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D45 Electromagnetic Field Theory

3:1

Preamble: The purpose of this course is to provide students with an introduction to the fundamentals of electrostatics, magnetostatics, and electromagnetics. The bridge between electric circuits and electromagnetics is done through the study of transmission lines and their lumped-element model, transmission line input impedance, and power flow on lossless transmission line. This course also emphasizes the physical understanding and practical applications of electromagnetics in electronics and bio medical systems.

An ability to apply knowledge of engineering, mathematics and science to electromagnetic fields.

An ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering electromagnetic problems

Competencies: At the end of the course the student should be able to

1. Understand the fundamental nature of static electric fields, potential, flux, charge densities, static magnetic fields, steady current, resistance, capacitance, inductance, stored energy, materials, and boundary conditions.

2. Understand Faraday’s law of induction, electromagnetic fields, Maxwell’s equations, boundary conditions, wave equations and Poynting theorem.

3. Determine the characteristics of lossless transmission lines using Smith charts

4. Understand the concepts of traveling waves, standing waves, characteristic impedance, intrinsic impedance and wave impedance.

5. Understand concepts such as wavelength, phase velocity, attenuation, plane waves, reflection, and refraction for waves in various media.

6. Determine the behavior of cathode ray tube, generator, motor, magnetic brake using electrostatic and magneto static principles

7. Determine the behavior of retina, heart, defibrillator and pacemaker using electromagnetic principles

8. Understand electromagnetic effects on desk top PC and circuit boards.

Assessment Pattern

 Bloom’s Test 1 Test 2 Test3/End Category Semester Examination 1 Remember 40 40 20 2 Understand 40 40 40 3 Apply 20 20 40 4 Analysis 0 0 0 5 Evaluate 0 0 0 6 Create 0 0 0

Course level learning Objectives

Remember

1. State Coulomb’s law

2. State Gauss’s law.

3. State Biot- Savart’s law.

4. State Ampere’s law.

5. State Faraday’s law

6. State Maxwell’s equations.

7. State Poynting theorem.

8. Define polarization of an EM wave.

9. Derive Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations from fundamentals?

Understand

1. Why do we need to study field theory when we already have circuit theory?

2. Give the limitations of Gauss’s law.

3. In what form energy is stored in electric field?

4. Can charges reside inside a conductor?

5. Interpret Maxwell’s equations.

6. What is significance of Len’s law?

7. Justify that there cannot be any isolated magnetic pole.

8. Why it is desirable to achieve an impedance match in a transmission line?

9. From the basics, derive wave equations and hence explain the concept of

electromagnetic wave propagation.

10.

Distinguish between the EM waves propagating in metal waveguide and dielectric fibre.

11. Justify the need for Boundary conditions?

12. Why do we need continuity equations?

13. Explain why curl is vector measure of rotation?

14. Explain the significance of quarter wave transformer.

15. When, where and Why total internal reflection occurs and hence explain the principle of light propagation inside optical fibre.

16. Explain the relevance of electric and magnetic deflections in a cathode ray tube.

Apply

1. A uniform transmission line has constant R = 1mohm/m,G=2.5umho/m, L= 15uH/m, and C=25nF/m.Find the dB attenuation of this line at frequencies of 10KHz (b) 10 MHz (c) 10GHz.

2. A sphere of radius r 1 =30cm has a charge density variation given P o r/r1 where r o =200pC/m 3 .Find the total charge of the sphere using Gauss’s law.

3. Estimate the change in capacitance when the separation between transmission lines is increased twice for the same charge densities.

4. A uniform transmission line has constants R= 12mΩm -1 ,G= 1.4µmhosm -1 =1.5µHm -1 and C=1.4nFm -1 .At 7 KHz find(a) characteristic impedance and (b) attenuation in dB/Km. Is the above transmission line distortion less line? What series resistance would result in a distortionless line?

5. An isolated parallel-plate capacitor with spacing d has a charge Q. Find the change in energy stored if the plate spacing is (a) halved and (b) doubled.(c) Account for energy changes and why (a) and (b) are not equal.

6. An electron with an energy of 1800eV enters an electric deflecting field E=10 4 V/m. A magnetic deflecting flux density B is perpendicular to E. What should be B have to balance the deflection by E so that the electron continues in a straight path?

Concept Map

Course Contents and Lecture Schedule

 No. of No. Topic Lectures 1. Electrostatics 1.1 Introduction to Coordinate Systems 2 1.2 Electric Charge , force 1 1.3 Electric field, potential, gradient 1 1.4 Electric Flux, flux density and Gauss Law 2 1.5 Divergence, Laplace and Poisson Equations, Boundary Conditions 2 1.6 .Capacitance and Energy Density 2 1.7 Ohm’s Law at a point 1 1.8 Dielectrics, semiconductors and Conductors 1 1.9 Tutorials 2
 No. of No. Topic Lectures 2. Magneto Statics 2.1 Electric Current, Biot Savart’s law, magnetic flux, magnetic flux density, Ampere’s Law 1 2.2 Gauss’s law, Lorentz force 2 2.3 Inductance, Energy, energy density, Changing Magnetic Fields, Induction, Induction Coupling 3 2.4 Mutual inductance, cross talk, Curl, Maxwell’s equations. 3 2.5 Tutorial 2 3 Transmission Lines 3.1 Circuit Theory, Field Theory, Microstrip Line, Characteristic impedance, energy, power and Poynting Vector 2 3.2 Terminated Uniform transmission line, VSWR, Smith Chart, Pulses and Transients 3 3.3 Quarter wave transformer 1 3.4 Tutorial 2 4 Wave propagation 4.1 Wave propagation in space, traveling Waves and Standing Waves, Conducting Medias, Lossy Lines 2 4.2 Plane Waves at Interfaces, Phase Velocity, index of Refraction, Group Velocity 2 4.3 Power and Energy Relations 2 4.4 Polarizations 1 4.5 Oblique Incidence, Reflection, Refraction 2 4.6 Tutorial 2 5 Applications 5.1 Cathode ray tube, Electric and Magnetic Deflection 2 5.2 Generator, Linear Motor, Magnetic Brakes 1

No. of

Lectures

No.

Topic

5.3

Defibrillator, Pace maker

1

5.4

Electromagnetic Hazards and Environment

1

5.5

Electromagnetic effects in High Speed Digital Systems – Lumped Vs Distributed Systems

1

5.6

Electromagnetic effects in Desktop PC, Circuit Boards, Cross Talk, Electromagnetic Interference,

1

Syllabus

Electrostatics: Introduction to Coordinate systems, Electric charge, Force,

Coulomb’s law, Electric field, Electric potential, Gradient, Equipotential contours, Line

charges, Electric flux, Electric flux density, Gauss’s law, Surface charge, Volume

charge, Divergence, Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations, Boundary conditions,

dielectric capacitors and capacitance, capacitor energy, Energy density, Electric

currents, Electric Current density, ohms law at a point, Power, Dielectrics,

semiconductors and conductors.

Magnetostatics: Magnetic fields of electric currents, Magnetic flux, Magnetic flux

density, Gauss’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance and inductors, Energy and Energy

density, Changing magnetic fields, induction and Faraday’s law, Coupling, cross talk

and mutual inductance, Curl, Maxwell’s equations.

Transmission lines: Circuit theory, Field theory, Transmission line impendence,

Energy, Power and Poynting vector, Terminated uniform transmission line and

VSWR, smith chart, Bandwidth, Pulses and transients, Quarter wave transformer

Wave Propagation: Waves in space, Traveling waves and standing waves,

Conducting media and lossy lines, Plane waves at interfaces, Relative phase velocity,

Index of refraction, Group velocity, Power and energy relations, Linear, Elliptical and

Circular polarization, Oblique incidence-Reflection and refraction for perpendicular

and parallel cases.

Applications: Electrodynamics: Cathode ray tube, Electric and magnetic

deflection, Generator, Linear motor, Magnetic brake. Bio Electro magnetics:

Retinal optic fiber, Heart dipole field, Defibrillators and Pacemakers, Electromagnetic

hazards and the environment Electromagnetic effects in High Speed Digital

Systems: Lumped versus Distributed systems, Electromagnetic effects in Desktop PC, circuit boards, Cross talk, Electromagnetic interference

Text Book:

1. Kraus and Fleisch: Electromagnetics with applications, TMH Publishing Co. Ltd., 5 th Edition 1999.

Reference Books:

1. D. K. Cheng: Field and Wave Electromagnetics, Addison-Wesley, 1992

2. N. N. Rao: Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics, Prentice-Hall, 2004.

3. W. Hayt and J. Buck: Engineering Electromagnetics, McGraw-Hill, 2006

4. J. Edminister: Schaum’s Outline of Electromagnetics, McGraw-Hill.

Course Designers

1. V. Abhaikumar principal@tce.edu

2. S. Kanthamani, skmece@tce.edu

3. A. Thenmozhi thenmozhi@tce.edu