Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

179 Aufrufe

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- OFDM
- Impact of multipath fading and partial-band interference on the performance of a COFDMCDMA modulation scheme for robust wireless communications
- FilterBankinCommunications]
- Seminar on OFDM
- PAPR Reduction in OFDM by Addition of DC Value
- Techniques for Mitigating the Effect of Carrier Frequency Offset in OFDM
- OFDM
- The BER Performance of OFDM Systems Using Non-Synchronized Sampling_Thierry Pollet
- SongPan07
- 4G
- Project
- RFHandbook[1]
- EEE - IJEEE - PAPR - Mir Muhammad Loro - Pakistan
- Coherent Detection
- 4g Magic Communication
- OFDM_ML_sync_Beek
- Slides - Ofdm Tutorial 2008_mm
- Cognitive
- 3g Ericsson
- OFDM Optical

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Vodafone Chair Mobile Communications Systems, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany.

e-mail: {petrovic, rave, fettweis}@ifn.et.tu-dresden.de.

Abstract: We introduce two independent approaches for burst like errors, resulting in the performance error floor.

phase noise suppression. The dominant effects, responsible Consideration of the system capacity in the presence of

for the degradation of an OFDM system performance, if the phase noise in Sec. 3., motivates the idea, that bit

phase noise is present, are identified. We found out, that interleaving can significantly improve the system perfor-

the system performance is strongly influenced by certain mance. For systems where interleaving delay is a critical

phase noise realizations, which cause burst errors, result-

issue, we propose an iterative algorithm for phase noise

ing in the performance error floor. Consideration of the

suppression. We presented the idea to iteratively sup-

system capacity in the presence of phase noise, motivates

the idea, that bit interleaving can significantly improve the press the phase noise in [16]. In Sec. 4. one realization

system performance. For systems where interleaving de- of this idea is presented and in Section 5. the algorithm

lay is a critical issue, we propose, as a second approach, an performance is verified by numerical simulations.

iterative phase noise suppression algorithm. Simulation re-

sults in terms of packet error rate (PER) show, that both 2. System Model

bit interleaving and iterative algorithm are capable to sig- Consider an OFDM transmission over N subcarriers,

nificantly suppress the phase noise.

as shown in Fig. 1. For simplicity, we assume the direct

1. Introduction conversion approach where both up- and downconver-

sion are done in one step [8].

OFDM has been applied in a variety of digital com- In the case of perfect frequency and timing syn-

munications applications due to its robustness to fre- chronization the received OFDM signal samples in

quency selective fading. However, OFDM is very sen- the presence of phase noise can be expressed as

sitive to synchronization errors, one of them being phase r(n) = (x(n) ⋆ h(n))ejφ(n) + ξ(n). The variables

noise [4]. Phase noise reflects imperfections of the local x(n), h(n) and φ(n) denote the samples of the transmit-

oscillator (LO), i.e. random drift of the LO phase from ted signal, the channel impulse response and the phase

its reference. noise process at the output of the mixer, respectively.

There are two effects that occur if the phase noise is The symbol ⋆ stands for convolution. The term ξ(n) rep-

present in an OFDM system [1]: rotation of all demod- resents AWGN noise.

ulated subcarriers of an OFDM symbol by a common The phase noise process φ(t) is modelled as a Wiener

angle, called common phase error (CPE) and the occur- process [5] [12], with a certain 3dB bandwidth ∆f3dB .

rence of the intercarrier interference (ICI). The CPE re- To characterize the quality of an oscillator in an OFDM

sults from the DC value of the phase noise and the ICI system the relative phase noise bandwidth δP N =

comes from the deviations of the phase noise from its ∆f3dB /∆fcar is used, where the ∆fcar is the subcarrier

DC value, during one OFDM symbol. spacing. The reason for this is that δP N parameter incor-

The problem of suppressing phase noise in OFDM porates both the phase noise and system parameters.

systems can be understood as getting as much informa- Since we use a discrete time model, we need the dis-

tion on the phase noise waveform as possible. Once one crete time model of the phase noise. The discrete time

has this information, it can be used to remove the ef- equation for the Wiener phase noise process can be writ-

fects the phase noise. The simplest approach would be ten as [6] [5]:

to approximate the phase noise with a constant value,

i.e. its mean [13, 17, 19]. More advanced approaches φ(n + 1) = φ(n) + w(n) (1)

try to estimate higher spectral components to get better

approximation of phase noise waveform, thus reducing where φ(n) denotes the phase noise process at sampling

ICI [3, 11, 20]. Suppressing ICI is of large importance, instant nTs at the receiver, n ∈ Z and w(n) is a Gaussian

especially if bandwidth efficient higher order modula- random variable w(n) ∼ N (0, 4π∆f3dB Ts ).

tions need to be employed or if the spacing between the The result after the discrete Fourier transform (DFT)

carriers is to be reduced. at the receiver can be obtained by the following reason-

In this paper we concentrate only on the effects of ICI ing. Phase noise affects the received signal as an angular

on OFDM transmission. CPE is already corrected for in multiplicative distortion. Multiplication of two signals in

wireless standards using pilots [7]. the time domain is equivalent to convolving the spectra

Understanding ICI is a very important issue, because of the corresponding signals in the frequency domain.

it can lead researchers to new algorithms for its suppres- To be precise, since the discrete signals are considered

sion. Here we focus on identifying the dominant effects, here, in the frequency domain (discrete fourier transform

that are responsible for the performance degradation of domain) the spectra of two signals are circularly con-

an OFDM system, if the phase noise is present. We have volved [9]. Therefore, at the receiver, after removing the

found out, that the system performance is strongly influ- cyclic prefix and taking the DFT on the remaining sam-

enced by certain phase noise realizations, which cause ples, the demodulated carrier amplitudes Rm,s at subcar-

OFDM Modulator Upconversion demodulator block at the receiver, i.e. OFDM modula-

X m ,s s = 0,1, 2...N -1

IFFT CP LPF tion/demodulation, channel effects and phase noise. Ca-

x(t )

pacity is chosen as the information theoretic parameter,

x(n) = x(nTs )

e j 2π f ct to describe the system performance. Capacity is the ul-

Channel

− ( j 2π f c t −φ ( t ))

fs

e timate limit for the data rate which can be achieved in

Rm ,s s = 0,1, 2...N -1 a system. Consider the memoryless discrete input and

FFT CP

continuous output channel, with input x from alphabet

r (n) = r (nTs ) r (t ) = [ x(t ) ∗ h(t ) ] e jφ (t )

X , output y and transition distribution pY |X (y|x). Then

OFDM Demodulator Downconversion

the capacity under uniform inputs constraints and perfect

channel state information is given by [2]:

Figure 1: OFDM Transmission in the presence of phase

" P #

noise. pY |X (y|x)

x∈X

C = b − Ex,y log2 (4)

pY |X (y|x)

th

rier s (s = 0, 1, ...N − 1) of the m OFDM symbol are

given as: where b is the number of bits, transmitted over QAM

Rm,s = Xm,s Hm,s Im (0) + symbol, which is mapped to one subcarrier. Increasing

| {z } b, increases maximum throughput of the system. New

CP E

wireless standards consider using more and more signal

N −1

X points in a signal constellation.

Xm,v Hm,v Im (s − v) +ηm,s (2)

v=0

Assuming that BICM is used [2], we have determined

v6=s

| {z } the capacity of an OFDM transmission over an AWGN

ICI channel with added phase noise. For calculating the ca-

pacity, the equivalent channel transition (pdf) pY |X (y|x)

where Xm,s , Hm,s and ηm,s represent transmitted sym-

is required. We resorted to a Monte Carlo method to

bols on the subcarriers, the sampled channel transfer

obtain this pdf and we have numerically calculated the

function at subcarrier frequencies and transformed white

capacity. Since we are interested only in the effects of

noise which remains AWGN. The terms Im (i), i =

ICI on OFDM transmission, we assume that CPE is ide-

−N/2, ..., N/2 − 1 correspond to the DFT of the real-

ally corrected for. In Fig. 3 the capacity for different M-

ization of ejφ(n) during one OFDM symbol:

QAM OFDM signaling schemes over an AWGN channel

N −1

1 X −j2πni/N jφ(n) as a function of the relative phase noise bandwidth δP N

Im (i) = e e (3) is plotted (the corresponding curves are denoted as: with

N n=0

real phase noise). This figure can be assumed as a limit

In Eq. (2) the multiplicative distortion term Im (0) com- since the SN R for which it is simulated is very large,

mon to all subcarriers of one OFDM symbol, corre- namely SN R = 30 dB.

sponds to the common phase error (CPE). The CPE From the capacity curves we see that the phase

equals the DC value of the phase noise and must be cor- noise has a much stronger influence on the capacity

rected for to obtain acceptable performance. The inter- of higher order constellations, as this dependence gets

carrier interference (ICI) part is the additional error term much steeper near the origin with an increase of the sig-

caused by non-zero frequency components of the phase nal points. Even for very small δP N it is impossible to

noise process. It is a mixture of channel transfer function transmit 8 bits over the channel.

coefficients, transmitted symbols and phase noise terms. Further, we compare this benchmark system with

It is found that the ICI term is non-Gaussian distributed ”real” phase noise and ideal CPE correction, with the

2 system, where the ICI term after DFT is replaced with a

random variable [10] [14] [15] of power σICI . Inter-

2 2

carrier interference power σICI can be calculated in the Gaussian random variable of variance σICI before the

closed form, using several different approaches [11] [14] demodulator. Note that in the latter case we use the

[15] [18]. standard formula for the calculation of the capacity over

gaussian channels.

3. Capacity of an OFDM System with Fig. 3 shows that the performance of the system with

Phase Noise ”real” phase noise is different from that, where ICI is as-

An equivalent representation of the coded OFDM sumed to be gaussian distributed. This is to be expected

transmission system, according to the IEEE802.11a considering the discussions in [10] [15] [14] which point

standard [7], is shown in Fig. 2. The building blocks of out that the ICI is non-gaussian distributed. Indeed, if the

this scheme are encoder, interleaver (π), symbol map- ”real” phase noise is present, the capacity curves start to

per, channel with transition probability density func- fall off earlier than in the case where ICI is assumed to

tion (pdf) pY |X (y|x), demodulator (branch metric com- be gaussian. However, one should notice that the differ-

puter), branch metric deinterleaver (π −1 ) and decoder. ences of the capacity curves are not large, which moti-

Encoder, interleaver and mapper are the building blocks vates the discussion of the next section.

of the bit interleaved coded modulation (BICM) [2]. In 3.1. Phase noise ”suppression” using Interleaving

our case pY |X (y|x) describes all effects of an equiva- In [14] the distribution of ICI and its influence on the

lent ”channel” between mapper at the transmitter and the symbol error rate has been investigated. It was con-

Encoder π Mapper pY|X(y|x) Demodulator π -1 Decoder

0

8 10

with real phase 64 QAM OFDM

7 noise AWGN Channel

256 QAM OFDM ICI gaussian

C [bits/transmission]

approximation -1

δ PN=2 ⋅ 10-3

6 10

64 QAM OFDM SNR=30dB

PER

5 no phase noise

-2

ICI modelled as 1

4 10 Gaussian r.v. and

16 QAM OFDM variance σ 2ICI

3

5

2 -4 10

-3 10

-3 -2 -1

10 10 10 10 0 5 10 15 20 25

δ PN E b/N0 [dB]

Figure 3: Phase noise influence on system performance: Figure 4: Effect of the interleaving on the OFDM trans-

Capacity of the system with phase noise is compared to mission in the presence of phase noise for AWGN chan-

the capacity of the system where ICI is assumed to be nels

gaussian distributed

per correspond to the IEEE802.11a standard. We use

cluded that the distribution of ICI has significant influ- 64QAM modulation, standard convolutional code with

ence on the symbol error rate (SER) of the system. rate r = 1/2 and random interleaving. One transmis-

sion block consists of 10 OFDM symbols which com-

The statistics of the phase noise characterize this ran-

prise one code word. Number of 10000 packets is trans-

dom process on the long term. It would be interesting

mitted, to assure valid statistics. Hard decision Viterbi

at this point to concentrate on the specific realizations

decoder is used at the receiver.

of the process, i.e. realizations of the phase noise dur-

Fig. 4 shows the packet error rate (PER) dependence

ing one OFDM symbol and relate it with ICI, within one

on the interleaving depth, for coded OFDM transmis-

OFDM symbol interval.

sion over AWGN channels and phase noise with δP N =

If the phase noise does not change within one OFDM 2 · 10−3 . The interleaving depth is varied, i.e. it amounts

symbol, then the ICI term is zero. The more the phase 1, 5 and 10 OFDM symbols, within one code word. The

noise changes the larger is the ICI. Normally phase noise performance of the system changes drastically as the in-

oscillates around zero. However, within some OFDM terleaving depth varies. The reason for that is that the

symbols the phase noise can change dramatically (al- bad events, i.e. symbols which suffer from large ICI, are

most linearly) in one direction and in this case ICI is spread over a code word and the decoder tackles better

very large. These events spread the distribution of ICI, with these events. The limit is the curve, where ICI is

producing tails, which are much more pronounced than assumed to be gaussian with variance σICI 2

. For AWGN

by Gaussian distribution [14]. The occurrence of such channels without phase noise, and for the case, where

phase noise realizations cause burst errors, which de- ICI is assumed Gaussian, interleaving depth does not

grade the performance of the system. Coming back to play any role.

the discussion on the capacity of an OFDM system in the Thus one approach for phase noise ”suppression” is to

presence of phase noise, we note, that the expression for increase the interleaving depth. Capacity curves justify

capacity evaluation Eq. (4) assumes ideal (infinite) inter- this approach as they show that OFDM transmission is

leaving. Therefore the capacity curves give us the result, not much sensitive to phase noise. Thus bit interleaving

which seems to be reasonable, namely: If one uses ideal can be considered as a means for improving performance

interleaving, then the capacity of the system with phase if the delay due to interleaving is not critical and the code

noise is close to the capacity, where ICI is assumed to be words are not to short.

gaussian distributed, and this means larger capacity. It Even though, this sounds to be reasonable approach

follows, that one simple way to improve the performance to easily suppress the phase noise, to our knowledge it

of the OFDM system in the presence of phase noise is to has not been considered in the literature as a means for

increase the interleaving depth. the phase noise suppression. If the interleaving depth

3.2. Numerical Experiment cannot be changed, then the phase noise suppression in

We have examined this expectation by using computer standard systems is limited to a CPE correction, which

simulations. System parameters used throughout this pa- is estimated using pilots.

In the next section, we review an approach for phase bols. As transmitted symbols estimates, the symbols af-

noise suppression we presented in [11], and present ter necessary CPE correction are adopted. Once the DFT

a new iterative algorithm for phase noise suppression coefficients of the phase noise are known, one possesses

based on this approach. enough information on the phase noise waveform, in or-

der to suppress it.

4. Phase Noise Approximation and Cor- The phase noise suppression in the time domain would

rection be a logical approach. One should multiply the received

4.1. ICI Correction - Idea signal r(n) = (x(n) ⋆ h(n))ejφ(n) + ξ(n) with the es-

timate of e−jφ(n) . Multiplication in the time domain for

A phase noise compensation beyond the simple CPE

discrete time systems is mapped to the circular convolu-

correction will be possible only if one knows instanta-

tion of DFT spectra in the frequency domain [9]. This

neous realization of the phase noise process. The al-

means that the ICI cancellation for the mth OFDM sym-

ready introduced factors Im (i), i = −N/2, ..., N/2 − 1

bol can be done in the frequency domain by circularly

(see Eq. (3)) represent the DFT coefficients (spectral

convolving the demodulated symbols vector of all sub-

components) of one realization of the random process

carriers Rm,N = [Rm (0), . . . , Rm (N − 1)]T with the

ejφ(n) . The more spectral components Im (i) of the sig-

vector of estimated DFT coefficients of e−jφ(n) .

nal are known, the more is known of the signal wave-

The concrete realization of an algorithm is as follows:

form ejφ(n) , and thus φ(n). The signal ejφ(n) has the

characteristics of a low-pass signal [5], with power spec- 1. Step 1: Perform standard CPE correction using least

tral density of the form 1/(1 + f 2 ), where f denotes the square (LS) estimation [19] [17].

frequency. Additionally, phase noise has a very small

2. Step 2: Make a decisions on the transmitted sym-

bandwidth compared with the subcarrier spacing. Due

bols and use all available hard decisions for the

to the shape of the spectrum of ejφ(n) , very few low pass

MMSE estimation of the I˜m (i), i = −u...u, ac-

spectral components will suffice to give a ”good” ap-

cording to the method provided in [14]. Here u de-

proximation of the phase noise waveform. This is illus-

notes the order of the phase noise approximation.

trated by the example in Fig. 5, where it can be seen that

already second order approximation gives much better 3. Step 3: Convolve the vector of the received symbols

phase noise approximation than only DC value. There- with the DFT coefficients of the conjugate of the

fore knowledge of the coefficients Im (i) gives the pos- phase noise waveform.

sibility to approximate the phase noise waveform to a

4.3. Iterative Phase Noise Suppression

higher order, and allows a better compensation of it than

with only CPE correction, i.e. 0th order approximation. Described algorithm for ICI suppression is the deci-

sion feedback algorithm. It is to expect that falsely de-

tected symbols after initial CPE correction, which are

fed to the MMSE estimator in the Step 2 of the algo-

0.14 Phase noise trajectory (δ

PN

=1⋅ 10-3)

rithm, influence the estimation process. The reduction

0-th Order approx. (CPE) of the symbol error of the symbols, which are fed back,

0.12 Im(0)

will improve the quality of the phase noise estimation

angle [rad]

0.1

can be achieved if the algorithm described in Sec. 4.2. is

applied iteratively.

0.08 1st Order approx.

Im(0), Im(1), Im(-1) As discussed in Sec. 4.1. it is to expect that the non-

iterative ICI suppression algorithm gives better perfor-

0.06 2nd Order approx.

Im(0), Im(1), Im(-1),Im(2), Im(-2) mance, i.e. reduced symbol error rate, than the pure CPE

correction. If this ”better” symbols are used, to again es-

0.04

10 20 30 40 50 60 timate the phase noise, it is to expect that the system

samples performance will be improved.

The proposed algorithms is realized in three steps:

Figure 5: Phase noise waveform approximation using

1. Step 1: Perform standard CPE correction using least

various orders of approximation.

square (LS) estimation [19] [17].

2. Step 2: Carry out ICI suppression algorithm de-

4.2. ICI Correction Algorithm scribed in the previous section (only Steps 2 and

The details of an ICI suppression algorithm can be 3),

found in our previous work [11] [14]. Proposed ICI sup-

3. Step 3: Demodulate QAM symbols and feed them

pression algorithm estimates as many spectral compo-

back to the Step 2. Iterate until the desired perfor-

nents Im (i),i = −N/2, ..., N/2 − 1 as possible using

mance achieved.

MMSE estimation. The information about these spectral

components is hidden in the ICI part of the signal at the A block diagram of this scheme is presented in Fig. 6.

output of the DFT demodulator Rm,s , s = 0, 1, ...N − 1 The complexity of the algorithm is large, however the

given by Eq. (2). Estimation algorithm is a decision performance of the algorithm is dramatically improved

feedback algorithm, since it requires transmitted sym- as will be shown in Sec. 5..

0

10

Demodulator Dem

bits 64 QAM

Estimate

Im(i)

Deconv Viterbi iterate

δ PN = 5⋅ 10-3 ICPE LS

I m ( i ) , i = −u ,..., u

yes

Rm ,lk lk = 0,1, 2...N -1 ETSI A Channel

-1

10

PER

Xˆ m,lk lk = 0,1, 2...N -1

CPE Correction

3

ICI supp. alg

-2

10 genie ICI supp. 1-iter

Step 1

3-iter

Step 2 Step 3

feedback no PN 3

Reconstruct

Tx symbols -3

10

Xˆ m′ ,lk lk = 0,1, 2...N -1 0 10 20 30 40

E b/N0

Figure 7: Performance of the iterative ICI suppression

pression algorithm.

algorithm for ETSI A channel and δP N = 5 · 10−3 .

0

10

5. Numerical Results 64 QAM -3

δ PN = 5⋅ 10

System parameters correspond to that described in ICPE

AWGN Channel

Sec. 3.2.. Within simulations six scenarios are com- 10

-1 LS

pared: 1) without phase noise (no PN); 2) with phase

no PN

PER

noise and CPE correction using least squares (LS) algo- ICI supp. alg

-2

rithm [19]; 4) with phase noise and genie ICI correction 10

genie ICI supp.

of certain order u; 5) with ICI correction of uth order and

6) with phase noise and an iterative phase noise suppres- 1 iter 3

sion (number of iterations denoted by numbers). 3

-3

10

First set of simulation results in terms of PER is plot- 0 5 10 15 20 25

E b/N0

ted in Figs. 7 and 8 for the ETSI A channel and an

AWGN channel, respectively. Adopted relative phase

noise bandwidth is δP N = 5 · 10−3 . The ICI correc- Figure 8: Performance of the iterative ICI suppression

tion order adopted is u = 3. The ICI correction algo- algorithm for AWGN channel and δP N = 5 · 10−3 .

rithm shows better performance than the pure CPE cor-

rection, however, the results are much worse than the

achievable genie correction of the specified order. This can be achieved.

performance limitation is due to the decision feedback The performance presented here is in terms of the

nature of the algorithm. Falsely detected symbols, from packet error rate (PER). It is interesting to note that the

Step 2 of an algorithm, which are used for estimation of bit error rate performance can even worsen with increas-

the phase noise DFT coefficients, will influence the es- ing number of iterations, while the PER decreases. For

timation process. This problem is more pronounced if OFDM symbols, for which, after the initial CPE correc-

the phase noise bandwidth is large, because then ICI is tion, many subcarriers are erroneously detected, the ICI

large, which influences also the estimation of the CPE. estimation can produce additional errors. In the iterative

To improve the performance of this algorithm, or in algorithm this causes error propagation. However, for

other words to reduce the error propagation problem, the OFDM symbols with only few falsely detected subcarri-

iterative approach for phase noise suppression should be ers, ICI algorithm is capable of correcting these errors.

considered. This algorithm provides results that are very Packets with few errors will be recovered by the algo-

close to genie phase noise suppression of the correspond- rithm, while packets with many errors after the initial

ing order (see Figs. 7 and 8). However the complexity of CPE correction will probably have even more errors.

the algorithm is quite large. Therefore, the quality of 6. Conclusions

the phase noise suppression is the trade off between the

complexity and performance. Fig. 9 shows an addi- In this paper we introduced two new approaches for

tional example for the same scenarios, ETSI A channel phase noise suppression in OFDM. It was shown that the

and δP N = 2 · 10−3 . The conclusions are similar as bit interleaving is a very simple, still effective means of

for the δP N = 5 · 10−3 . The ICI correction of order suppressing the effects of the phase noise. For the appli-

u = 7 has been performed. Simulation results show cations where the interleaving depth cannot be large, e.g.

that for both frequency selective and AWGN channels, for short code words, we propose an iterative algorithm

and both large and small phase noise bandwidths, per- for phase noise suppression. The performance of the al-

formance very close to genie correction of certain order gorithm is very close to the genie suppression of certain

10

0 [9] A.V. Oppenheim and R.W. Schafer. Discrete-Time

Signal Processing. Prentice-Hall Inc., 1989.

64 QAM -3

δ PN = 2⋅ 10 [10] D. Petrovic, W. Rave, and G. Fettweis. Phase Noise

-1

ETSI A Channel Influence on Bit Error Rate, Cut-off Rate and Ca-

10

no PN pacity of M-QAM OFDM Signaling. In Proc. Intl.

ICPE

PER

ICI supp. alg LS

-2 [11] D. Petrovic, W. Rave, and G. Fettweis. Phase

10 genie ICI supp. Noise Suppression in OFDM including Intercarrier

1-iter Interference. In Proc. Intl. OFDM Workshop (In-

7 OWo)03, pages 219–224, 2003.

-3 7

10

0 10 20 30 40 [12] D. Petrovic, W. Rave, and G. Fettweis. Phase Noise

E b/N0

Suppression in OFDM using a Kalman Filter. In

Proc. WPMC, 2003.

Figure 9: Performance of the iterative ICI suppression

algorithm for ETSI A channel and δP N = 2 · 10−3 . [13] D. Petrovic, W. Rave, and G. Fettweis. Common

Phase Error due to Phase Noise in OFDM - Estima-

tion and Suppression. In In Proc. of the 15th IEEE

phase noise approximation order. International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and

Acknowledgment Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Septem-

ber 2004.

This work was supported by the German ministry of

research and education within the project Wireless Gi- [14] D. Petrovic, W. Rave, and G. Fettweis. Intercarrier

gabit With Advanced Multimedia Support (WIGWAM) Interference due to Phase Noise in OFDM - Esti-

under grant 01 BU 370 mation and Suppression. In Proc. IEEE VTC Fall,

in press., September 2004.

REFERENCES

[15] L. Piazzo and P. Mandarini. Analysis of Phase

[1] A.G. Armada. Understanding the Effects of Phase Noise Effects in OFDM Modems. IEEE Trans.

Noise in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multi- Commun., 50(10), October 2002.

plexing (OFDM). IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting,

47(2), June 2001. [16] W. Rave, D. Petrovic, and G. Fettweis. Iterative

Correction of Phase Noise in Multicarrier Modula-

[2] G. Caire, G. Taricco, and E. Biglieri. Bit- tion. In In Proc. of the 9th International OFDM

Interleaved Coded Modulation. IEEE Trans. Com- Workshop (InOWo)., September 2004.

mun., 44(3):927–946, May 1998.

[17] P. Robertson and S. Kaiser. Analysis of the effects

[3] R. A. Casas, S.L. Biracree, and A.E. Youtz. Time of phase noise in OFDM systems. In Proc. ICC,

Domain Phase Noise Correction for OFDM Sig- 1995.

nals. IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting, 48(3), Septem-

ber 2002. [18] S.Wu and Y.Bar-ness. Performance Analysis of the

Effect of Phase Noise in OFDM Systems. In IEEE

[4] E. Costa and S. Pupolin. M-QAM-OFDM System 7th ISSSTA, 2002.

Performance in the Presence of a Nonlinear Ampli-

fier and Phase Noise. IEEE Trans. Commun., 50(3), [19] S. Wu and Y. Bar-Ness. A Phase Noise Suppres-

March 2002. sion Algorithm for OFDM-Based WLANs. IEEE

Communications Letters, 44(3), May 1998.

[5] A. Demir, A. Mehrotra, and J. Roychowdhury.

Phase Noise in Oscillators: A Unifying Theory [20] S. Wu and Y. Bar-Ness. A New Phase Noise Mit-

and Numerical Methods for Characterisation. IEEE igation Method in OFDM Systems with Simulta-

Trans. Circuits Syst. I, 47(5), May 2000. neous CPE and ICI Correction. In Proc. MCSS,

Germany, Sep. 2003.

[6] D. J. Higham. An Algorithmic Introduction to Nu-

merical Simulation of Stochastic Differential Equa-

tions. SIAM Review, 43(3):525–546, 2001.

[7] IEEE. Part11: Wireless LAN Medium Access

Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Speci-

fications. High-speed Physical Layer in the 5GHz

Band. IEEE Std 802.11a-1999, 1999.

[8] S. Mirabbasi and K. Martin. Classical and modern

receiver arcitectures. IEEE Communications Mag-

azine, pages 132–139, November 2000.

- OFDMHochgeladen vonkeethu8
- Impact of multipath fading and partial-band interference on the performance of a COFDMCDMA modulation scheme for robust wireless communicationsHochgeladen vonapi-19919509
- FilterBankinCommunications]Hochgeladen vonHữu Vấn Hoàng
- Seminar on OFDMHochgeladen vonDeepesh Jain
- Techniques for Mitigating the Effect of Carrier Frequency Offset in OFDMHochgeladen vonIOSRjournal
- PAPR Reduction in OFDM by Addition of DC ValueHochgeladen vonIJRT Online
- OFDMHochgeladen vonpraveenkumar211
- The BER Performance of OFDM Systems Using Non-Synchronized Sampling_Thierry PolletHochgeladen vonLuu Van Hoan
- SongPan07Hochgeladen vonsreekanthreddy peram
- 4GHochgeladen vonSelva Raj
- ProjectHochgeladen vonAviad Bienenstock
- RFHandbook[1]Hochgeladen vonvidu
- EEE - IJEEE - PAPR - Mir Muhammad Loro - PakistanHochgeladen voniaset123
- Coherent DetectionHochgeladen vonHarjit Singh
- 4g Magic CommunicationHochgeladen vonvarnakumar
- OFDM_ML_sync_BeekHochgeladen vonJitendra Shakya
- Slides - Ofdm Tutorial 2008_mmHochgeladen vonNPHNPH
- CognitiveHochgeladen vonPreethi Pragadeeswaran
- 3g EricssonHochgeladen vonJordan Tuazon Unidad
- OFDM OpticalHochgeladen vonAnh Nguyen
- DCTHochgeladen vonjin11004
- Ber Performance of Ofdm With Discrete Wavelet Transform for Time Dispersive ChannelHochgeladen vonInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Data Coding Theory Spectrum SpreadingHochgeladen vonAbdelaali Cherifi
- 1Hochgeladen vonSelva Kumar
- cetc2013_submission_130.pdfHochgeladen vonHakanKalaycı
- PMP400,430_PTP200_UserGuideIss5.pdfHochgeladen vonjuel19
- Ofdm Techniques PDFHochgeladen vonAndrew
- 93107v00 Wireless App Note MW 5G Library-1Hochgeladen vonkd kd
- MozillaHochgeladen vonAravinth Ramesh
- openofdmHochgeladen vonboisolivier

- En Route to Smart Fiber Wireless (FiWi) Networks: Challenges and Solutions on QoS and Green CommunicationsHochgeladen vonjenishhhh
- WIGWAM-Wireless Gigabit With Advanced Multimedia Support-SlidesHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- WIGWAM-A Wireless Gigabit System With Advanced Multimedia SupportHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- WIGWAM- System Concept Development for 1GBPS Air InterfaceHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- Throughput of Wlan With Tdma and Superimposed TransmissionHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- System-Oriented Measurement and Analysis of MIMOHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- System-Level Simulation of a NoisyHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- System Concept for 1 Gbitsand BeyondHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- Synchronization in OFDM-Based WLAN WithHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- Smart Candidate Adding- A New Low-complexity ApproachHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- Serially Concatenated Multilevel CodingHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- Rate Regions of Asymmetrical Multiple AccessHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- Properties of the Inter Carrier Interference Due ToHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- Preamble Design for an Efficient IQ ImbalanceHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- Performance Degradation Due to IQ Imbalance InHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- Paving the Way for Gigabit NetworkingHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- PAPR Reduction Methods for Non Coherent OFDM-MFSKHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- On the Spectral Bitrate Loss of SuperimposedHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- On the Performance of Standard-Independent Iq ImbalanceHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- On the Complexity of Sphere DecodingHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- On the Capacity of Multi Carrier TransmissionHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- OFDMA With Resource and Traffic ConstraintsHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- OFDM-MFSK With Differ en Ti Ally EncodedHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- OFDM-Based Medium Access With Rate ConstraintsHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- MIMO Preamble Design With a Subset of Sub Carriers InHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- Methodology for Employing Variable Attenuators in a Conducted Test EnvironmentHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- Mc-cdma Based Ieee 802Hochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- List Sequential MIMO DetectionHochgeladen vonapi-3851401
- Linear Mimo Receivers vs Tree Search DetectionHochgeladen vonapi-3851401

- Final Project ReportHochgeladen vonFaysal Bensalah
- ARL-TR-4901Hochgeladen vonBarce Lamasia Catalan
- Description of Subjects taken during Higher Education -Hochgeladen vonSumanth Sathyanarayana
- redline_suo_user_manual.pdfHochgeladen vonAndres Mora
- Question BankHochgeladen vonSayantan Pal
- CPRI Specification v 2 0Hochgeladen vonchukz01571
- Manuel Formation IPasolink+Sdh1+1Hochgeladen vonmaliksajidsaeed
- Study of WiMAX SimulationHochgeladen vonAntonia Motroc
- Low Bit Rate Speech CodingHochgeladen vonBhargava Bluecool
- Forward Error Correction for DNA Data StorageHochgeladen vonKamal James
- SkyEdge II Accent BrochureHochgeladen vonskrabajo78
- 5988-9495ENHochgeladen vonoldjanus
- 2011 BoA Content v04Hochgeladen vonpaminan
- 5G Channel CodingHochgeladen vonBindia Sahu
- IT Syllabus 2010Hochgeladen vonshashank201090
- Cable Modem Troubleshooting Tips - Latency IssuesHochgeladen vonManish Tankaria
- A FEC Decoding in LTE and WiMAX SystemsHochgeladen vonseventhsensegroup
- Fsk ImplementationHochgeladen vongsmsby
- 856-C10011Hochgeladen vonRajeev Ranjan Kumar
- White Paper Resume g.709Hochgeladen vonadvaleri070
- Error Control Coding Fundamentals and Applications PDFHochgeladen vonEve
- Shannon Capacity CDMA vs OFDMAHochgeladen vonDebby Fitra
- Spacecraft RFcomms.pdfHochgeladen vonthefree737
- m18663Hochgeladen vonSumanth Ratakundla
- 15-05-0002-00-004a-nanotron-chirp-spread-spectrum-css-phy-presentation.pptHochgeladen vonNarci Edson
- Chapter7 Equalization, Diversity, And Channel CodingHochgeladen vonEr-ShubhangiGupta
- ESS Powerpoint 2Hochgeladen von송민호
- Lab 10.pdfHochgeladen vonamitmsh1995
- Cdma2000-1x Ev DoHochgeladen vonEng. Shuaib Ibrahim
- 3GPP TS 05.01.pdfHochgeladen vonbinay

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.