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1 Circuit Topology

Circuit schematic of the feedback amplier to be designed in this lab is shown in Fig. 1.

VCC RC1 RS Vs Rin CE RE1 RE2 CB Q1 RF Q2 RC2 Vo CC RL Rout

1.1

DC Biasing

First, the emitter DC bias voltage of Q1 (VE1 ) needs to be determined. Since only IB1 ows through the resistor RF , the DC voltage drop on RF can be assumed to be negligible. Thus, VE2 and VC1 can be expressed as VE2 VE1 + 0.7 VC1 VE1 + 1.4 (1) (2)

To maximize the voltage swing at the output, load-line analysis is needed for the second stage. The DC equation including IC2 and VCE2 can be written as VCC RC2 IC2 + VCE2 + VE2 Figure 2 shows the AC load line to obtain the maximum output swing.

ic2

(3)

0 VCE,sat

VCE2 2VCE2VCE,sat

Figure 2: AC load line. From the AC equivalent of Fig. 1, slope of the AC load line can be determined as ic2 = vce2 (RC2 1 1 RL ) + RE2 (4)

Using the slope and the DC bias point (ic2 , vce2 ) = (IC2 , VCE2 ), the load line equation can be obtained as ic2 IC2 = vce2 VCE2 (RC2 1 RL ) + RE2 (5)

Evaluating Eq. (5) at the point (ic2 , vce2 ) = (0, 2VCE2 VCE,sat ), IC2 ((RC2 RL ) + RE2 ) = VCE2 VCE,sat (6)

Solving Eqs. (3) and (6), the optimum IC2 to obtain the maximum symmetrical swing can be found as IC2 = VCC 2VE2 VCE,sat RC2 + (RC2 RL ) (7)

After determining IC2 , 0-to-peak voltage swing at the output can be calculated as Vsw = IC2 (RC2 RL ) = VCC 2VE2 VCE,sat VCC 2VE2 VCE,sat = RC2 RC2 1+ 2+ RC2 RL RL (8)

Since VE1 and VC1 are already determined, IC1 can be chosen based on other specications. The remaining components can be calculated as RE1 = RC1 RE2 VE1 IC1 VCC VC1 = IC1 VE2 = IC2 (9) (10) (11)

1.2

io RS vs ii ifb i Q2 Q1 RC1 io RF RE2 RL RC2 vo

Feedback network

Figure 3: AC equivalent circuit. The input port of the feedback network in Fig. 3 is not directly connected to the output node (vo ). Therefore, the sampled output signal is not a voltage. Dening the output current as io = vo RL RC2 (12)

it can be concluded that io is sampled by the feedback network. At the ampliers input, subtraction of the feedback signal is performed in the current domain, ii if b = i (13)

Therefore, the type of feedback is shunt-series. The next step is to obtain the g parameters of the feedback network as shown in Fig. 4.

i1 v1 RF RE2 i2 v2

g11f = g22f

v2

i1 v1

=

i2 =0

1 RF + RE2 RF

i1 v1 1 g11f g12f i2

g22f g21f v1

i2

v2 = i2 i1 i2

= RE2

v1 =0

g12f =

=

v1 =0

RE2 RE2 + RF

Figure 4: Calculation of the g-parameters of the feedback network. Replacing the feedback network with its two-port equivalent and converting the input source into current, the amplier circuit can be arranged as in Fig. 5.

Ri2 vb2 i vs =i RS s RS v RF+RE2 Q1 RC1 RF ||RE2 io Q2 vo RL||RC2

f io

io

Feedback network

Figure 5: Amplier with the ideal feedback network. From Fig. 5, assuming ro1 and ro2 are large, the parameters a and f can be obtained as follows v = i (RS (RF + RE2 ) r1 ) vb2 RC1 Ri2 = v re1 Ri2 = ( + 1)(re2 + (RF RE2 )) vo RL RC2 = vb2 re2 + (RF RE2 ) vo = io (RL RC2 ) io (RS (RF + RE2 ) r1 )(RC1 a= = i re1 (re2 + (RF RE2 )) RE2 f = g12f = RE2 + RF The current-mode close-loop amplier parameters are io a = is 1 + af zi Zi = 1 + af Zo = (1 + af )zo Ai = 3 (21) (22) (23) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) Ri2 ) (19) (20)

where zi = R S (RF + RE2 ) r1 (24) (25) (26) r2 zo = RT + ro2 + gm2 ro2 RT r2 + (ro1 RC1 ) RT = RF RE2 [r2 + (ro1 RC1 )] Figure 6 shows the current-mode equivalent model of the amplier.

io is Zi Ai is Zo RC2 RL

Figure 6: Current-mode equivalent model of the amplier. As the nal step, the current-mode model needs to be converted to a voltage-mode amplier. Figure 7 shows the equivalent amplier where RS is separated from Zi and the controlled source depends on iin .

iin is RS Rin Axiin Zo io RC2 Rout RL

Figure 7: Current-mode amplier with RS separated. Rin and Ax in Fig. 7 can be found as follows Zi = RS Rin = 1 1 1 + RS Rin Rin = 1 1 1 Zi RS (27)

iin =

RS Rin is Ax = Ai 1 + RS + Rin RS

(28)

Voltage-mode equivalent model of the amplier can be obtained after nal conversion as shown in Fig. 8.

RS vs vin Rin Rout vo Av vin RL

Figure 8: Voltage-mode equivalent model of the amplier. Rout and Av in Fig. 8 can be found as follows Rout = Zo RC2 RC2 Rout Rin Av = Ax = Ai 1 + Rin RS (29) Rout Rin (30)

Finally, the voltage gain vo /vs can be calculated as vo Rin RL = Av vs RS + Rin Rout + RL 4 (31)

Pre-Lab

VCC = 10 V af 5 RS = 50 Isupply 10mA RL = 10 k |vo /vs | 80 VE1 0.4 V 0-to-peak unclipped output swing 3.5 V

Using Q2N2222 transistors, design the feedback amplier with the following specications:

1. Show all your calculations, design procedure, and nal component values. 2. Using PSPICE, nd a, f , Isupply , Rin , Rout and vo /vs to verify your results. Submit all necessary simulation plots showing that the specications are satised. Also provide the circuit schematic with DC bias points annotated. 3. Using PSPICE, perform Fourier analysis to determine the THD of 3.5 V (0-to-peak) output waveform at 1 kHz. Submit transient and Fourier plots, and the distortion data from the output le. 4. Be prepared to discuss your design at the beginning of the lab period with your TA.

Lab Procedure

1. Construct the amplier you designed in the pre-lab. 2. Measure IC , VC , VB and VE for both transistors. If any DC bias value is signicantly different than the one obtained from Pspice simulations, modify your circuit to get the desired DC bias before you move onto the next step. 3. Measure Isupply . 4. At midband frequencies, measure vo /vs , Rin and Rout . 5. Measure the maximum un-clipped output signal amplitude. 6. Measure the THD when the output is 3.5 V (0-to-peak) sinewave at 1 kHz. 7. Prepare a data sheet showing your simulated and measured values. 8. Be prepared to discuss your experiment with your TA. Have your data sheet checked off by your TA before leaving the lab.

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