves and metering valve are closed. b. Underspeed and oil pressure alarms are bypassed. c. Drain and vent valves are opened per control sequencing. d. Alarms, interlocks, sequence timers, and operating timers are reset. NOTE The emergency shutdown will not allow reset until NGG is less than 400 rpm. Table 4-5 outlines the protection functions that require root cause resolution prior to GG motoring.

A step deceleration to IDLE is an immediate rapid (max deceleration rate) deceleration to IDLE, followed by a 10-second pause, and then by a shutdown. A step deceleration provides a more controlled and orderly way of shutting down the GT than does an immediate shutdown at power. The 10-second pause at IDLE, allows various scheduled GT systems, such as variable stator vanes, to reach stabilized condition before shutdown occurs. When step deceleration occurs, control initiates the following sequence of events: a. Power is immediately reduced to IDLE, causing GT to decelerate as rapidly as possible. b. When GT reaches IDLE speed, the control holds at IDLE for 10 seconds and then initiates a shutdown. Hold at IDLE allows the GT to be shut down from an on-schedule, stabilized condition. c. When control initiates the shutdown after the 10-second IDLE hold, the following events occur: Fuel shutdown valves are closed Underspeed and oil pressure alarms are bypassed Drain and vent valves are opened per control sequencing Alarms, interlocks, sequence timers, and operating timers are reset

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4-7.3.4

Slow Deceleration to IDLE/ Shutdown

Drain and vent valves are opened per control sequencing Alarms, interlocks, sequence timers, and operating times are reset A purge cycle is initiated by the control, if applicable OPERATOR ACTION

A slow deceleration to IDLE involves the fuel control controlling GT deceleration. After IDLE is reached, the sequence of events is as follows: a. When GT reaches IDLE speed, the control holds at idle for 10 seconds and then initiates a shutdown. Hold at IDLE allows the GT to be shut down from an on-schedule, stabilized condition. b. When control initiates the shutdown after the 10 second IDLE hold, the following events occur: Fuel shutdown valves are closed Underspeed and oil pressure alarms are bypassed Drain and vent valves are opened per control sequencing Alarms, interlocks, sequence timers, and operating timers are reset Aborted Start/Shutdown

4-8

To avoid GT damage or more severe protective action, operators must correct the causes of all alarms and determine corrective actions necessary to clear abnormal conditions. Consult troubleshooting procedures in GEK 105163, Chapter 3, before resuming normal GT operation. After a power cutback or shutdown, positive action to correct the cause is necessary. For an alarm or protective action, the following general procedures should be followed: a. Acknowledge alarm as specified in packagers manual. b. During an alarm-only condition, correct problem, if in question, contact packager/GE Marine Service, before resuming normal operation. NOTE

4-7.3.5

An aborted start is a shutdown that is initiated at any time during the start sequence when certain parameters exceed limits. During an aborted start, control initiates the following events: Fuel shutdown valves are closed Ignition system and starter are deenergized Underspeed and oil pressure alarms are bypassed

Reduce power, then shut down and correct the problem; refer to the packagers manual for more specific information. Do not continue operation in the alarm condition. c. After power cutback, correct problem before resuming operation at power. If recovery is not possible, shut down and correct problem. d. After normal shutdown, correct problem before attempting restart.

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CAUTION It is critical that the restart procedure, following an emergency shutdown, follow the specific sequence outlined in paragraph 4-4.7.1, to avoid major GT damage. e. After emergency shutdown, correct problem before attempting restart. For restart procedure following an emergency shutdown, refer to paragraph 4-4.7.1. f. Enter appropriate comments in GT log concerning any problems and corrective actions. 4-8.1 Special Gas Turbine Constraints Under normal operating conditions, the GT is constrained by the operating limits published in table 4-2. Continuous operation between the alarm and shutdown or trip level should not be practiced. In the event that any of the following situations or events occur, the associated special action or limitation shall be followed to ensure the GT continues normal operation. These events may not be detected or may not be prevented by the customary protective devices of control systems: Overtemperature during starting Lubricating oil pressure High speed stalls Restart, following high power trip No PT rotation

4-8.1.1

Overtemperature During Starting

During starting and acceleration to IDLE, cooling airflow to components of the GG hot section are not sufficient to protect the metal at T5.4 (T48) alarm and trip levels specified in the limits table, per paragraph 4-4, GT Operation, and GEK 105163, Chapter 3, Troubleshooting. A lower T5.4 (T48) limit is therefore established, with higher levels acceptable, provided levels exist for limited times. This shall be monitored by the operator. The overtemperature inspection, called for by entry into area B in Figure 4-5, requires hot section disassembly and inspection in a qualified facility. 4-8.1.2 Lubricating Oil Pressure

The lubricating oil supply pressure limits given in table 4-2 are distress limits. Protective devices cannot reliably monitor supply pressure because the proper pressure is dependent on NGG, oil type, oil temperature, and number of oil jets. An operator must therefore derive a corrected oil pressure as directed on the appropriate pressure correction tables, 4-1 or 4-2, to determine if the lubricating system is performing within the limits stated in each table. 4-8.1.3 High Speed Stall

The control system incorporates a stall detection feature to preclude continued operation in a stall condition, once a stall is detected. Stalls incurred at GG rotational speeds above 7,500 rpm can result in compressor blade fracture. The GG can be operated after an inspection of compressor stages 3 through 6 verifies that blade tip clanging has not occurred. If tip clanging has occurred, further inspection and stress relief of the blades is required, which necessitates blade removal from the spool.

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NOTE A compressor stall may be secondary to another condition. Conduct thorough inspection of GT before restart is attempted. 4-8.1.4 Restart Following High Power Trip

4-9

TEST NO. 1 AND NO. 2 FUEL SHUTDOWN VALVE OPERATION CAUTION If gas turbine does not shut down when No. 1 fuel shutdown valve is selected, shut down using No. 2 fuel shutdown valve. Use emergency shutdown procedure if shutdown cannot be accomplished with either valve

If restart of GT is required within 2 hours following trip or rapid shutdown from high power, 5-minute motoring at 2,000-2,500 rpm must precede restart. Motoring is required to cool HPTR, so that blade tips maintain clearance with more rapidly cooling case. Ensure HPTR is free prior to initiating motoring. 4-8.1.5 No Power Turbine Rotation

a. Place FUEL SHUTDOWN VALVE TEST switch to VALVE 1 on ship control panel (SCP) and hold momentarily. If gas turbine does not shut down, log and take corrective action immediately. Troubleshoot fault per packagers manual. b. Start gas turbine per paragraph 4-4 and stabilize at IDLE power. CAUTION If gas turbine does not shut down when No. 2 fuel shutdown valve is selected, shut down using No. 1 fuel shutdown valve. Use emergency shutdown procedure if shutdown cannot be accomplished with either valve. c. Place FUEL SHUTDOWN VALVE TEST switch to VALVE 2 on SCP and hold momentarily. If gas turbine does not shut down, log and troubleshoot fault per packagers manual.

A thermally bound PT rotor could occur under extreme conditions following a rapid shutdown from high power. PT rotation should initiate during GT acceleration to IDLE. If rotation does not occur, the following procedure should be used: a. Remain at IDLE for 30 seconds and shutdown. b. Restart and repeat step a.

c. Restart and accelerate to 6,000 rpm. Do not exceed 6,000 rpm. Power turbine rotor should break away. If not, shut down and investigate for unlatched or shingled blades, or other cause.

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GEK 105162

4-10 TEST POWER TURBINE OVERSPEED SWITCH a. To check channel B, enter enclosure and identify packagers lead to PT speed pickup (channel A). Disconnect the forward connector of packagers lead from PT speed sensor lead at panel bracket mounted at 8:00 oclock on the Turbine Rear Frame (TRF) forward flange. b. Perform automatic start of GT. Declutch coupling shaft from reduction gear and release brake. CAUTION Do not exceed 4,000 rpm NPT or damage may result. c. Slowly increase throttle to 3,900 rpm NPT. Gradually increase throttle until overspeed tripout occurs (GT will shut down). Overspeed tripout shall occur at 3,960 40 rpm. If automatic tripout did not occur, perform normal shutdown of GT. CAUTION Failure to follow electrical connector installation procedure may result in moisture contamination and short circuits. d. Connect electrical connector that was disconnected in step a., finger-tight. Remove connector and inspect seal ring for proper seating; reinstall connector finger-tight. Using slip-joint pliers, tighten connector 5-20 degrees past finger-tight, and safety-wire. e. To check channel A, identify packagers lead to PT speed pickup (channel B). Disconnect forward connector of lead from PT speed sensor lead at panel bracket mounted at 8:00 oclock on the TRF forward flange.

f. Perform automatic start. Declutch coupling shaft from reduction gear and release brake. CAUTION Do not exceed 4,000 rpm NPT, or damage may result. g. Slowly increase throttle to 3,900 rpm NPT. Gradually increase throttle until overspeed tripout occurs (GT will shut down). Overspeed tripout shall occur at 3,960 40 rpm. If automatic tripout did not occur, perform normal shutdown. CAUTION Failure to follow electrical connector installation procedure may result in moisture contamination and short circuits. h. Connect electrical connector that was disconnected in step f, finger-tight. Remove connector and inspect seal ring for proper seating; reinstall connector finger-tight. Using slip-joint pliers, tighten connector 5-20 degrees past finger-tight, and safety-wire. i. If overspeed trip on channel A or B did not occur within specified tolerance, troubleshoot PT overspeed switch per packagers manual. j. Return GT to required state of operation per packagers manual.

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GEK 105162

4-11 TEST POWER TURBINE SPEED LIMITING SYSTEM a. If GT is not operating, perform start per paragraph 4-4 and stabilize at IDLE power setting. b. Declutch coupling shaft from primary reduction gear and release brake. c. Set PT speed at 3,600 rpm. CAUTION Do not exceed 3,852 rpm, or damage may result.

d. Slowly advance throttle and verify that PT does not exceed 3,852 rpm. e. If PT speed exceeds 3,852 rpm, shut down GT and immediately report discrepancy to maintenance group supervisor. Troubleshoot PT speed limiting system per packagers manual. f. Return GT to required state of operation per packagers manual.

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