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Motion sensors controlled light & fan for classroom

The present invention utilizes a latching relay having on and off inputs for controlling power to a load. The on and off inputs of the relay are controlled by pulse generators which are in turn controlled by an occupancy sensor circuit. These pulse generators provide pulses when movement is initially detected in a room and when no movement has been detected for a predetermined time, respectively. The outputs of the pulse generators are coupled to an isolation circuit which isolates the power supply for the occupancy sensor from the pulses during each pulse to prevent damage to the power supply. Motion sensors control lights and other electric loads by detecting body motion in a wide area. An sensor would typically out signal which then reflect off of objects in the room and are detected by one or more receivers. A doppler shift of the reflected signals indicates the presence of movement within the room, and can be detected by body heat changes. In the absence of a detected doppler shift, an electric load can be switched off via microcontroller . passive infra-red (PIR) motion detector circuitry with circuit improvements that greatly reduce incidents of false activation. The motion detector includes one or more infra-red sensors and circuitry for amplifying and filtering the signal from the sensors. The amplification and filtering circuitry has a pass band for signals from the one or more sensors corresponding to a range of speeds of motion of a person moving in the field of view of the motion detector. The ability of the motion detector circuitry to filter out certain environmental sources of false activations is enhanced by providing the pass band with a very steep rolloff at the lower cutoff. In one embodiment the amplification and filtering circuitry is provided with three op amp stages, each stage being configured to contribute a nominal 6 db per octave rolloff to the lower cutoff. The amplification and filtering circuitry is also configured to provide the lower cutoff of the pass band with a fourth-order rolloff, which provides greatly enhanced protection against false activations from signals below the cutoff.

Block diagram

Circuit diagram


How PIR Motion Sensors Work

There are many different ways to create a motion sensor. Motion is detected when an infrared emitting source with one temperature, such as a human body, passes in front of a source with another temperature, such as a wall. It is common for stores to have a beam of light crossing the room near the door, and a photosensor on the other side of the room. When a customer breaks the beam, the photosensor detects the change in the amount of light and rings a bell. Many grocery stores have automatic door openers that use a very simple form of radar to detect when someone passes near the door. The box above the door sends out a burst of microwave radio energy and waits for the reflected energy to bounce back. When a person moves into the field of microwave energy, it changes the amount of reflected energy or the time it takes for the reflection to arrive, and the box opens the door. Since these devices use radar, they often set off radar detectors. The same thing can be done with ultrasonic sound waves, bouncing them off a target and waiting for the echo. All of these are active sensors. They inject energy (light, microwaves or sound) into the environment in order to detect a change of some sort. The "motion sensing" feature on most lights (and security systems) is a passive system that detects infrared energy. These sensors are therefore known as PIR (passive infrared) detectors or pyroelectric sensors. Often, PIR technology will be paired with another model to maximise accuracy and reduce energy usage. In order to make a sensor that can detect a human being, you need to make the sensor sensitive to the temperature of a human body. Humans, having a skin temperature of about 93 degrees F, radiate infrared energy with a wavelength between 9 and 10 micrometers. Therefore, the sensors are typically sensitive in the range of 8 to 12 micrometers. The devices themselves are simple electronic components not unlike a photosensor. The infrared light bumps electrons off a substrate, and these electrons can be detected and amplified into a signal. You have probably noticed that your light is sensitive to motion, but not to a person who is standing still. That's because the electronics package attached to the sensor is looking for a fairly rapid change in the amount of infrared energy it is seeing. When a person walks by, the amount of infrared energy in the field of view changes rapidly and is easily detected. You do not want the sensor detecting slower changes, like the sidewalk cooling off at night. Your motion sensing light has a wide field of view because of the lens covering the sensor. Infrared energy is a form of light, so you can focus and bend it with plastic lenses. But it's not like there is a 2-D array of sensors in there. There is a single (or sometimes two) sensors inside looking for changes in infrared energy.

If you have a burglar alarm with motion sensors, you may have noticed that the motion sensors cannot "see" you when you are outside looking through a window. That is because glass is not very transparent to infrared energy. This, by the way, is the basis of a greenhouse. Light passes through the glass into the greenhouse and heats things up inside the greenhouse. The glass is then opaque to the infrared energy these heated things are emitting, so the heat is trapped inside the greenhouse. It makes sense that a motion detector sensitive to infrared energy cannot see through glass windows.

Infrared motion detector components work

Infrared Radiation_____________
Infrared radiation exists in the electromagnetic spectrum at a wavelength that is longer than visible light. It cannot be seen but it can be detected. Objects that generate heat also generate infrared radiation and those objects include animals and the human body whose radiation is strongest at a wavelength of 9.4um. Infrared in this range will not pass through many types of material that pass visible light such as ordinary window glass and plastic. However it will pass through, with some attenuation, material that is opaque to visible light such as germanium and silicon. An unprocessed silicon wafer makes a good IR window in a weatherproof enclosure for outdoor use. It also provides additional filtering for light in the visible range.

Pyroelectric Sensors_____________
The pyroelectric sensor is made of a crystalline material that generates a surface electric charge when exposed to heat in the form of infrared radiation. When the amount of radiation striking the crystal changes, the amount of charge also changes and can then be measured with a sensitive FET device built into the sensor. The sensor elements are sensitive to radiation over a wide range so a filter window is added to the TO5 package to limit detectable radiation to the 8 to 14mm range which is most sensitive to human body radiation. Typically, the FET source terminal pin 2 connects through a pulldown resistor of about 100 K to ground and feeds into a two stage amplifier having signal conditioning circuits. The amplifier is typically bandwidth limited to below 10Hz to reject high frequency noise and is followed by a window comparator that responds to both the positive and negative transitions of the sensor output signal. A well filtered power source of from 3 to 15 volts should be connected to the FET drain terminal pin 1.

The PIR325 sensor has two sensing elements connected in a voltage bucking configuration. This arrangement cancels signals caused by vibration, temperature changes and sunlight. A body passing in front of the sensor will activate first one and then the other element whereas other sources will affect both elements simultaneously and be cancelled. The radiation source must pass across the sensor in a horizontal direction when sensor pins 1 and 2 are on a horizontal plane so that the elements are sequentially exposed to the IR source. A focusing device is usually used in front of the sensor

The figure below shows the PIR325 electrical specifications and layout in its TO5 package. Note the wide viewing angle without an external lens.

This is a typical application circuit that drives a relay. R10 and C6 adjust the amount of time that RY1 remains energized after motion is detected.

Fresnel Lens_____________
A Fresnel lens (pronounced Frennel) is a Plano Convex lens that has been collapsed on itself to form a flat lens that retains its optical characteristics but is much smaller in thickness and therefore has less absorption losses.

Our FL65 Fresnel lens is made of an infrared transmitting material that has an IR transmission range of 8 to 14um which is most sensitive to human body radiation. It is designed to have its grooves facing the IR sensing element so that a smooth surface is presented to the subject side of the lens which is usually the outside of an enclosure that houses the sensor.

The lens element is round with a diameter of 1 inch and has a flange that is 1.5 inches square. This flange is used for mounting the lens in a suitable frame or enclosure. Mounting can best and most easily be done with strips of Scotch tape. Silicone rubber can also be used if it overlaps the edges to form a captive mount. There is no known adhesive that will bond to the lens material. The FL65 has a focal length of 0.65 inches from the lens to the sensing element. It has been determined by experiment to have a field of view of approximately 10 degrees when used with a PIR325 Pyroelectric sensor.

This relatively inexpensive and easy to use Pyroelectric Sensor and Fresnel Lens can be used in a variety of science projects, robots and other useful devices.

Component used AT 89S51/52/PIC MICROCONTROLLER----1 LM 7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR-------------1 12 VOLT SPST RELAY----------------------------5 HEAT SENSOR--------------------------------------1 PIR MOTION SENSOR----------------------------4 220AC TO 12VOLT STEP DOWN --------------1 BC 548 NPN TRANSISTER-----------------------5 11 MHz CRYSTEL OSCILATOR-----------------1 OTHERS CAPACITOR RESISTANCE SWITCH LED WIRE SOLDER