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ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS UNIT I 1. Define the term thermal engineering? Thermal engineering is the science that deals with the energy transfer to practical applications such as energy transfer, power generation, refrigeration, gas compression, and its effect on the properties of working substance. 2. What is meant by thermodynamic system? How do you classify it? Thermodynamic system is defined as the any space or matter or group of matter where the energy transfer or energy conversions are studied. It may be classified into three types. (a) (b) (c) Open system Closed system Isolated system.

3. What is meant by closed system? Give an example. When a system has only heat and work transfer, but there is no mass transfer, it is called as closed system. Example: piston and cylinder arrangement. 4. Define an open system. Give an example. When a system has heat, work, and mass transfer, it is called as open system. Example: Air compressor. 5. Distinguish between open and closed system? Sl.N o. 1. 2. 3. 4. Closed system There is no mass transfer. Only heat and work transfer. System boundary is fixed one. Open system Mass transfer will takes place. Heat and place. work transfer takes

System boundary may or may not change. Ex: Piston & cylinder Air compressor, boiler. arrangement, Thermal power plant.

6. Define an isolated system? Isolated system is not affected by surroundings. There is no heat, work and mass transfer takes place. In this system, total energy remains constant.

2 7. What is boundary? System and surroundings are separated by an imaging line is called boundary. 8. What is meant by surroundings? Any other matter out side of the system boundary is called as surroundings 9. Define specific heat capacity at constant pressure? It is defined as the amount of heat energy required to raising or lowering the temperature of unit mass of the substance through one degree when the pressure is kept constant. It is denoted by Cp.

10.Define specific heat capacity at constant volume? It is defined as the amount of heat energy required to raising or lowering the temperature of unit mass of the substance one degree when volume is kept constant. It is denoted by Cv. 11. What is meant by thermodynamic property?

Thermodynamic property is any characteristic of a substance which is used to identify yhe state of the system and can be measured, when the system remains in an equilibrium state.

12.

## What do you understand by equilibrium of a system?

When a system remains in equilibrium state, it should not undergo any changes on its own accord.

13.Define intensive and extensive properties. The properties which are independent on the mass of the system is called intensive properties. E.g Pressure, Temperature, Specific volume etc. The properties which are dependent on the mass of the system is called extensive properties. E.g: Total energy, Total volume, weight etc.

14.

## What is meant by Perpetual motion Machine of first kind?

PMM of the first kind delivers work continuously without any input. It violates first law of thermodynamics. It is impossible to construct an engine working with this principle.

## 15.Prove that for an isolated system, there is no change in internal energy.

For any isolated system, there is no heat, work and mass transfer.

Q=W+U

17.

## Define the term cycle.

When a system undergoes a series of processes and return to its original condition, It is known as cycle.

18.

## What is Quasi-static process?

The process is said to be quasi-static, It should proceed infinitesimally show and follow continuous series of equilibrium states. Therefore, the quasi-static process may be a reversible process.

19.

## Define the term internal energy.

Internal energy of the gas is the energy stored in a gas due to its molecular interactions

20.

## What is meant by thermodynamic work?

It is the work done by the system when the energy transferred across the boundary of the system. It is mainly due to intensive property difference between the system and surrounding.

## 4 21. What is meant by point function?

The quantity which is independent on the process or path followed by the system is known as point function. Example: Pressure, Volume, temperature etc.

22.

## What is meant by path function?

The quantity which is dependent on the process or path followed by the system is known as path function. Example: Heat transfer, Work transfer.

23.

## Define the term enthalpy.

The combination of internal energy and flow energy is known as enthalpy of the system

24.

## Define zeroth law and first law of thermodynamics?

Zeroth law of thermodynamics states that when two systems are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they themselves are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

First law of thermodynamics states that when system undergoes a cyclic process, net heat transfer is equal to work transfer.

25.Prove that for an isolated system, there is no change in internal energy. For any isolated system, there is no heat, work and mass transfer.

Q=W=0

## According to first law of thermodynamics,

Q=W+U

U=0

UNIT II 1. State Kelvin plank statement of second law of thermodynamics. Kelvin plank states that it is impossible to construct a heat engine working on cyclic process, whose only purpose is to convert all the heat energy given to it in an equal amount of work.

2. State clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics? It states that heat can flow from hot body to cold body without any external aid but heat cannot flow from cold body to hot body without any external aid.

3. State carnot theorem? No heat engine operating in a cyclic process between two-fixed temperatures can be more efficient that a reversible engine operating between the same temperature limits.

4. Define PMM of second kind? Perpetual motion machine of second kind draws heat continuously from single reservoir and converts it into equivalent amount of work, Thus it gives 100 percentage efficiency.

5. What is the difference between a heat pump and refrigerator? Heat pump is a device which operating in a cyclic process maintains the temperature of a hot body at a temperature higher that the temperature of surrounding.

A refrigerator is a device which operating in a cyclic process, maintains the temperature of a cold body at a temperature lower than the temperature of the surrounding.

6. What is meant by heat engine? A heat engine is a device, which is used to convert the thermal energy into mechanical energy.

7. Define the term COP? Coefficient of performance is defined as the ratio of heat extracted or rejected to work input. Heat extracted or rejected COP = work input

8. Why a heat engine cannot have 100 efficiency? For all the heat engines there will be a heat loss between system and surroundings. Therefore we cannot convert all the heat input into useful work.

9. What are the process involved in carnot cycle? Carnot cycle consists of

1. Reversible adiabatic compression. 2. Reversible isothermal heat addition. 3. Reversible adiabatic expansion. 4. Reversible isothermal heat rejection.

10.

## Define the term absolute entropy?

The change in entropy of the system with respect to ambient conditions or any other standard reference condition is known as absolute entropy.

11.

## Why carnot cycle cannot be realized in practice?

(1). In a carnot cycle, all the four processes are reversible but in actual practice there is no process is reversible.

(2). There are two processes to be carried out during compression and expansion. For isothermal process, the piston moves very slowly and for adiabatic process the piston moves as fast as possible. This speed variation during the same stroke of the piston is not possible.

## (3). It is not possible to avoid friction between moving parts completely.

12.Name two alternative methods by which the efficiency of a carnot cycle can be increased?

13.

## Define the terms source, sink, and heat reservoir.

Source: The part where the heat to be rejected to work absorbing or work developing device is called source. Sink: The part which receives heat from work absorbing or work developing device is called sink.

Reservoir: The part which supplies or receives heat continuously without change in its temperature is called as reservoir.

14.

Define entropy?

15.

## Is the second law is independent of first law? Explain.

Yes. The second law is independent of first law. The second law speaks about the quality of energy.

16. Define change of entropy. How is entropy compared with heat transfer and absolute temperature? The measure of irreversibility when the energy transfer takes place within the system or between the system and surrounding is called as change of entropy. It is simply known as unaccounted heat loss.

## 17.Write the expression for efficiency of the carnot cycle?

T 2 T 1 carnot
=

T2
T1 Lower temperature T2 Higher temperature

18.

## What is the corollaries of carnot theorem?

(1). All the reversible engines operating between the two given thermal reservoirs with fixed temperature have the same efficiency. (2). The efficiency of any reversible heat engine operating between two reservoirs is independent of the nature of the working fluid and depends only on the temperature of the reservoir.

19.

## What do you mean by clausius inequality?

It is impossible for a self acting machine working in a cyclic process unaided by any external agency to convert heat from body at a lower temperature to a body at a higher temperature. 20. Can entropy of universe ever decrease ? why?

Entropy of universe cannot ever decrease. It will be remain constant or will decrease due to irreversibility.

21.

## What is the essence of the second law of thermodynamics?

(1). To know the feasibility of process. (2). To know about the quality of energy.

22. Why the performances of refrigerator and heat pump are given in terms of C.O.P and not in terms of efficiency? The performance of any device is expressed in terms of efficiency for work developing machines. But heat pump and refrigerator are work absorbing machines. So, the performance of those devices based on C.O.P only.

9 23.Comment on the statement The entropy of universe tends to be maximum? If the entropy of universe tends to be maximum, the irreversibility will be more due to friction between moving parts.

24.

## What is meant by principle of increase of entropy?

For any infinitesimal process undergone by a system, change in entropy, dsdQ dT For reversible, dQ=0, hence, ds=0 For irreversible, dS>0.

So, the entropy of an isolated system would never decrease. It will always increase and remains constant if the process is reversible, is called as principle of increase of entropy.

25. For compression process between same states, which will consume more work reversible or irreversible. Irreversible work will be more in the compression process. Generally for compression, the actual work given will be higher than the calculated work.

UNIT III

1. Define latent heat of ice? Total amount of heat added during conversion of ice of zero degree Celsius into water of zero degree Celsius.

2. What is pure substance? Pure substance is a substance which has a fixed chemical composition throughout its mass. Examples:Water, nitrogen, carbon-di-oxide, and helium. A pure substance does not have to be of a single chemical element or compound. A mixture of various chemical elements or compounds is also called as pure substance as long as the mixture is homogeneous.

10 3. What is saturation temperature and saturation pressure? At a given pressure, the temperature at which a liquid boils is called saturation temperature. At the given temperature, the pressure at which the liquid boils is called saturation pressure. It is also called as vapour pressure.

4. Define latent heat of vaporization? The amount of heat added during heating of water from boiling point to dry saturated stage is called as latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy of vaporization or latent heat of steam.

## 5. Define the terms boiling point and melting point

Boiling point: It is the temperature at which the liquid starts to change its state from liquid to vapour.

Melting point: It is the temperature at which the solid starts to change its state from solid to liquid.

6. Define sensible heat of water? The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of water from 0C to the saturation temperature under a constant pressure. It is denoted by hf.

7. Define the term superheat enthalpy. The heat supplied to the dry steam at saturation temperature, to convert it into superheated steam at the temperature Tsup is called superheat enthalpy.

8. Define wet steam and dry steam? The steam which partially evaporated and having water particles in suspension is called wet steam. The steam which fully in evaporated state and is not having any water particles is called dry steam.

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9. What is meant by superheated steam? And indicate its use. If the dry steam is further heated, then the process is called superheating and steam obtained is known as superheated steam. Uses: 1. Superheated steam has more heat energy and more work can be obtained using it. 2. Thermal efficiency increases as the temperature of superheated steam is high.

10.

## Define triple point and critical point for pure substance?

Triple point: Triple point is the state at where all the three phases that is, solid, liquid and vapour to exist in equilibrium.

Critical point: It represents the highest pressure and temperature at which the liquid and vapour phases coexist in equilibrium. At the critical point the liquid and vapour phases are indistinguishable that is liquid directly converted into vapour.

11. Explain the terms: Degree of superheat, Degree of subcooling. Degree of superheat: It is the difference between superheated temperature and saturated temperature at the same pressure.

Degree of subcooling: It is the amount by which the water is cooled beyond the saturated temperature at the same pressure.

12.

## State phase rule of pure substances?

The number of independent variables associated with a multicomponent, multiphase system is given by the phase rule. It is also called as Gibbs phase rule.It is expressed by the equation as n=C- +2

12 Where, n = the number of independent variable, c = the number of components, = the number of phases present in equilibrium.

13.When saturation pressure increases, what happens to saturation temperature and freezing point? When saturation pressure increases, then the saturation temperature is increasing and the freezing point decreasing.

## 14. Determine the condition of steam of 2 bar whose entropy is 6.27kJ/kg.

From steam table at 2 bar Sg = 7.1268kJ/kg K Since entropy of given steam of pressure 2 bar is less than entropy of dry steam at that pressure, the steam is in wet condition. 15. Determine the specific enthalpy and specific entropy of 120C saturated steam? From steam table at 120C

## Specific entropy, Sg = 7.1293kJ/kg K

16. Determine whether water at the following states is a compressed liquid, a superheated vapour or a mixture of saturated water steam. (a) 18 Mpa, 0.003m/kg (b) 130C, 200kpa.

Case(a) P = 18 Mpa V = 0.003m/kg From steam table, corresponding to 18 Mpa, read Vg = 0.007497m/kg

13 Since v< vg, the steam is in wet condition that is mixture of liquid and steam.

Case (b) T = 130C P = 200Kpa From steam table, corresponding to 200kpa, read Tsat = 120.2C

17.

## What is meant by steam power cycles?

Thermodynamic cycles which use steam as the working fluid is called steam power cycles.

18. What is meant by work ratio? What is the importance of work ratio in vapour cycles? Work ratio is defined as the ratio of network transfer to the positive work transfer.

Work ratio affects the actual efficiency comparing two cycles with the same ideal efficiency, the cycle having smaller work ratio would have smaller actual efficiency.

Higher the work ratio, the SSC is lower, resulting in smaller size plant for the given output.

19.What are the effects of condenser pressure on the Rankine cycle? By lowering the condenser pressure, we can increase the cycle efficiency.The main disadvantage is lowering the back pressure increases the wetness of steam. Isentropic compression of a very wet vapour is very difficult.

20. A vapour cycle inherently has two advantages over gas power cycle. What are they?

14 (i) (ii) Isothermal heat transfer (evaporation and condensation) is possible in practice. The work ratio is high compared to the gas power cycles.

21.Mention the improvements made to increase the ideal efficiency of ranking cycle. 1. Lowering the condenser pressure 2. Super heated steam is supplied to the turbine. 3. Increase the boiler pressure to certain limit. 4. Implementing reheat and regeneration in the cycle. 22. Name the different components in steam power plant working on a rankine cycle. Boiler, Turbine, Cooling Tower or Condenser, and Pump.

23.

## What are disadvantages of reheating?

The cost of plant increases due to the reheater and its long connections. It also increases the condenser capacity due to increased dryness fraction.

24.

## List the advantages of reheat cycle.

1. Marginal increase in thermal efficiency. 2. Increase in work done per kg of steam which results in reduced size of boiler and auxiliaries for the same output. 3. We can prevent the turbine from erosion.

25.

## What are the disadvantages of bleeding?

Cost of the plant increases and the work done per kg of steam is reduced which results in higher boiler capacity for given output.

UNIT IV

1. State Boyles law. Boyles law states, The volume of a given mass of agas varies inversely as its absolute pressure, when the temperature remains constant.

15 1 2. State Charle,s law. Charle,s law states The volume of a given mass of a gas varies directly as its absolute temperature, when the pressure remains constant.

3. State Joules law. Joules law states, The internal energy of a given quantity of a gas depends only on the temperature.

4. State Regnaults law. Regnaults law states that Cp and Cv of a gas always remains constant.

5. State Avogadros law. Avogardros law states, Equal volumes of different perfect gases at the same temperature and pressure, contain equal number of molecules.

6. State Daltons law of partial pressure. Daltons law of partial pressure states the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressure exerted by individual gases if each one of them occupied separately in the total volume of the mixture at mixture temperature. P=P1+P2+P3+.........Pk

7. How does the Vander waals equation differ from the ideal gas equation of state? 1. Intermolecular attractive study is made. 2. Shape factor is considered. These assumptions are not made in ideal gas equation of state.

## 8. Distinguish between ideal and real gas?

16 An ideal gas is one which strictly follows the gas laws under all conditions of temperature and pressure.

In actual practice, there is no real gas which strictly follows the gas laws over the entire range of temperature and pressure. However hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and air behave as an ideal gas under certain temperature and pressure limits.

9. What is meant by virtual expansion? Viral or virtual expansions are only applicable to gases of low and medium densities.

## P = RT + a(T) +b(T) +c(T) +d(T) +............

The coefficient of a(T), b(T), c(T), d(T)......are virial coefficients. The virial coefficient will vanish when the pressure becomes zero. Finally, the equation of state reduces to the ideal-gas equation.

10.

=-

=-

## These are known as Maxwell relations.

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11. Determine the molecular volume of any perfect gas at 600N/m and 30C. Universal gas constant may be taken as 8314J/Kg mole-K Given data: P = 600N/m T = 30C =30+273 =303K R = 8314J/kgmole-K

Solution:

## V =mRT P 18314303 = 600

= 4198.57m/kg-mole

12.Define Joule-Thomson co-efficient. Joule-Thomson co-efficient is defined as the change in temperature with change in pressure, keeping the enthalpy remains constant.It is denoted by the

## Co-efficient of volume expansions:

18 Co-efficient of volume expansions is defined as the change in volume with change in temperature per unit volume keeping the pressure constant. It is denoted by .

Isothermal compressibility: It is defined as the change in volume with change in pressure per unit volume by keeping the temperature constant. It is denoted by K.

K= -

14.

## What is compressibility factor?

We know that, the perfect gas equation is pv = RT. But for real gas, a correction factor has to be introduced in the perfect gas equation to take into account the deviation of real gas from the perfect gas equation. This factor is known as compressibility factor(z) and is defined by

Z=

15. What does compressibility factor signify? What is its value for an ideal gas at critical point? 1. Intermolecular attractive study is made.

## for ideal gas.

16. What is Joule-Thomson co-efficient? Why is it zero for an ideal gas? Joule-Thomson co-efficient is defined as the change in temperature with change in pressure, keeping the enthalpy remains constant. It is denoted by

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We know that the equation of state as PV = RT Differentiating the above equation of state with respect to T by keeping pressure, p constant.

It simplifies that the Joule-Thomson co- efficient is zero for ideal gas.

17.

## What is clasius clapeyron Equation?

Clapeyron equation which involves relationship between the saturation pressure, saturation temperature, the enthalpy of evaporation and the specific volume of the two phases involved.

dt

18.

Tds =

Tds =

## 20 19. State the assumptions made in kinetic theory of gases?

1. There is no intermolecular force between particles. 2. The volume of the molecules is negligible in comparison with the gas.

20.

## State Helmholtz function

Helmholtz function is property of a system and is given by subtracting the product of absolute temperature (T) and entropy (s) from the internal energy U.

21.

## Where h T - Enthalpy - Temperature

S -Entropy

22.

What is a thermodynamic cycle? Thermodynamic cycle is defined as the series of processes performed on the system, so that the system attains its original state.

23.

What is meant by air standard cycle? If we use air as a working substance in the thermodynamic cycles it is called air standard cycles.

24.

Name the various gas power cycles 1. Carnot cycle 2. Otto cycle 3. Diesel cycle

21 4. Brayton cycle 25. Mention the various processes of the Otto cycle. 1. Isentropic compression. 2. Constant volume heat supplied. 3. Isentropic expansion, and 4. Constant volume heat rejection.

UNIT V

1. What is the difference between air conditioning and refrigeration? Refrigeration is the process of providing and maintaining the temperature in space below atmospheric temperature.

Air conditioning is the process of supplying sufficient volume of clean air containing a specific amount of water vapour and maintaining the predetermined atmospheric condition with in a selected enclosure.

2. Define psychrometry? The science which deals with the study of behaviour of moist air (mixture of dry air and water vapour) is known as psychrometry.

3. Define dry bulb temperature? The temperature which is measured by an ordinary thermometer is known as dry bulb temperature. It is generally denoted by .

## 4. Define wet bulb temperature?

22 It is the temperature of air measured by a thermometer when its bulb is covered with wet cloth and exposed to a current rapidly moving air. It is denoted by .

5. Define dew point temperature? The temperature at which the water vapour present in air begins to condense when the air is cooled is known as dew point temperature. It is denoted by .

6. Define Relative humidity? Relative humidity is the ratio of the mass of water vapour ( ) in a certain volume of moist air at a given temperature to the mass of water vapour ( ) in the same volume of saturated air at the same temperature.

i .e , RH (or) =

7. Define specific humidity? Specific humidity ( ) is the ratio of mass of water vapour( of dry air in the given in the given volume of mixture. ) to the mass

i.e,

8. Define absolute humidity? Absolute humidity is defined as the ratio of the mass of water vapour( in a certain volume of moist air at a given temperature to the mass of water vapour( ) at atmospheric conditions. )

## 9. Differentiate between absolute and relative humidity?

Absolute humidity is defined as the ratio of the mass of water vapour( in a certain volume of moist air at a given temperature to the mass of water vapour( ) at atmospheric conditions.

23 RH is the ratio of the mass of water vapour( ) in a certain volume of moist air at a given temperature to the mass of water vapour( ) in the same volume of saturated air at the same temperature.

10.

## Define degree of saturation?

Degree of saturation is the ratio of specific humidity of moist air to the specific humidity of saturated air at same temperature.

11. What is dew point temperature? How is it related to dry bulb and wet bulb temperature at the saturation condition?

It is the temperature at which the water vapour present in air begins to condense when theair is cooled.

For saturated air,the dry bulb,wet bulb and dew point temperature are all same.

12.

## State Daltons law of partial pressure.

The total pressure exerted by air and water vapour mixture is equal to the barometric pressure.

Where

Baromertic pressure. = partial pressure of dry air. = Partial pressure of water vapour.

13.

## Define Apparatus Dew Point (ADP) of cooling coil.

24 For dehumidification, the cooling coil is to be kept at a mean temperature which is below the dew point temperature(DPT) the entering air. This temperature of the coil is called ADP temperature.

14.

List down the psychrometric process. 1. Sensible heating process. 2. Sensible cooling process. 3. Humidification process. 4. Dehumidification process. 5. Heating and humidification process. 6. Cooling and dehumidification process. 7. Adiabatic mixing of air stream process. 8. Evaporative cooling process.

15.

## Define bypass factor(BPF) of a coil?

The ratio of the amount of air which does not contact the cooling coil(amount of bypassing air) to the amount of supply air is called BPF.

i.e., BPF =

16.Define the humidification process. Humidification is defined as the process of adding moisture at constant dry bulb temperature. So, but . So, the humidity ratio increases from

17.

State the effects of very high and a very low bypass factor.

Very high bypass factor: 1. It requires lower ADP. Refrigerant plant should be of larger capacity. 2. It requires more air. Larger fan motor required. 3. It requires less heat transfer area. 4. It requires more chilling water. Larger piping required.

25 Very low bypass factor: 1. Higher ADP is to be employed. 2. It requires less air. Fan and motor size reduced.

18.

What factors affect bypass factor? 1. Pitch of fins. 2. Number of coil tubes. 3. Air velocity over the coil. 4. Direction of air flow.

19. What are the assumptions made while mixing two air streams? 1. Surrounding is small 2. Process is fully adiabatic. 3. There is no work interactions. 4. Change in kinetic and potential energies are negligible.

20.

## How are air-conditioning systems classified?

1. Based on construction of components: a. Unitary system. b. Central system. c. Package system. d. Split units. 2. Based on fluid flow methods: a. Direct expansion(DX) system. b. Chilled water (DX) system. c. Chilled water air washer system.

21.

## How does humidity affect human comfort?

If the humidity is above a certain level, water vapour from human body moisture cannot be absorbed by the atmospheric air. It results in discomfort because of sweating.

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22. What are the various sources of heat gain of an airconditioned space? 1. solar gain through glass panes. 2. solar gain through roof and walls. 3. heat gain from occupants. 4. heat gain from appliances and lights. 5. duct leakage. 6. infiltration. 7. vapour transmission.

23.

## What are the requirements of comfort a/c ? and removal of .

a. Supply of

b. Removal of heat of occupants. c. Removal of moisture of occupants. d. Good air distribution. e. Maintaining air purity.

24.

## Define effective temperature?

Effective temperature is defined as that temperature of saturated air at which the subject would experience the same feeling of comfort as experienced in the actual unsaturated environment.

25.

## What factors affect effective temperature?

1. climatic and seasonal differences. 2. Clothing. 3. Age. 4. activity. 5. stay duration. 6. air velocity.

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