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Tungsten Inert Gas Welding

Mohak Patel

2nd September, 2011 9003045

Background
Tungsten gas welding (TIG) welding, also known as gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The weld area is protected from atmospheric contamination by a shielding gas (usually an inert gas such argon), and a filler metal is normally used, though some welds, known as autogenous welds, do not require it. A constant current welding power supply produces energy which is conducted across the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal vapours known as plasma. TIG is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non-ferrous metals such as aluminium, magnesium, and copper alloys, the process grants the operator greater control over the weld than competing processes such as SMAW and GMAW, allowing for stronger, higher quality welds. However, GTAW is comparatively more complex and difficult to master, and furthermore, it is significantly slower than most other welding techniques. Generally it is used to make strong and precise welds.

Aim
To study the influence of process parameters on weld geometry and melting efficiency in GTAW with DCEN polarity.

Procedure
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Wear the protective gear for welding The transformer is switched on with appropriate current rating. Practise making a straight weld on the sample metal sample. Measure the weight of the given metal sample. Set the current and voltage rating on the transformer. Perform the welding operation on the transverse cut made on the metal plate. Measure the weight of the slab after welding. Cut the slab equally in 3 parts and measure the bead width, height and penetration. Perform the welding operation for 2 different sets of current and voltage.

Experimental Data
Open circuit voltage = Sr. No. 1 2 3 Current(A) 124 130 135 Voltage(V) 15.5 17.1 16 74 V Time(s) 54 24 73 Mass Deposited (g) 2.29 1.51 7.38 Width (mm) 7.98 4.57 8.74 Height (mm) 2.83 1.77 3.03 Penetration (mm) 1.39 1.6 2.3

Analysis
Where, Ein is the effective energy input effective = 0.55 V is the measured voltage in Volts. I is the measured current in Ampere.

Where, Eutilised is the effective energy utilised in melting the electrode and base material m1 is rate of melting of mass of base material (kg/s). m2 is rate of melting of electrode mass (kg/s). L1, L2 are latent heat of melting (~2.65x105 J/kg for steel). C is specific heat (~622 J/kg K for steel). T1Melt, T2Melt are melting temperature of base material and electrode (~1800K for steel). Tamb is ambient Temperature (~300K). And,

Sr. No. 1 2 3

Cross-sectional area(mm2) 26.43535 12.08971 36.5686

Ein 1057.1 1222.65 1188

Eutilised 50.80 75.37 121.1

melt 0.04806 0.061648 0.101947

Efficiency Vs Current
0.12 0.1 Melt Efficiency 0.08

0.06
0.04 0.02 0 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 Current (A)

Cross-sectional area vs Current


40 Cross-sectional area (mm2) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 Current (A)

Width vs Current
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 Current (A)

Width (mm)

Heigth vs Current
3.5 3 Heigth (mm) 2.5

2 1.5
1 0.5 0 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 Current (A)

Penetration vs Current
2.5 Penetration (mm) 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 Current (A)

Conclusion
The variation of process parameters with change in current was studied. Melting efficiency was found to increase with increase in current. The cross-sectional area, width, height and penetration also increased with increase in current.

Sources of Error
1. The accuracy of the weld made is low because of the fact that weld made is highly dependent on the skill of the welder. 2. The penetration depth was not clearly visible. 3. The cross-sectional area was assumed to be elliptical, whereas it is not uniform everywhere. 4. The voltage reading changes rapidly and continuously.

Suggestions to improve the experiment


1. More time should be given for practising the welding operation. 2. The weld bead was not clearly visible. Some chemical method should be used for the same.