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Acta Mechanica 14, 103--118 (1972) @ b y Springer-Verlag 1972

Stress Functions in Three-Dimensional Elastodynamics*


By P . P. T e o d o r e s c u , B u c h a r e s t , l ~ o u m a n i a

(Received November 12, 1970)


SummaryZusammenfassung

Stress Functions in Three-Dimensional Elastodynamics. After a historical sketch concerning the introduction of potential functions in elastodynamics and its basic equations, a representation in terms of stresses is given with the aid of six stress functions, which are components of a symmetric stress tensor of the second order (Schaefer's tensor) and satisfy the equation of transverse wave propagation, and with the aid of another stress function. I t is also shown t h a t this representation is equivalent to the representations given b y M. IkeOYACHE [1] and E. STERNBERG a n d ~ . A. EUBaNKS [2] and t h a t it is complete (each state of displacement and stress corresponding to the problem can be expressed in this form) for a simply connected region. The case of arbitrary body forces as well as the ease of conservative body forces are also considered. The corresponding particular integrals are obtained in the form of distributions with the aid of integral transforms of the Laplace and Fourier type. The results can therefore be applied to the case of concentrated loads. I n particular, the case of ~ concentrated force as well as the case of a concentrated nucleus of space dilatation are treated. The latter case can be expressed in terms of conservative body forces. Spannungsfunktionen in der dreidimensionalen Elastokinetik. Auf eine kurze geschichtliche Beschreibung der Einffihrung yon PotentiMfunktionen in der Elastokinetik u n d deren Grundgleichnngen folgt eine Darstellung in Spannungen mit Hilfe yon sechs Spannungsfunktionen, die K o m p o n e n t e n eines symmetrischen Spannungstensors zweiter Ordnung (Schaefer-Tensor) sind, der die Fortpflanzungsgleichung der transversalen Wellen befriedigt, sowie mittels einer anderen Spannungsfunktion. Anschlie~end wird gezeigt, dal~ diese Darstellung den yon ~ . I ~ c o v A c ~ El] und E. S T ] ~ E n G u n d R. A. EVBA~KS [2] s t a m m e n d e n ~iquivalent u n d fiir einen einfach zusammenh~ngenden Bereich komplett ist'(jeder der Aufg~be entsprechende Ve~schiebungs- u n d Spannungszustand lg~t sich in dicser F o r m ausch'iicken). Es werden ferncr der Fall beliebiger Volumenkr~fte u n d derjenige konservativer Volumenkriifte behandelt. Es wird der Weg zur Auffindung der entsprechenden partikul~ren Integrale in F o r m yon Distributionen mittels der Laplaceschen und Fourierschen Integraltransformierter; gezeigt; die Resultate lassen sich somit auch bei Einzellasten anwenden. I m besonderen werden der Fall einer EinzelkrMt sowie der. eines r~umlichen Dilatationszentrums er6rtert. Diese ]etztere Einzellast k a n n durch konservative Volumenkr~fte ausgedriickt werden. 1. Introduction
A s w i t h o t h e r p r o b l e m s of t h e m e c h a n i c s of solids, i t is u s e f u l i n t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l e l a s t o d y n a m i c s t o i n t r o d u c e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h t h e a i d of p o t e n t i a l functions. * I n memory of H E ~ A N N SCHAEFER,

8~

104

P.P. TEoDoREseu:

I n the case of a solution in displacements of the problem, using Lamd's equations in the dynamic case, M. IACOVACHE[1] has given a representation in terms of displacement functions, genera.lizing the representation given by B. G. GALEI~KIN for the static case; this result allowed E. S T E ~ V , ~ G and R. A. EU]~ANKS [2] to generalize for the dynamic case the representation given by P. F. PAPKOWC~ and It. Nwu]3E~ for the static case. Both representations are complete (each state of displacement corresponding to the problem can be represented in such a form) for a simply connected region. I n the case of a solution in terms of stresses one can use the equations of Beltrami type for the dynamic case [3]; this idea was followed by P. P. TEODO~ESCU [4], who imposed the condition that the equations of motion and Hooke's law be satisfied. Another possibility consists in using the equations of motion and imposing the condition t h a t the other equations be satisfied. I n what follows we shall deal with this second ease, giving a representation which is a generalization of the one given b y H. SCHAEFE~ [5] for the static case. H. SCHAEFE~ [6] used this representation to solve boundary value problems of ' elastostatics, trying to uncouple the potential functions not only for the differential equations but also for the boundary conditions; at the same time, he showed the equivalence of his representation with the representation of P. F. Papkovich and H. Neuber. W. GffNTI~EI~ I71 put into evidence the completeness of this representation, which was used by different researchers, especially from the German school of mechanics of solids. E. K~5~ER [8] has found an interesting form of this representation, useful for different problems, by putting a supplementary condition of divergence. S. KESSWL [9] generalized the representation for bodies of Cosserat type with free rotations. I n the following study we shall restrict ourselves to a linear elastic, isotropic, homogeneous body, with small deformations and rotations.

2. Equations of Elastodynamics
The equations of motion of the problem are ~ii,~ + F~ = ~o/~i, (2.1)

where aiy -- ~ij (xl, x2, x3; t) are the components of the stress tensor, u i = u i ( x l , x2, x3; t) are the components of the displacement vector, F i = F i(xl, x2, xs; t) are the body forces and Qis the specific mass. The indices at the right of the comma denote differentiation with respect to the corresponding variables, and points indicate differentiation with respect to time; the summation convention is used. We shall consider the constitutive law of Hooke in the form
u(i,]) : - ~ (Ii~ - - - ~ ~tl Oij,

(2.2)

with G-E 2(1 ~ ~) (2.3)

Equations (2.1) and (2.2) constitute the complete system of 9 equations for the 9 unknown functions of the problem. We shall add the boundary conditions in

Stress Functions in Three-Dimensional Elastodynamics

105

stresses (first basic problem) in the form


Phi = % n j (t > tO),

(2.4)

where Phi = Pni(xx, x2, xa; t) are the components of the external load on the boundary element of external normal ~. The initial conditions will be
fill = ~ io , j

9 (Tij :

.0 (Yij

(2.5)

at the initial moment t -- t 0. Eliminating the components of ~he displacement vector between the equations (2.1) and (2.2) one finds the equations of Beltrami-Michell type

[~2~ri] -4- ~ 1

azt,ij q- 2(1 v_ v)c~~ ~lg(~ii = - - 2 F ( ~ , j )

1 -- v F,,k~ij, (2.6)

the operators of d'Alembert being given by Dk=A where A is Laplace's operator


A
-

ck~ ~t 2

(k = 1, 2),

(2.7)

(2.s)
~x i ~x i

and cl, c2 are the propagation velocities for longitudinal and transverse waves respectively, given by (312 = (1 + V)(1 -- 2V) -~ , 1-v E 1
C22
-

2(1 +V)
-

(2.9)

Between the two velocities one has the relation c12- 27( l~ - v )
c~=

(1 + ~ l

) c22,

(2.10)

wherefrom Cl > c2 ]/-2" Taking into account (2.10), one can easily verify the following relation between the operators of d~

2(1

~) []1 = J + (1 -

2 v ) []2.

(2.11)

If the body forces vanish, one obtains the following equations of Beltrami type
[]2ffi] I~- ][ -~-V

[~H,~j+

2(1

~-

v)c22

~zz~i]l=O.

(2.12)

3. Stress Functions We shall consider first the case of vanishing body forces. For the equations of motion (2.1) one can use a representation of the B. Finzi [10] type, in the form given by P. P. TEODORESCC [11]; this representation is complete for a simply connected region.

106

P.P. T~ogo~.sev: The components of the stress tensor can be expressed in the form

and the components of the displacement vector are given b y u~ = F~,~, (3.2)

where F#. and /~#. are symmetrical tensors of the second order and %e is the permutation tensor. The first of the above mentioned tensors is known as B. Finzi's tensor. The functions Fii = F~-(x~, x, x~; t) m u s t be of class C ~ with respect to space variables and continuous with respect to time, and the functions F#= F~i (Xl, x~, xa; t) m u s t be of class C ~ with respect to the space variables and of class C ~ with respect to time. We shall extend now to the dynamic case the m e t h o d used b y H. ScI~E~w~ [5] for the static case; at the same time we shall use some ideas given in [12] and [13]. L e t us introduce the new stress functions Oi~ = O~(x~, xe, x~; t) and Oij = O i ] ( x Dx~,x~;t) ( i , j = 1 , 2 , 3 ) , D = t g ( x ~ , x ~ , x ~ ; t ) and (] = ~ ( x ~ , x e , xs;t), t h r o u g h the relations Fi~ = - - 0 ~ + (On -- ~2)6i], (3.3) -F~ = --O~i + (Ou -- t~ )di]; from 1 ( f u + D)Oij, 1 ~ij = - - ? i ] @ "~ (Fll ~- ~ )di] (3.4) (3.4') (3.3')

one observes t h a t ~he components of the symmetrical tensors of the second order Oij and 6)ij are well-defined, a p a r t from the arbitrary functions D and ~ . The class to which these functions belong will be stated more precisely later on. The tensor Oij is Schaefer's tensor. Introducing (3.3) and (3.3') in (3.1) and (3.2), one finds (Tij --- --elk I elm n Okm,I n + A (Oil -- ,.('2)(~i] where the relation (0. ~2).~ --o~)i~ + o~(0. '~),~, ~)d~i,
(3.6) (3.5)

u~ = -Y)~j,~ + ( ~ .

eiikeilm --- dkt

d~m = djZdk,~ -- dir~d~t

(3.7)

has been taken into account. Imposing the condition t h a t the stresses given b y (3.5) should satisfy equations (2.12), one can write
- - z i ~ e j m . D2Ok~,~. + A [ 5 2 ( 0 . - - ~9)6i~. - - D 2 ( O . - - tg),i) - - ~ ~2.i?~j

+ ~D2(~)u -- ~)~ii

1 [dOu,~j @ ~

-- 2AY2,ij -~- Okt,klii + 2Q(OU,ii -- 3Q['2,i]


( d 0 u -- 2 A t ) + Okl kl (3.8)

..

@ 2(1 -- V)C~ ~

+ 2~.

- 3e/~)~jt = 0.

Stress Functions in Three-Dimensional Elastodynamics Hence one has

107

+ ~

(AOll,ii -- 2A ~9,ii + Okl,~zii + 2e(~U,/j -- 3~ot~,ij) -- O, (3.8')

+ 2(1 -- v)c22 (A(0, -- 2 A t ) -~ 0kl,kt + 2Q(~tt -- 3~t~) -- 0. Requiring t h a t the components of the two stress tensors satisfy the equation of transverse wave propagation ~20~j = []26)ij = 0, one can write conditions (3.8') in the form (3.9)

(3.8") A D2~Q + o~[Z~ (.") 2(l _ ~,)c22 (A~)ll -- 2 A ~ -[- Okl,kl -]- 2O~Oll -- 3 ~ } ) = O.

F u r t h e r we shall consider t h a t between the first invariants of the two stress tensors one has the proportionality relation Ou + 2 G 6 ) , = 0 and t h a t between the functions .(2 and .(2 one has an analogous relation /2 + 2 G ~ = 0. I n this case, the conditions (3.8") become
[(1 - - %') ~1.('~ - - O]r

(3.10)

(3.10')

~- O,

(3.s'")
D~ v ~ / 2 z(1 - ~ ) ~ : [(1 - v ) [ ~ l / ) ok~,,~] = 0.

One observes t h a t the first condition (3.8"') is satisfied if the function ~2 is chosen so as to verify the equation [~/2
--

1 1 --v

O~,kt.

(3.11)

Taking into account (3.9), one also observes t h a t the f u n c t i o n / 2 m u s t satisfy the double wave propagation equation
[ ] 1 ~'~2 5(~ : 0,

(3.11')

so t h a t the second condition (3.8"') is also satisfied.

108

P.P. T~ODOR~seu:

We m u s t see now if t{ooke's law (2.2) is also satisfied. Introducing (3.5) and (3.6) in the corresponding equations, one obtains
-

(6)u -- ~),ij --Ok(i,j)k = ~

d O ~ -- 20k(~5)~ + ~2,i] -- oOij

(3.12)

1 +i-j-; EOkl,~l - - v A O .

(1--v)(eO.--A~?)

(1 - 2~)o?)]d~j/,
/

using relation (2.3) and the relation dij ~ki 51j dim din . dk.~ dk~ c~lm din

gikl ~]mn z

(3.13)

Taking into account conditions (3.9), (3.10), (3.10') and (3.11), one can write (3.12) in the form
_ _ (Oll,i ] @ d Oi] -- 2Ok(i,]) k -- ~-~ ~ ~ lldi] - - o O i j ) 1 ][ =

2G

--~)k(i,])k .

(3.12')

We observe t h a t the above condition is fuifiled if one takes


1

(3.14)

a relation which is in accordance with (3.10). All equations of the basic system of equations of elastodynamics are therefore satisfied. Returning to relation (3.3) between the tensors of Finzi and Schaefer, one observes t h a t for i 4= ] one has

F~ s = - O ~ j

(i 4= J)

(3.15)

and for i = ] one can write (without summation) -~u = Okk + OU -- f2 (i 4= k 4= l 4= i). (3.15')

The first case corresponds to the stress functions of G. MonEnA [14], which m u s t satisfy the equation of transverse wave propagation ~2Fij = O (i 4= ]). (3.16)

The second case corresponds to the stress functions of J. C. MAXWELL [15], which m u s t satisfy the double equation of wave p r o p a g a t i o n [~1E]2F~i = 0 (i ~ ]). (3.16')

The first to observe the relation between the above particular representations, in the static case, was E. BELT~AMI [16], but the tensor form used here was given b y B. F i ~ z I [10].

Stress Functions in Three-Dimensional El~stodynamics 4. State of Stress and State of Displacement

109

Taking into account (3.9), (3.10), (3.10') and (3.14), one can write formulae (3.5) and (3.6) in the form
a~] z - - ~ [ ~ 2 / 2 ~ i i ~- "O,~i - - 2Ok(~,j)k, U i ~- ~

(4.1) (4.2)

([2,~ - - 20~i,~.);

thus one obtains the state of stress and the state of displacement with the aid of six stress functions O~j, components of the symmetrical tensor of Schaefer, which must satisfy equation (3.9) of the transverse wave propagation, and with the aid of a function/2, which must satisfy equation (3.11). One observes t h a t all 7 stress functions must be of class C a with respect to the space variables; the function [2 must be of class C a with respect to time, but the functions Oii c~n be of class C ~ with respect to this variable. In the static case, if the derivatives with respect to time vanish, the operators of d'Alembert become operators of Laplace and one obtains It. SCHA~En'S [5] representation. Although we have put some supplementary conditions in the demonstration of section 3, the representation (4.1), (4.2) is complete (each state of stress and each state of displacement corresponding to the problem can be expressed in this form) for a simply connected region. To exhibit this fact, the equivalence between the above representation and the representations of M. IACOVAC~]~[1] and E. STERNB]~l~G and R. A. EUBANKS [2], the completeness of which for a simply connected region is established, will be shown. For the case of multiply connected regions one can use the studies of M. E. G ~ T I ~ [17] and It. SCI~A]~FEI~ [18]. The above results are valid ~or multiply connected regions acted upon b y loads which are selfequilibrated on each boundary; ff this condition is not fulfiled, one must add supplementary terms. 5. Connection with the Representations of M. Iaeovache and E. Sternberg and R. A. Eubanks Let us introduce the notation r = O~j,j (i = 1, 2, 3), (5.1)

such t h a t the state of stress can be expressed in the form


~ii = --~ []~/2~ii + / 2 , ~ - - 2 ~(i,j-) and the state of displacement in the form
q~i z

(5.2)

I ~--~ (D,i - - 2~5i)

(5.3)

The functions q~i ~-- q~i ( x l , x~, x~; t) must be of class C a with respect to the space variables and of class C 2 with respect to time; these functions must satisfy

110

P.P. TEODORESCU:

the equation of transverse wave propagation ~ q~ = 0, while the function .(2 must satisfy equation
1 ~]1~ -i --

(5.4)

~bi i . '

(5.5)

W i t h the notation
r = -(1 ~) [ ~ , F ~ ,

(5.6) (5.7)

one observes t h a t

= -Fj,~,

where one neglects a function which satisfies the equation of longitudinal wave propagation because it can be included in the functions Fi. One then can write the representation of M. I a c o v a c h e in the form

u~ = ~

[2(1 - v) [ ] 1 / ~ - / ~ , j ~ ] .

(5.8)

The functions/~i = Fi (Xl, x~, x3 ; t) m u s t be of class C 4 with respect to all variables and m u s t satisfy the double equation of wave propagation []~ V72F~ = 0 (i = 1, 2, 3). (5.9)

Using a theorem of T. Boggio, one can write the function F~ in the form F~ = r~' + f~" (i = 1, 2, 3), /~i" = / ~ i " (Xl, x2, x3; t) (5.10) must

where the functions F ( = F ( (xl, x2, x3; t) and satisfy the simple equations of wave propagation

~F~'

= o,

[]~p~" = 0

(i = 1, 2, 3).

(5.11)

We also introduce the function F 0 ~ F 0 (xl, xe, xa ; t), given b y

r 0 = F~,~,
which satisfies the equation of longitudinal wave propagation
~1/~0 = 0.

(5.12)

(5.13)

Thus the representation (5.8) leads to the representation of E. Sternberg and R. A. E u b a n k s


u i ~-- ~-~ [AI~( ' - - (T O 4- ] j j ) , i ] ,

(5.14)

where relation (2.11) has been taken into account. The functions/~i" m u s t be of class C 4 and the function P0 m u s t be of class C ~ with respect to the space variables ; concerning the time it is sufficient t h a t all functions be of class C ~. The completeness of the representation (5.14) for simply connected regions was established b y the above mentioned authors.

Stress Functions in Three-Dimensional Elastodynamics 6. Non-Vanishing Body Forces. General ease

t 11

I n the case of non-vanishing b o d y forces one can use the same representation (4.1), (4.2) or the representation (5.2), (5.3), requiring t h a t relation (3.11) or relation (5.5) respectively, are satisfied. I n this second ease, b y introducing the representation (5.2), (5.3) into the equation of motion (2.1), one finds [(1
- - v) [ Z 1 D -cP~,i],i

-- [12r

+ F i = 0.

(6.1)

Therefore, functions q~i m u s t satisfy the nonhomogeneous equation [~2 qS~ = F~ (i = 1, 2, 3). (6.2)

On the other hand, the function D will be given b y equation (5.5). Applying the operator ~2, we find that this function satisfies the equation
-I F~. (6.3)

F r o m the point of view of the particular solution, corresponding to given b o d y forces, one observes t h a t one can substitute equation (6.3) for equation (6.2). I n fact, equation (6.3) is equivalent to D2[(1 -- v) ~ X 2 -- q~i,i] = O, which leads to (1 -- v) Dis9 -- r = ~, (6.4') (6.4)

where ~ = ~ (xi, x2, xa; t) satisfies the equation of transverse wave propagation [ ] 2 ~ = 0. Taking into account (6.2), one can write r where r = ~ @ ~b~' (i = 1, 2, 3), (6.5) (6.4")

satisfies the equation of transverse wave propagation [~2 ~ i = 0 (6.5')

and qsi' is a particular integral. One observes t h a t the function ~, which can also be written in the form ~v = ~i,~, (6.6) with []2 ~ = 0 (i = 1, 2, 3), (6.6')

can be included in the functions ~i; hence one can use equation (6.3) to obtain the particular integral for the corresponding b o d y forces. One observes t h a t t I o o k e ' s law (2.2) and -- as a consequence -- the equation (2.6) of Beltrami-Miehell t y p e are identically satisfied in the above mentioned conditions.

112

P . P . TEODORESCIr:
7. Conservative Body Forces

A n i m p o r t a n t p a r t i c u l a r case in t h e case of conservative b o d y forces of t h e form F~ ~- )/A, (7.1) where Z - X(x~, x~, xs; t) is a function of class C 2 w i t h respect to t h e space v a r i a b l e s ; for t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n t e g r a l one can choose, in this case;

q)i = q~,i,

(7.2)

where ~b = qS(xl, x2, xa; t) is a function of class C a with r e s p e c t to t h e space variables a n d of class C 2 w i t h r e s p e c t to time. E q u a t i o n s (6.2) l e a d to [B~ ~ = z . W e observe t h a t e q u a t i o n (5.5) becomes
~1 ~ --

(7.3)

1
1 --v

A ~b.

(7.4)

R e l a t i o n (2.11) leads t o (1 - - 2v) D 2 D = --A(~9 - - 2 ~ ) . L e t us i n t r o d u c e t h e p a r t i c u l a r stress function co : D--2q~. (7.6)

(7.5)

The corresponding s t a t e of stress can t h e n be w r i t t e n in t h e form

aij = 1 -2----T dcoOij + co,ij


a n d t h e s t a t e of d i s p l a c e m e n t will be given b y

(7.7)

ui = ~

co,i.

(7.8)

To find t h e e q u a t i o n which m u s t be satisfied b y t h e function co, one observes t h a t e q u a t i o n (7.4) becomes (1 - - ~) Ql~o = A ~ - - 2(1 - - v) [Blq~. E q u a t i o n (7.3) allows us to w r i t e ~co
1 --2v + ~ z = o,

(7.9)

(7.10)

where we t o o k r e l a t i o n (2.11) into account. One observes t h a t in this ease t h e p a r t i c u l a r solution can be o b t a i n e d w i t h the a i d of a single stress function co, which m u s t be of class C ~ with respect to the space variables a n d of class C 2 w i t h respect to time. I f one wishes to satisfy also t h e equations (2.6) of Beltrami-Michell t y p e , t h e function co m u s t be of class C a with respect to t h e space variables.

Stress Functions in Three-Dimensional Elastodynamics 8. Particular Solutions


Let us construct the solution of an equation of the form

113

~k~

= /

(k = 1, 2 ) ,

(8.~)

where T = T(xl, x2, x3; t) and ] ~ - / ( x l , x2, x3; t) are distributions, with the aid of Fourier transforms with respect to space variables and Laplace transforms with respect to time. We suppose that the equation is valid for the entire space, its regularity being ensured at infinity, and that the initial conditions are homogeneous (equal to zero for t = 0). One can thus write
+ =

where ~ and p are new complex variables, corresponding to the space variables and to time respectively, and where we took into account the relations

F [~, ~] = - 1 / - - T ~ F [~],
LIT] = pL[T]. Observing that

(8.3)
(8.3')

:p2 ocia i -}- _ _


Ck2

(~ = 1, 2)

(8.4)

and that

~ [ g . h] = ~ [ g ] ~ [ h ] ,

(8.5)

where g = g(xl, x2, x~; t) and h = h(Xl, x2, x~; t) are distributions, and " . " is the symbol of the convolution product with respect to space variables, one obtains

TNow let

t L_ 1 4~

c~,L[/]

(k=l,2).

(8.6)

/(Xl, X2, X3; t) :

- - 4 ~ ( t ) d ( x l , x2, x3),

(8.7)

where (3(xl, x~, x3) is Dirac's distribution; observing that g * d (xl, x2, x~) = g and taking into account the relation (8.8)

L[g 9 h] = L~g]L[h], (t)

(8.9)

where " , " is the symbol of the convolution product with respect to time, one (t)
can write

T=L

-1

e- ~

,~(t) (t)

(/~= 1 , 2 ) .

(8.10)

114

P . P . T~ODOR~SCV: Thus, t h e solution of t h e e q u a t i o n [Zk~u + 4z~z(t)d(xl, x2, x3) = 0 (k = 1, 2) (8.11)

will be given b y }P = ~ ~ t - where we t o o k into a c c o u n t t h e r e l a t i o n = e and the property g ( t ) * d(t - - a) ---- g(t - - a) (t) I n p a r t i c u l a r , for e q u a t i o n (6.2) one can write
1 L_ ~ e ~*L[Fi]

(k = 1, 2),

(8.12)

(k = 1, 2)

(8.13)

(a

const).

(8.14)

(i = 1, 2, 3)

(8.15)

a n d for e q u a t i o n (7.10) one o b t a i n s


1 --2v
(.0 --

4(1 -- v)~

L -1

I;

c~ 9 L[Z

1]

(8.16)

L e t us consider now t h e e q u a t i o n

[]1 []2-e = / ,

(8.17)

where D = D(Xl, x2, xa; t) a n d f = / ( x l , x2, xa; t) are d i s t r i b u t i o n s ; we shall use t h e L a p l a c e t r a n s f o r m w i t h r e s p e c t to t i m e a n d t h e F o u r i e r t r a n s f o r m with respect to t h e space variables. A t t h e same t i m e we shall require r e g u l a r i t y of t h e solution a t i n f i n i t y a n d homogeneous initial conditions. A p p l y i n g t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d integral transforms, one obtains p2 hence F [ L [ ~ ) ] ] - - 4~rp~ (cl~ - c22) p2

~1%2

~- ~ _ ~

c~

F[L[/]],

(8.19>

where we t o o k into account t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n in c o m m o n fractions

OCio;i _L_ ~

O~,jcX @ ~22 i

Oq~ i @

2 C-l

O~jO4j T ~22

a n d t h e r e l a t i o n (8.4).

Stress Functions in Three-Dimensional Elastodynamics F o r m u l a (8.5) allows to write


4 ~(cl ~ -

115

c~)

-~

e-

~ -

e-

* L[/]

(8.21)
2~

taking into account the relations (2.10). I n particular, for equation (6.3) there results

Y2=2~lc2L-1

e- ~--e

~'- ,~* L [ F i ~ ,

(8.22)

where we have used the p r o p e r t y

D ( g * h) = D g , h = g , D h ,

(8.23)

g ---- g (x~, x2, x~; t) and h = h (Xl, x2, x3; t) being distributions and D being a differential operator. One observes t h a t the Laplace transform does n o t affect differentiation with respec~ ~o the space variables.
9. A p p l i c a t i o n s

We shall apply the above results to the s t u d y of the elastic space acted upon b y two different concentrated dynamic loads; let us admit homogeneous initial conditions. The above assumptions permit the consideration of distributions of function type, defined i n such a w a y as to correspond to the considered functions for t ~ 0 and to zero for t < O; we shall use the same notations for these distributions. I n this case, the operation of differentiation in the sense of the t h e o r y of distributions is identical with the operation of differentiation in the c u s t o m a r y sense. We m u s t solve the same differential equations, b u t expressed in distributions. I n this case it is sufficient to search for particular integrals for b o d y forces corresponding to the given concentrated loads. Consider the case of a concentrated force P (t), acting at the origin of the coordinate axes. One can write

F i ~ cos fliP(t) (~(xl, x2, x3),

(9.1)

where cos fli (i = 1, 2, 3) are the directed cosines of the vector P (t). We shall use the results of section 6. The solution of equation (6.2), which is of the form (8.11), will be q)~
4~

1 cosflip _~

t-- R .

(9.2)

I n an analogous manner, the solution of equation (6.3), expressed in the form (8.22), leads to D=
2~

1-- c ~ e o s f l i L -1

1 L[P(t)]

e- V _ e

~,

,i

(9.3)

taking into account formula (8.8).

116 Observing t h a t

P.P. TEODORESCV:

~02

-- e

c~

(k :

1, 2)

(9.4)

where the index (~-) denotes the positive p a r t of the corresponding function, given b y

0 being the function of Heaviside, generating the corresponding distribution, and keeping in mind formula (8.9), there results R F o r m u l a (5.3) permit us to write the state of displacement in the form

E(
(9.7)

the state of stress being obtMned in an analogous manner. I n particular, if P(O = P ~ ( O ,

t h a t is in the ease of a concentrated force acting as a shock at the initial moment,


one has

taking into account the p r o p e r t y (8.14). Consider now the case of a nucleus of space dilatation, of intensity D (t), acting at the origin of the coordinate axes. The b o d y forces representing this case of loading can be expressed in the form F~ : - - 31- D (t) 5,i (Xl, X2, X3)~ (9.9)

Therefore, the b o d y forces are conservative and m a y be derived from the potential

Z =- -- ~ D(t)(~(xl, x2, x3).

(9.10)

We shall use the results of section 7. The solution of equation (7.10), which is of the form (8.11), will be o) = 1--2v 1 12~(1 -- v) R

D(t---~)

(9.11)

The state of displacement ~11 be expressed in the form


1 2v R

and the state of stress can be written in an analogous manner.

Stress Functions in Three-Dimensional Elastodynamics Only longitudinal waves appear in this case. I n particular, if
D(t) -~ D ~ (t),

117

(9.13)

t h a t is in the case of a nucleus of space dilatation, acting as a shock at the initial moment, one has
ui

(1--2~)D 24--z~)

[l d

it-- R
~

-~-1)],i"

(9.14)

10. Conclusions W i t h the aid of the results obtained above one also can consider more general cases of loading. I n fact, the solution given for the case of a concentrated load corresponds to a basic solution or -- b y effect of a translation -- to a Green distribution. Superposing the effects, one obtMns the solution for arbitrary b o d y forces, in particular for arbitrary concentrated loads. For instance, b y the superposition of three dipols of forces equal and of the same sense, acting on three orthogonal directions, one obtains the results corresponding to the nucleus of space dilatation. Using the results given b y W. KEcs and P. P. TEODORESCU [19] , [20], one also can consider the case of nonhomogeneous initial conditions, b y introducing these conditions into equations (6.2), (6.3), (7.10); one can obtain these results with the aid of the formulae which relate the derivatives in the sense of the t h e o r y of distributions to the derivatives in the customary sense. I n the case of a finite region the b o u n d a r y conditions m u s t also be satisfied. I n this ease the potentials to be determined m u s t be expressed t h r o u g h distributions concentrated on the b o u n d a r y of the region under consideration, using analogous formulae concerning differentiation. The difficulties in actual calculations are due only to the inverse integral transforms. Referenees [1] IACOVACHE, : O extindere a metodei lui GaIerkin pentru sistemul ecua,tiilor elasticiM. t~tii (A generalization of Galerkin's method for the elasticity equations system). Bul. st. Aead. R.P.R. (Set. A) 1, 592--599 (1949). [2] STE~BERG, E., and R. A. EVBAm~S: On stress functions for elastokineties and the integration of the repeated wave equation. Quart. Appl. Math. 15, 149--154 (1957). [3] T~.oDo~Eseu, P.P.: Sur une reprgsentation par potentiels dans le probl~me tridimensionnel de l%lastodynamique. C. Rend. Acad. Sei. (Paris) 250, 1792--179~ (1960). [4] TEODO~ESeU,P. P. : Asupra problemei spa tiMe a elastodinamieii (On the space problem of the elastodyn~mies). St. cere. mec. apl. 11, 681--694 (1960). [5] SCHAEFER, H. : Die Spannungsfunktionen des dreidimensionalen Kontinuums und des elastisehen K6rpers. ZAMM 33, 356--362 0953). [6] SChAEFEr, H. : Die Sparmungsfunktionen des dreidimensionalen Kontinuums; statisehe Deutung und Randwerte. Ing.-Archiv 28, 291--306 0959). [7] Gi~NTHER,W. : Spannungsfunktionen und Vertrgglichkeitsbedingungen der Kontinuumsmeehanik. Abh. Braunschweig. Wiss. Ges. 6, 207--219 (1954). [8] KR6NE~, E.: Die Spannungsfunktionen der dreidimensionalen isotropen Elastizitgtstheorie. Z. Physik 139, 175--188 (1954); Korrektur: 143, 374 (1955). [9] KESSEL, S.: Die Spannungsfunktionen des Cosserat-Xontinuums. ZAMN 47, 329--336 (1967).
Acta Mech. XIV/2--3 9

1i 8

P . P . TEODORESCU: Stress Functions in Three-Dimensional Elastodynamies

[10] FI~ZI, B.: Integrazione delle equazioni indefinite della meecaniea dei sistemi continui. l~endieonti dei Lincei, Ch Sci. fis., mat. e nat. (Ser. 6) 19, 578--584, 620--623 (1934). [11] TEODOI~ESOtT,P. P.: Sur le tenseur de Finzi et sur quelques de ses applications et g4n4ralisations. Ann. Mat. pura ed app1. (Set. IV) 84, 225--244 (1970). [12] TEODORESClr,P. P. : Asupra propags undelor in medii elastiee (On waves propagation in elastic media). Bul. st. Inst. Polit. Cluj (Ser. Constr.) 18, 97--104 (1970). [13] T~ODORESCU, P. P. : Fune~ii de tensiune in elastodinamie~ (Stress functions in elastodynamics). An. Univ. Bneuresti, mat.-mec. 19, 145--158 (1970). [14] MOl~E~A, G. : Soluzione generale delle equazioni indefinite dell' equilibrio di un eorpo eontinuo. I~endiconti dei Lineei, Ch Sei. fis., mat. e nat. (Ser. 5) 1, 137--141 (1892); Appendice 1, 233--234~ (1892). [15] MAXWELI~,J.C.: On reciprocal diagrams in space and their relation to Airy's function of stress. Proe. London Math. Soc. (Ser. 1) 9, 58--60 (1868). [16] BELTRAMr,E. : Osservazioni sulla nota preeedente. P~endieonti dei Lineei, Ch Sei. fis., mat. e nat. (Ser. 5) 1, 141--142 (1892). [17] GUI~TIN, M.E.: A generalization of the Beltrami stress functions in continuum mechanics. Arch. t'~at. Mech. Anal. ltl, 321--329 (1963). [18] SC~A~.FEI~,H. : Die Spannungsfunktionen eines Kontinuums mit Momentenspannungen. Bull. Aead. Pol. Sei., s4r. Sei. Teehn. 15, 63 [71]--67 [75]; 69 [77]--73 [81] (1967). [19] KEcs, W., and P. P. T~ODOl~SClI: On the plane problem of an elastic body acted upon by dynamic loads. I. General results, II. Applications. Bull. de l'Aead. Pol. Sei., s4r. Sei. Teehn. 19, 47--55, 57--62 (1971). [20] NETS, W., and P. P. TEODOI~ESCC:Aplieatii ale teoriei distfibutiilor Sn meeanies (Applications of the theory of distributions in mechanics). Bucharest: Ed. Aead. R.S.R. 1970.

Pro/essor Dr. P. P. Teodorescu Institute o/Mathematics Academy o/the Socialist Republic o/Roumania Calea Grivitei 21 Bucharest 12, Roumania