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LITERATURE

1.
2.

CITED

3. 4. 5.

Yu. V. P e t r o v s k i i and V. G. Fastovskii, Modern Efficient Heat E x c h a n g e r s [in Russian], Gosgnergoizdat, Moscow {1962). W. M. Kays and A. L. London, Compact Heat Exchangers, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill (1964). Hobler, Heat T r a n s f e r and Heat E x c h a n g e r s [Russian translation], Goskhimizdat, Leningrad (1961). N. V. Baranovskii, P l a t e - T y p e Heat E x c h a n g e r s in the Food I n d u s t r y [in Russian], Mashgiz, Moscow (1962). M. A. Mikheev and I. M. Mikheeva, Principles of Heat T r a n s f e r [in Russian], Gosgnergoizdat, Moscow (1973).

CALCULATION WITH A MIXED

OF

PLATE-TYPE OF LIQUIDS

HEAT

EXCHANGERS

FLOW

V. A . Z a g r e b i n , V. a n d V. P . S o l o m a t i n

V. R e p n i t s k i i ,

UDC 66.045.1.001.24

In r e c e n t y e a r s , in the chemical industry wider and wider use has been made of dismountable and s e m i dismountable heat e x c h a n g e r s with stamped c o r r u g a t e d plates. The construction of these heat exchangers m a k e s it possible to change the number of p a s s e s of any given h e a t - t r a n s f e r medium by a different a r r a n g e ment of the plates [1]. In c a s e s where the m a s s - f l o w r a t e s of the working liquids differ considerably, it bec o m e s advisable to i n c r e a s e the number of p a s s e s for the h e a t - t r a n s f e r medium with the lowest m a s s - f l o w r a t e , thus increasing its velocity and the overall h e a t - t r a n s f e r coefficient. Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the flow of the liquids with r e s p e c t to one another b e c o m e s mixed; i.e., part of the heat exchanger works in accordance with a counterflow scheme and the other part in accordance with a direct-flow scheme. With an u n s y m m e t r i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t of a plate-type heat exchanger, the optimal r a t i o of the number of p a s s e s for the working media, f r o m the condition of a m a x i m a l use of the available p r e s s u r e drops, can be det e r m i n e d using the f o r m u l a [2]
2--3
=

"

1--s.

(i)

where x is the number of p a s s e s ; G is the m a s s - f l o w rate of the liquid; Ap is the available p r e s s u r e drop; u is the kinematic viscosity of the liquid; p is the density of the liquid; s is the power exponent of the Reynolds number in the f o r m u l a for determining the hydraulic r e s i s t a n c e of plate-type heat exchangers; the s u b s c r i p t s "h" and "hd" denote, respectively, the heating and heated liquids. F o r a m a j o r i t y of plates s = 0.25 [1]; then, f o r m u l a (1) a s s u m e s the f o r m

/ ph 1/ h hd|

4 r-W--v

~4

(2)

In [3] it is shown that, with a verifying calculation of heat exchangers with a mixed flow, it is mc~ :o_qvenient to use the method of dimensionless p a r a m e t e r s in accordance with which, for each scheme of the motion of the liquids, there exists a functional dependence 8=f(N, R), (3)

where g = 6 t s / A ; N = k F / W s ; R = Ws/Wg are dimensionless p a r a m e t e r s ; 6t s is the t e m p e r a t u r e drop of the I ! liquid with the s m a l l e s t water equivalent; ~ = t h - t h d is the difference between the initial t e m p e r a t u r e s of the heating and heated h e a t - t r a n s f e r media; k is the h e a t - t r a n s f e r coefficient; F is the heating surface of the heat exchanger; Ws, Wg are the smallest and g r e a t e s t of the water equivalents of the h e a t - t r a n s f e r media. T r a n s l a t e d f r o m Khimicheskoe i Neftyanoe Mashinostroenie, No. 1, pp. 23-25, January, 1978.

0009-2355/78/0102-0047507.50

9 1978 Plenum Publishing Corporation

47

hd
t

i Whd
a Fig. 1. Scheme of heat exchanger with g e n e r a l counterflow motion (a) and the change of the t e m p e r a t u r e s of the flows in it (b).

~fh

The basic p r o b l e m of a verifying calculation is finding the p a r a m e t e r g (usually called the efficiency of the heat exchanger) f r o m known p a r a m e t e r s N and R. Dependence (3) has a complex exponential c h a r a c t e r and, in p r a c t i c e , is g e n e r a l l y given in the f o r m of tables or graphs. At the p r e s e n t time, to d e t e r m i n e the efficiency of plate-type heat e x c h a n g e r s with a mixed flow, known c u r v e s a r e used, c o n s t r u c t e d for m u l t i p a s s s h e l l - a n d tube heat e x c h a n g e r s [I]. However, the physical conditions of the motion of the liquids with m i x e d flow in p l a t e - t y p e heat e x c h a n g e r s a r e different than in s h e l l - a n d - t u b e e x c h a n g e r s . The m a i n difference is that in m u l t i p a s s s h e l l - a n d - t u b e a p p a r a t u s , the flow of the llquM in the intertube space is m i x e d over the whole volume, while, in p l a t e - t y p e heat e x c h a n g e r s , the flow of liquid in the p a s s e s is not mixed; i.e., it t a k e s place through s e p a r a t e channels. In [3], using the e x a m p l e s of a c r o s s e d flow of the liquids, it is shown that the equations for determining the efficiency of heat e x c h a n g e r s with mixing and nonmixing flows have a different c h a r a c t e r ; h e r e in the case of nonmixing flows the efficiency of the heat exchanger is found to be g r e a t e r . The p r e s e n t authors have developed a method for determining the efficiency and the m e a n t e m p e r a t u r e head for m u l t i p a s s p l a t e - t y p e heat e x c h a n g e r s , in which one of the liquids m a k e s a whole number m o r e p a s s e s than the other. Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the a s s u m p t i o n s usual in such c a s e s a r e m a d e [1, 4]: The flow of the liquids under t h e r m a l conditions is fully established; the aggregate state of the m e d i a does not change; the h e a t - t r a n s f e r coefficient and the specific heat c a p a c i t i e s of the liquids a r e constant over the whole heat e x changer; the heating s u r f a c e s a r e identical in all the p a s s e s ; the heat l o s s e s to the surrounding medium a r e negligibly small. The calculating scheme of a m u i t i p a s s p l a t e - t y p e apparatus can be r e p r e s e n t e d as a set of s e p a r a t e c o n s e e a t i v e l y connected heat e x c h a n g e r s of identical heating surface and with identical h e a t - t r a n s f e r coefficients, equal to the overall h e a t - t r a n s f e r coefficient [1]. We denote the n u m b e r of p a s s e s of the liquid with the s m a l l e s t water equivalent by X and the number of p a s s e s of the liquid with the l a r g e s t w a t e r equivalent by x; h e r e , X is g r e a t e r than x by a whole n u m b e r of t i m e s . As an example, we consider a heat exchanger with a g e n e r a l counterflow, in which the heating liquid m a k e s t h r e e p a s s e s and the heated liquid one p a s s , i.e., x = I, X = 3 (Fig. l a ) . We a s s u m e that, in the f i r s t packet along the path of the heating medium, t h e r e is counterflow; then, in the second packet t h e r e is direct flow and in the third packet again counterflow. Figure l b shows the change in the t e m p e r a t u r e s in this heat exchanger. Examining the figure, we can write:
~ts ~t:+Bt2+~t3 ~ t2
*2= ts A~ - -

~t~ ~ t~ t

~tl

fl--~tt ~

ta

where ~l, g~, g3 a r e the efficiencies of each individual packet, d e t e r m i n e d using the following f o r m u l a s [3]:

48

for direct flow

I -- exp( -- NpRp-- Np) ,


* P= " 1 + Rp '

(4)

for counterflow
l -- exp(Nl~, p-- ,Vp) 1 - - Rp exp (~'l~p-- N ~ '

(5)

for counterflow with Rp = 1

Np
"P= I T N p '

Here Np ~- kF/WsX, Rp = WsX/WgX are dimensionless parameters for one packet. By algebraic transformations, we obtain an expression for determining the efficiency of the whole heat exchanger:

It is obvious that, for a heat exchanger with a number of packets equal to X, this dependence can have the form
X
I=2 t--I

~ = ~ + ~ ,,' II ( I - 0 ,
I=1

where i, j are indices denoting the number of the packet in the heat exchanger. Since, for all the packets, the p a r a m e t e r s Np and Rp are identical by definition, the efficiencies of all the odd god and even 8 e packets are also identical. Taking this into consideration, we can finally write

l~yX
t=~.3, , 5 . . .

l-I

l-1

i~x I~2, 4, 6...

t_,

(6)

If the heated liquid makes the g r e a t e s t number of passes, then the f o r m of the f o r m u l a r e m a i n s the same except that the packets must be numbered along the path of the heated medium. In c a s e s where the liquid with the largest water equivalent makes not one pass, as considered above, but s e v e r a l (x > 1), then the efficiency of the heat exchanger is determined using the following f o r m u l a [3]: A--1
- A -- R (7)

t-hR-=l e---- l + e x = l ( x - - l )

where 8x= 1 is the efficiency, determined by f o r m u l a (6), of the part of the heat exchanger in which the liquid with the l a r g e s t water equivalent m a k e s one pass; A = [(1 - 8 x = l R ) / E x = l ] x is an auxiliary coefficient. With the constructional calculation of heat exchangers, the heating surface is g e n e r a l l y determin( slug the mean t e m p e r a t u r e head and not dimensionless p a r a m e t e r s . The mean t e m p e r a t u r e head with a m ~ e u flow can be found f r o m the e x p r e s s i o n h tmi~= sara t cc, where Atcc is the t e m p e r a t u r e head with pure c o u n t e r c u r r e n t ; EAt is a c o r r e c t i o n coefficient, generally det e r m i n e d f r o m curves depending on the scheme of the motion and the dimensionless p a r a m e t e r s 8 and R. The f o r m u l a obtained by the present authors (6) can be used to determine the c o r r e c t i o n coefficient EAtIt is known that the c o r r e c t i o n EAt can be found f r o m the e x p r e s s i o n [3]
Ncc

49

o,~

o,7'

4 a 0

02

0.4

g6b

o,e

Fig. 2. N o m o g r a m s for d e t e r m i n i n g the efficiency e (a) and the c o r r e c t i o n coefficient ~At(b) of a t w o - p a s s p l a t e - t y p e heat exchanger with x = 1, X = 2. where Ncc, N m i x a r e indices of the heat t r a n s f e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y , for counterflow and m i x e d flow with identical values of ~ and R. F o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of Ncc, we t r a n s f o r m f o r m u l a (5) in the following m a n n e r :
1

Nee--,~

Giving N m i x a n d R , for a concrete s c h e m e of the motion of the liquids, f o r m u l a s (6) and (7) can be used to find the efficiency of the heat exchanger and then, with the aid of f o r m u l a s (8) and (9), to d e t e r m i n e the c o r r e c tion coefficient s a t . F o r e x a m p l e , for a t w o - p a s s p l a t e - t y p e heat exchanger (x = 1, X ,= 2) with N = 2.4, R = 0.5, as the r e s u l t of a calculation using the p r o p o s e d method, s a t was found equal to 0.766. F o r a two--pass s h e l l and-tube heat exchanger, with these s a m e calculating conditions, SAt = 0.5 [4], i.e., 1.53 t i m e s l e s s than for a p l a t e - t y p e heat exchanger. Calculations on d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the efficiency and the c o r r e c t i o n coefficient ~ At with mixed flow in p l a t e - t y p e heat e x c h a n g e r s w e r e made in an M-222 c o m p u t e r . The data obtained w e r e used to plot n o m o g r a m s for calculation of the m o s t frequently encountered s c h e m e s , two of which a r e given in Fig. 2 as an example. It m u s t be noted that, with an even n u m b e r of the r a t i o X/x, the efficiency and the m e a n t e m p e r a t u r e head of the heat exchanger a r e found to be identical, i r r e g a r d l e s s of whether the motion of the liquids s t a r t s with direct flow or with counterflow and that, with an odd r a t i o X/x, the values of S and S A t a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r if the motion s t a r t s with c o u n t e r c u r r e n t . LITERATURE
1.

CITED

2. 3. 4.

N . V. Baranovskii, L. M. Kovalenko, and A. R. Y a s t r e b e n e t s k i i , P l a t e - T y p e and Spiral Heat E x c h a n g e r s [in Russian], M a s h i n o s t r o e n i e , Moscow (1973). V. A. Z a g r e b i n and V. V. Repnitskii, "Calculation of p l a t e - t y p e heat e x c h a n g e r s f r o m the available p r e s s u r e drop," Khim. Neft. Mashinoatr., No. 10, 9-10 (1974). W. M. Kays and A. L. London, Compact Heat Exchanger s, 2nd ed., M c G r a w - H i l l (1964). M. Jacob, P r o b l e m s in Heat T r a n s f e r [Russian translation], Moscow (1960).

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