You are on page 1of 30
1
1

1

I.

Introduction

 

A. Background

 

1.

Myth as defined

Myths are prose narratives explaining how the world and people came to be in their form. According to William Bascom (1965), myths, in the society in which they are told, are considered to be truthful accounts of what happened in the remote past. They are taught to be believed; and can be cited as authority in answer to ignorance and doubt. They are often associated with theology and rituals. The main characters in myths are not usually human beings, but they have often have human attributes; animals, deities, cultural heroes, their love affairs, their family relationships, their friendships and enmities, their victories and defeats ...

Myths were the first tools man used to define his world, explain his feelings, and make his judgements. It. was through myths that our ancestors explained their environment, long before the scientific knowledge and explanation of natural phenomena.

Known as alamat in Tagalog, myths like legends explain the origin of

things.

  • 2. Understanding Mythology

a.

Mythology

The term mythology can refer to either

the study of

myths,

or to a

body of myths. For example,

comparative mythology is the study of

connections

between

myths

from

different

cultures,

whereas

Greek

2

mythology is the body of myths from ancient Greece. The term "myth" is often used colloquially to refer to a false story, but academic use of the term generally does not pass judgment on truth or falsity. In the study of folklore, a myth is a sacred narrative explaining how the world and humankind came to be in their present form. Many scholars in other fields use the term "myth" in somewhat different ways. In a very broad sense, the word can refer to any traditional story.

  • b. Nature of myths

    • i. Typical characteristics

The main characters in myths are usually gods or supernatural heroes. As sacred stories, myths are often endorsed by rulers and priests and closely linked to religion. In the society in which it is told, a myth is usually regarded as a true account of the remote past. In fact, many societies have two categories of traditional narrative, "true stories" or myths, and "false stories" or fables. Myths generally take place in a primordial age, when the world had not yet achieved its current form, and explain how the world gained its current form and how customs, institutions and taboos were established.

ii.

Related concepts

Closely related to myth are legend and folktale. Myths, legends, and folktales are different types of traditional story. Unlike myths, folktales can take place at any time and any place, and they are not considered true or sacred by the societies that tell them. Like myths, legends are stories that are traditionally considered true, but are set in a more recent time, when the world was much as it is today. Legends generally feature humans as their main characters, whereas myths generally focus on superhuman characters.

3

The distinction between myth, legend, and folktale is meant simply as a useful tool for grouping traditional stories. In many cultures, it is hard to draw a sharp line between myths and legends. Instead of dividing their traditional stories into myths, legends, and folktales, some cultures divide them into two categories, one that roughly corresponds to folktales, and one that combines myths and legends. Even myths and folktales are not completely distinct. A story may be considered true (and therefore a myth) in one society, but considered fictional (and therefore a folktale) in another society. In fact, when a myth loses its status as part of a religious system, it often takes on traits more typical of folktales, with its formerly divine characters reinterpreted as human heroes, giants, or fairies.

Myth, legend, saga, fable, folktale, or marchens are only a few of the categories of traditional stories. Other categories include anecdotes and some kinds of jokes. Traditional stories, in turn, are only one category within folklore, which also includes items such as gestures, costumes, and music.

  • 3. Philippine Mythology

    • a. General information

Philippine mythology and folklore include a collection of tales and superstitions about magical creatures and entities. Some Filipinos, even though heavily westernized and Christianized, still believe in such entities. The prevalence of belief in the figures of Philippines mythology is strong in the provinces.

4

Because the country has many islands and is inhabited by different ethnic groups, Philippine mythology and superstitions are very diverse. However, certain similarities exist among these groups, such as the belief in Heaven (kaluwalhatian, kalangitan, kamurawayan), Hell (impiyerno, kasamaan), and the human soul (kaluluwa).

  • b. Philippine folk literature

Philippine mythology is derived from Philippine folk literature, which is the traditional oral literature of the Filipino people. This refers to a wide range of material due to the ethnic mix of the Philippines. Each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell.

While the oral and thus changeable aspect of folk literature is an important defining characteristic, much of this oral tradition had been written into a print format. To point out that folklore in a written form can still be considered folklore, Utely pointed out that folklore "may appear in print, but must not freeze into print." It should be pointed out that all the examples of folk literature cited in this article are taken from print, rather than oral sources.

  • c. Philippine Mythological creatures

Filipinos also believed in mythological creatures. The Aswang is one the most famous of these Philippine mythological creatures. The aswang is a ghoul or vampire, an eater of the dead, and the werewolf. There is also the (Agta), a black tree spirit or man. Filipinos also believed in the Dila (The Tongue), a spirit that passes through the bamboo flooring of provincial

5

houses, then licks certain humans to death. Filipino mythology also have fairies (Diwata and Engkanto), dwarfs (Duwende), Kapre (a tree-residing giant), Manananggal (a self-segmenter), witches (Mangkukulam), spirit- summoners (Mambabarang), goblins (Nuno sa Punso), ghosts (Multo), fireballs (Santelmo), mermaids (Sirena), mermen (Siyokoy), demon-horses (Tikbalang), (Hantu Demon), demon-infants (Tiyanak), and the (Wakwak) a night bird belong to a witch or vampire or the witch or vampire itself in the form of a night bird.

  • B. Statement of the Problem “How do myths and legends affect and influence the living of the Filipinos?” Myths and Legends are similar to each other and are often taken for one and the same thing. The Philippines abounds in myths, legends and fantastic creations such as the aswang, nuno sa punso , kapre, duwende, manananggal, etc. Fables are the scarcest. Even though these myths and legends are part of our heritage, Filipino people still know a lot about it. Filipinos, especially those who are in the rural areas of the country, still have these beliefs and are considered part of their living. In the same context, having these beliefs will definitely have an effect or influence on how people live their lives. Understanding what mythology is, some questions that will also be discussed are about:

6

  • 1. What purposes do they fulfill?

  • 2. What importance does it give?

  • 3. Are there any functions that affect people?

  • C. Scope and Delimitation

    • 1. Concerns of this study This study focuses mainly on how do myths and legends affect and influence the living of the Filipinos. As part of the study in Philippine literature, myth is defined and a brief background is discussed. Related to this, some examples of literary works such as the different myths and legends are to be stated and later on also to be explained. Coming from some parts of the Philippine regions, their own beliefs will be further understood.

    • 2. Boundaries of this study This study is limited to explaining why myths and legends are part of our literature or when did they occur and where did they come from. Who have influenced us these myths are out of the concern. Furthermore, discussing about the functions and purposes of mythical creatures in detail is not to be argued.

7

9
9

9

II. Body

  • A. Myths and Legends in the Philippine Literature

1.

Myths

The Story of Bathala (Tagalog)

In the beginning of time there were three powerful gods who lived in the universe. Bathala was the caretaker of the earth, Ulilang Kaluluwa (lit. Orphaned Spirit), a huge serpent who lived in the clouds, and Galang Kaluluwa (lit. Wandering spirit), the winged god who loves to travel. These three gods did not know each other.

Bathala often dreamt of creating mortals but the empty earth stops him from doing so. Ulilang Kaluluwa who was equally lonely as Bathala, liked to visit places and the earth was his favorite. One day the two gods met. Ulilang Kaluluwa, seeing another god rivalling him, was not pleased. He challenged Bathala to a fight to decide who would be the ruler of the universe. After three days and three nights, Ulilang Kaluluwa was slain by Bathala. Instead of giving him a proper burial, Bathala burned the snake's remains. A few years later the third god, Galang Kaluluwa, wandered into Bathala's home. He welcomed the winged god with much kindness and even invited him to live in his kingdom. They became true friends and were very happy for many years.

10

Galang Kaluluwa became very ill. Before he died he instructed Bathala to bury him on the spot where Ulilang Kaluluwa’s body was burned. Bathala did exactly as he was told. Out of the grave of the two dead gods grew a tall tree with a big round nut, which is the coconut tree. Bathala took the nut and husked it. He noticed that the inner skin was hard. The nut itself reminded him of Galang Kaluluwa’s head. It had two eyes, a flat nose, and a round mouth. Its leaves looked so much like the wings of his dear winged friend. But the trunk was hard and ugly, like the body of his enemy, the snake Ulilang Kaluluwa.

Bathala realized that he was ready to create the creatures he wanted with him on earth. He created the vegetation, animals, and the first man and woman. Bathala built a house for them out of the trunk and leaves of the coconut trees. For food, they drank the coconut juice and ate its delicious white meat. Its leaves, they discovered, were great for making mats, hats, and brooms. Its fiber could be used for rope and many other things.

Galang Kaluluwa became very ill. Before he died he instructed Bathala to bury him on the

The Story of the Creation (Mindanao)

In the very beginning there lived a being so large that he cannot be compared with any known thing. His name was Melu, and when he sat on the clouds, which were his home, he occupied all the space above. His teeth were pure gold, and because he was very cleanly and continually rubbed himself with his hands, his skin became pure white. The dead skin which he rubbed off his body was placed on one side in a pile, and by and by this pile became so large that he was annoyed and set himself to consider what he could do with it.

11

Finally Melu decided to make the earth; so he worked very hard in putting the dead skin into shape, and when it was finished he was so pleased with it that he determined to make two beings like himself, though smaller, to live on it.

Taking the remnants of the material left after making the earth he fashioned two men, but just as they were all finished except their noses, Tau Tana from below the earth appeared and wanted to help him.

Melu did not wish any assistance, and a great argument ensued. Tau Tana finally won his point and made the noses which he placed on the people upside down. When all was finished, Melu and Tau Tana whipped the forms until they moved. Then Melu went to his home above the clouds, and Tau Tana returned to his place below the earth.

All went well until one day a great rain came, and the people on the earth nearly drowned from the water which ran off their heads into their noses. Melu, from his place on the clouds, saw their danger, and he came quickly to earth and saved their lives by turning their noses the other side up.

The people were very grateful to him, and promised to do anything he should ask of them. Before he left for the sky, they told him that they were very unhappy living on the great earth all alone, so he told them to save all the hair from their heads and the dry skin from their bodies and the next time he came he would make them some companions. And in this way there came to be a great many people on the earth.

12

The Origin of the Stars Hundreds of years ago, some people say there were no stars.

The Origin of the Stars

Hundreds of years ago, some people say there were no stars. The sun was a mighty god, ruler of the day. Buan, the moon, was a rival god of the sun and desired to rule both day and night. Lihangin, god of the wind, was a friend of both the sun and the moon.

One day he went to visit Araw, god of the sun, to warm himself. When they were sitting together, Araw told Lihangin that he had bad feelings toward Buan. He said that he noticed him showing during the day. This meant that Baun desired to occupy a part of Araw's kingdom. Lihangin wanted them to be good friends. He told Buan not to occupy any part of Araw's kingdom. He said that Araw was fair and just, so Buan must be, too. The moon did not pay attention to his advice. He continued to shine during the latter part of the day and sometimes during the morning. Araw could not bear it. He told Buan not to do it any more. Buan insisted. They had a quarrel. Buan was badly hit. Parts of his body were scattered around, and these became the stars, leaving the moon without its former light. Such was the origin of the stars.

The Origin of the Stars Hundreds of years ago, some people say there were no stars.

Why the Sky is High

13

In the early days, when the sky was still low, two brothers named Ingat and Daskol lived with their parents on Earth.

As their names indicate, Ingat was careful in everything he did and was, therefore, his father's right hand man. He was always helping with the work in the field, and his parents were very pleased with him.

On the other hand, Daskol did his work sloppily. In the absence of a daughter in the family, the house work came to be Daskol's responsibility. He fetched water, cleaned the house, and did the cooking. He also pounded the palay that his father and Ingat harvested. Even in pounding, Daskol lived up to his name. Half of the grain he pounded scattered and fell to the ground. Being naturally lazy and impatient, he did not like the work of pounding rice.

One day, Daskol had to pound a greater quantity of palay than usual. He was irritated because, every time he raised the pestle, it would hit the sky. His anger added to his strength and desire to finish the work quickly. So he raised the pestle higher, and every time it hit the sky, the sky would be raised. In his hurry, Daskol did not notice that the sky was rising. When he finished pounding rice, he looked up and discovered that the sky had risen, and that is why it is where it is today.

In the early days, when the sky was still low, two brothers named Ingat and Daskol

Why the Sun Shines More Brightly Than the Moon

14

Long, long ago there lived a fairy with two very beautiful daughters. Araw, the older daughter, was very amiable and had a kind disposition; Buwan, unlike her sister, was dishonest, cruel, and harsh. She was always finding fault with Araw. One night, when the fairy came home from her nocturnal rambles and saw Buwan badly maltreating her elder sister, she asked God for help against her unruly daughter.

Before this time, God had prepared very valuable gifts for the two sisters. These gifts were two enormous diamonds that could light the whole universe. When God heard the prayer of the fairy, he descended to Earth disguised as a beggar. Upon learning for himself how bad-tempered Buwan was and how sweet and kind-hearted Araw was, God gave the older sister her diamond as a reward. Buwan was greatly angered by this favoritism on the part of the Almighty, so she went to the heavenly kingdom and stole one of God's diamonds. Then she returned to earth with the precious stone, but there she found that were jewel was not as brilliant as Araw's.

When God went back to heaven and learned what Buwan had done, he sent two angels to punish her. But the angels abused their commission; they seized both sisters and hurled them into the sea. They they threw the two stones upward into the sky and there they stuck. But Araw's diamond was bigger and brighter than the one Buwan stole. Thereafter, the bigger jewel was called Araw ("day" or "sun") and the smaller one, Buwan ("moon").

Long, long ago there lived a fairy with two very beautiful daughters. Araw, the older daughter,

The Origin of The World and Its First Humans

15

(Si Malakas at Si Maganda)

It was told that that in the beginning, there was no earth or man. There was only the Sky and the Sea. Both of equal prowess, they exist one above or below the other. The only thing in between them was a small bird.

The bird was flying endlessly, until, he got bored and tired. The Sky was above him, but he can’t reach it; below him was the Sea, but he can’t land on it.

So the bird thought deeply. And then he swooshed, and scooped and splashed water from the Sea. He continued with his splashing until water reached the Sky above.

The Sky was furious. He didn’t want the waters to flood him, and he noticed that the Sea now was also mad.

All the Sky thought of was creating rocks and then throwing them. And so he did. The Sky created rocks and he threw them down, which landed on the Sea.

The bird was satisfied. He landed on those rocks and then made a nest.

The Sky commanded the bird to never disturb him and the Sea again.

16

… But then the bird noticed something floating on the water. He ignored it but the bamboo shaft bumped him and hurt him. He got so furious so he pecked and pecked the bamboo until… it split into two.

From the first half sprung a man, and from the second, a woman. Strength and Beauty. They were our first parents, and from them, the rest of the world began

2.

Legends

The Makahiya

Once there lived a rich couple, Mang Dondong and Aling Iska. They had a twelve-year-old daughter whose name was Maria. They loved their daughter so dearly.

Maria was a dutiful and obedient daughter. Industrious and kind, she made herself endeared to everybody.

But shyness was also one of maria's distinct characteristics. She was also shy that talking to people posed a great burden to her. In order to avoid encountering people, she usually locked herself in the room.

17

Maria had a flower garden. The flowers were beautiful and known all over the town. She took care of the plants patiently and tenderly. For the flower plants were her source of enjoyment and happiness.

One day a group of bandits raided a nearby village. The bandits killed every man they found at took the money of the residents.

The next day the bandits came to the village where Mang Dondong and Aling Iska and their daughter Maria lived. Mang Dondong noticed at once the arrival of the bandits Fearing for Maria's safety, he decided to hide Maria in the garden, which he did.

Aling Iska hid herself in the house. She trembled with fear when she heard the bandits forcing their way to the gate. Then she prayed, preparing for whatever would happen.

"Oh my God!" prayed Aling Iska. "Save my daughter."

Suddenly the door opened. The bandits enered the house and hit Mang Dondong on the head. Mang Dondong lost consciousness and fell on the floor. Aling Iska tried to escape but was also hit in the head.

The bandits ransacked every place in the house. After taking the money and jewelry, they searched for Maria. But Maria was nowehere to be found. So the bandits left th house to plunder another village.

18

When Mang Dondong and Aling Iska regained consciousness, the bandits had left already. THey quickly ran to the garden to look for Maria. But maria was not there. Again and again, they searched every corner in the garden but poor Maria could not be found.

"My poor daughter! They took my poor daughter!" wept Aling Iska.

All of a sudden felt something that pricked his feet. To his surprise, he saw a tiny plant quickly closing its leaves. It was the first time he saw that kind of plant. He knelt on his knees and took a close look at the plant. Aling Iska did the same. After looking at the plant for a long time, the couple came to the belief that the plant was Maria. For indeed Maria has been transformed by God into a plant to save her from the bandits.

Aling Iska wept uncontrollably and to Mang Dondong's amazement, every tear was transformed into a small and rosy flower of the new plant they found in the garden.

Since then Mang Dondong and Aling Iska tended the plant with utmost care. They knew what the plant was, in reality, their child Maria. And, like their child, the plant was very shy. So they called the plant "makahiya" because it showed it showed an important characteristic of Maria -shyness - which in Tagalog means "makahiya".

When Mang Dondong and Aling Iska regained consciousness, the bandits had left already. THey quickly ran

19

Banana Plant

In the early days when the world was new, spirits and ghosts lurked everywhere. They lived in gloomy caves, they hid in anthills and tree trunks they frolicked in nooks and corners under the houses. In the dark, sometimes their tiny voices could be heard dimly, or their ghostly presence be felt. But they were never seen.

It was during these days of phantoms and unseen spirits that a young and beautiful girl lived. Her name was Raya, and she was a girl bold and daring. She was never afraid of spirits. She would walk in the shadowy forests, bringing along a lighted candle.

Then she would tiptoe into dark and dirty caves, searching the place for spirits. Raya only felt or heard them never having seen them. But Raya always felt the presence of one kind spirit, whenever she walked in the forest the spirit was with her at all times.

One day she heard someone call her name, and she looked up to see a young handsome man. She asked him who he was, and he replied that his name was Sag- in, and he was the spirit who followed her around, and even confessed that he had fallen in love with a mortal.

20

They married had a child and lived happily, but Sag-in knew that his time on earth was short for he was a spirit-man, and would have to return to the spirit world soon. When he knew his time had come, he called Raya and explained why he had to leave. As he was slowly vanishing, he told Raya that he would leave her a part of him. Raya looked down and saw a bleeding heart on the ground. She took the heart and planted it. She watched it night and day. A plant with long green leaves sprouted from the grave.

One day, the tree bore fruit shaped like a heart. She touched the fruit and caressed it. Thinking could this be Sag-in's heart? Slowly the fruit opened , Long golden fruits sprouted from it. Raya picked one, peeled it and bit into it. Then, she heard Sag-in's voice floating in the air:

"Yes, Raya, it is my heart. I have reappeared to show you that I will never forsake you and our child. Take care of this plant, and it will take care of you in return. It's trunk and leaves will give you shelter and clothing. The heart and fruits will be your food. And when you sleep at night, I will stand and watch by your window. I will stay by your side forever!"

They married had a child and lived happily, but Sag-in knew that his time on earth

Dama de Noche

A thousand years ago, there was a rich maharlika, or nobleman, who spent his early bachelor days recklessly, wining and dining in the company of nobility. He

21

drank the finest wines, ate the most delectable food and enjoyed the company of the loveliest, perfumed and bejewelled women of the noble class.

After years of this kind of life, the maharlika finally felt it was time to settle down and marry the woman of his choice. "But who is the woman to choose?" he asked himself as he sat in the rich splendour of his home, "All the women I know are beautiful and charming, but I am tired of the glitter of their jewels and the richness of their clothes!" He wanted a woman different from all the women he saw day and night, and found this in simple village lass. She was charming in her own unaffected ways, and her name was Dama.

They married and lived contentedly. She loved him and took care of him. She pampered him with the most delicious dishes, and kept his home and his clothes in order. But soon, the newness wore off for the maharlika. He started to long for the company of his friends. He took a good look at his wife and thought, she is not beautiful and she does not have the air of nobility about her, she does not talk with wisdom. And so the maharlika returned to his own world of glitter and splendor. He spent his evenings sitting around with his friends in their noble homes , drank and talked till the first rays of the sun peeped from the iron grills of their ornate windows.

Poor Dama felt that she was losing her husband. She wept in the silence of their bedroom. "I cannot give my husband anything but the delights of my kitchen and the warmth of my bed. He is tired of me." She looked to the heavens. "Oh, friendly spirits! Help me. Give me a magic charm. Just one little magic charm to make my husband come home again, that he will never want to leave my side, forever!"

22

It was midnight when the maharlika came home. He opened the door of their bedroom and called for Dama to tell her to prepare his nightclothes. "Dama! Dama, where are you?" he called. He shouted all around the bedroom. He searched the whole house. Still the nobleman could not find his simple wife. Finally the nobleman returned to their bedroom, tired and crosses. But, as he opened the door, he stopped.

A are scent, sweet and fragrant, drifted to him. It was a scent he had never smelled before. He entered the room and crossed to the window where the scent seemed to be floating from. A strange bush was growing outside the window. Some of its thin branches had already reached the iron grills and were twisting around. And all over the bush were thousands of tiny starlike, white flowers, from which burst forth a heavenly, enchanting scent!

He stood there, completely enraptured by the glorious smell. "Dama

"

he

... whispered softly, ponderingly, could this be Dama? The rich maharlika sat by the window, and waited for the return of his loving simple wife. But she did not come back. She never returned to him again. Only the fragrance of the flowers stayed with him, casting a spell over his whole being.

In the moonlight, Dama of the night, or Dama de Noche would be in full bloom, capturing the rich maharlika, making him never want to leave her side, forever.

  • B. Understanding the Myths and Legends in Philippine Literature

23

1.

The Purpose

Traditionally, people create mythology to explain the world around them. Before science and empirical reasoning, myths and legends served mankind by invoking the supernatural to interpret natural events, to explain the nature of the universe, and shed light on the purpose of existence. Filipino mythology is no different. Filipino legends contain a broad spectrum of stories including legends recounting the birth of the Philippine islands, as well as accounts of supernatural creatures that are sometimes invoked to inspire fearful obedience in children or explain disease.

  • 2. The Importance In our culture as a Filipino we value all our myths or stories about our origins, heroes and ancestors. We're passionate with all these kind of stuff. It is our own way to give importance and values to everything that our ancestors or our heroes had done for us. It shows us of what we are today, on what our status is in this country. Without them, we will not be celebrating freedom.

  • 3. The Reason and Explanation Mythology plays an important role in the individual perception and societal view of every individual in a certain culture. It influences the behavior and cognition of people based on the experience that they had concerning mythological events. In the Philippine context, one of the Psychological functions of mythology is it as coping mechanism. We live in a world full of mysteries that science itself could not fathom and explain certain phenomenon. These mysteries and supernatural things lead to a change in behavior and cognition of people who experience it. These changes alter the perception of people towards the reality.

24

Mythology has several functions among individuals who believe on it. These functions influence the way they behave and think towards the things around. However, applying psychology in analysis of behaviors shown by the people believing on this phenomenon on mythological world, it revealed that people do believe this sort of things as a coping mechanism on unexplained things by science and through rational analysis.

We cannot deny the fact that science could not explain everything. That even it do have limitations and until now is still in search for more knowledge of the world. Thus, people tend to look for something systematic that could explain these unexplained by science just for them to feel satisfied of the happenings like incurable illnesses, unexpected deaths, curses, and other supernatural things effect. And here mythology as a system of thoughts used to believe by everybody comes in.

Mythology functions in several ways to human beings. It serves as a venue in enrich creativity especially among children. A study conducted shows that young people who are being presented with the beliefs on myths performs more creative than those older people which the concept of myths are no longer on their mind. In this example, mythology functions as a catalyst in improving creativity.

Another function of it is in the field of science and health. There are instances that certain diseases occur which the doctor could not explain the cause of it. The resort of people if these things happen is to consult an albularyo or a quack doctor to explain the supernatural cause of the disease. This act shows that mythology has been made as a coping mechanism of individuals having this kind of encounters.

25

Moreover, mythology had been an influence in social studies through its impact on societal relationship. Cultures and different societies perceive a similarity among them when it comes to beliefs on mythological system. Similar beliefs on supernatural things connects cultures and societies altogether. Basically, mythology is the common denominator of cultures.

Summing up all the functions of mythology, it leads on a description that belief on this system of thoughts could be equated as a mechanism to cope for the things unexplained by means of rational and scientific thinking. As a coping mechanism, psychologically speaking, beliefs on this could hardly be eliminated from the line of thoughts of people due to its cultural and traditional implications and influences.

Moreover, mythology had been an influence in social studies through its impact on societal relationship. Cultures
26
26

III. Conclusion

A. Summary

In Philippine Literature, myths and legends are really part of its tradition and culture. Since Philippines has many different tribes, numerous stories of the origin of earth, man, fruits, animals, trees and other things are being passed from generation to generation, especially in rural areas. And these stories are later translated into different dialects. Through telling these myths and legends, people were satisfied and had

27

enough understanding on where things came from. Myths and legends served as the coping mechanism of the Filipinos on the origin of things.

  • B. Concluding statement Having this problem as my subject of discussion, it is just now that I discover that there are several numbers of stories of myths and legends around Philippines. Since it is diverse, it explains why we still have such stories to tell and to believe. I understand that for some purpose of these stories, like for children, the parents usually tell such for entertainment purposes, or sometimes if the story is scary enough, it is to prevent their children on going to places that are dangerous or doing things that are not really allowed to do. I also learned that through these myths and legends, telling stories about things that are not supposed to talk, to walk, to do incredible doings are very catchy and quite easy to remember. And finally, aside from the story itself, I have learned that in every story, there is a lesson, a lesson of different aspects in life. These myths and legends are examples of experiences or comparing the characters to humans, slices of life, on how to live our life better.

  • C. Recommendations In analyzing the main problem, there are some related topics that can be discussed and be argued for comprehensive learning.

28

What

are

the

different

mythological

creatures

in

Philippines? What are their functions and roles?

 

Are they good creatures or bad?

How do people react upon this?

Taking these related topics will surely make your understanding enhanced and might be a surprise for you that you have really discovered and learned a lot.

Bibliography:

Ashliman, D.L. Creation Myths from the Philippines. Online 2003. Available

29

http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/creation-phil.html#creationstory

Chikiamco, Paulo. The Myth List. Online 2010. Available

http://www.rocketkapre.com/the-myth-list/

Cole,Mabel Cook. Philippine Folk Tales (Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company, 1916)

Dechavez, Ae. Bookstove. Legend of The Origin of The World and Its First Humans (Si

Malakas at Si Maganda). Online 2006. Available http://bookstove.com/book-talk/legend-of-the-origin- of-the-world-and its-first-humans-si-malakas-at-si-maganda/

Elements of a research proposal and report. Online. Available

http://www.statpac.com/research

papers/research-proposal.htm Enriquez, Delia C. Philippine Literature, A regional approach, Second edition

Experiment Resources (2009). Research Paper Outline Examples. Online. Available

http://www.experiment

resources.com/research-paper-outline-examples.html

Ghost in Filipino Culture. Online June 2010. Available.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghosts_in_Filipino_culture

Khara, Kanika. Philippine Legends and Myths. Online. Available

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/Philippines

legends-and-myths.html Legends, Tales. Online 2006. Available http://www.pasyalan.net/legends/

Maramba, Asuncion David. Early Philippine Literature, From Ancient Times to 1940

MGA ALAMAT, Myths in the Philippine folk literature. Online. Available

http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/folktales/mythsintroduction.htm Mythology. Wikipedia. Online. Available http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mythology

Philippine mythology. Online December 2010. Available http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_mythology#Mythological_creatures

30