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2/5/2010

Power Semiconductor Switches


Pekik Argo Dahono

Power Semiconductor Switches


Diodes (Uncontrolled switches) Thyristors (Controllable at turn-on but uncontrolled at turn-off or commonly called as latched devices). Triac is under the same category. BJT, MOSFET, IGBT, GTO, MCT etc. are fully controllable switches.
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Power Diodes
A A

iAK
A

iAK

P N

N
N

v AK

v AK

K K K

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Reverse Recovery Problems


VFD

S
I FD t rr

Ed

FD

Io
IS

Io
4

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Power diodes
Diodes are classified as: - general purpose or line-frequency diodes - Fast recovery diodes - Schottky diodes

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Schottky Diode
The schottky diode has a smaller voltage drop compared to conventional diodes (about 0.3 V). The schottky diode has a smaller voltage breakdown than conventional diodes (less than 200 V).

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Sample of diodes

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Thyristor
A

iA
iA

v AK
G
P

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Thyristor Model
I A = I E1

I B1
Q1

I C1 = 1I E1 + I C 01
I C1 IG

IC 2
Q2

I C 2 = 2 I E 2 + I C 02 IA =

2 I G + I C 01 + I C 02 1 (1 + 2 )

I B2
IE2
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Thyristor in Simple Circuit

For successful turn-off, reverse voltage required for an interval greater than the turn-off interval
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Thyristor Classification
Phase control thyristors Inverter-grade or fast-type thyristors Light activated thyristors Reverse conducting thyristors

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Thyristor Features
Latching devices Double carrier devices Having forward and reverse blocking capabilities Very high gain (IA/Ig) Low on-state voltage Can be protected by fuse
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Sample of thyristors

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Thyristor Modules

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Snubbers for Diodes and Thyristors


Maximum dv/dt across diodes or thyristors must be limited and can be done by using an RC snubber that is connected in parallel to the devices. Maximum di/dt through diodes or thyristors must be limited and can be done by using an inductor that is connected in series to the devices.
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Switching Characteristics
Gate signal
vT

Io Ed
iT vT

Transistor voltage & current

iT Io

Ed

tdon

t fv tri t = t + t son ri fv

tdoff

Transistor power

Wson =

1 Ed I ot son 2

t fi trv t soff = trv + t fi

Wsoff =

1 Ed I ot soff 2

Pcd

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Desired Switch Characteristics


Small leakage current in the off state Small on-state voltage Short turn-on and turn-off times Large forward and reverse blocking voltage capabilities High on-state current rating Positive temperature coefficient of on-state resistance Small control power Wide Safe Operating Area Large dv/dt and di/dt ratings

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Safe Operating Area


i
turn - on

turn - off

v
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Losses
Switching losses :
fs is switching frequency.

Ps = 1 E d I o f s t son + t soff 2
Conduction losses :

Pcd = Von I o
Ts is switching period.
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TON Ts
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Bipolar Junction Transistor


iC
C N P N
E

C iC iB B

iB 5 iB 4 iB 3 iB 2 iB1 = 0

iC

vCE
E

vCE

iB5 > iB 4 > iB3 > iB 2 > iB1

Used commonly in the past Now used in specific applications Replaced by MOSFETs and IGBTs
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VI characteristics of BJT
Hard - saturation Quasi - saturation

Second breakdown

IC

I B5 I B4 I B3 I B2 I B1

Primary breakdown

IB < 0

vCE

I B0 = 0

BVSUS

BVCB0

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Operating region
Hard-saturation provides low voltage-drop but a large storage time (turn-off time) Quasi-saturation provides high voltage-drop but a small storage time. Second breakdown must be avoided by using a snubber and proper base current control. Negative base current results in higher voltage breakdown.
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Antisaturation circuit
D1 B' B D2 D3
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E
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BJT Features
Current controlled devices Double carrier devices No reverse blocking capability Low gain (Ic/Ib) Low on-state voltage Can not be protected by fuse Second breakdown problem
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Darlington Configuration

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MOSFET

iD

D
iD G

vGS 5 vGS 4 vGS 3 vGS 2 vGS1 = 0


vDS

iD

v DS

vGS 5 > vGS 4 > vGS 3 > vGS 2 > vGS1


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MOSFET Features
Voltage controlled devices Single carrier devices High on-state voltage Very high gain No reverse blocking capability No second breakdown problem Can not be protected by fuse
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Integrated Power MOSFET

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Gate-Turn-Off (GTO) Thyristor


iA

Blocking condition
v AK

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GTO switching characteristic


Anode voltage Anode current
IA Vd

Spike voltage

Tail current

Time

IGR (b)

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Turn-Off Snubber for GTO

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GTO Features
Controllable at turn-on and turn-off High-voltage capability Can be designed with reverse blocking capabilty Low gain at turn-off Low on-state voltage High turn-off losses
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GTO vs IGCT

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GTO vs IGCT

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Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs)

iC
C

iC G
E

vGE 5 vGE 4 vGE 3 vGE 2 vGE1 = 0


vCE

vGE5 > vGE 4 > vGE3 > vGE 2 > vGE1


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IGBT Features
Combining the advantages of BJT and MOSFET No reverse blocking capability No second breakdown High gain at turn on and turn off

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IGBT vs IGCT

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Other Switching Devices


Static Induction Transistor and Static Induction Thyristor. The main problems are normally-on and high conduction loss. The advantage is that the speed is very high. MOS Controlled Thyristor. Combining the advantages of MOSFET and Thyristor. Still under development. IGCT (Integrated Gate Controlled Thyristor). This is further development of GTOs.
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Switching Device Development


HIG H PO WER EA SY DR IV E
2000 105 GTO : GATE TURN-OFF THYRISTOR MCT : MOS CONTROLLED THYRISTOR THYRISTOR 104 P (kVA)

CONTROLLABLE POWER

GH HI

QU RE

EN

CY

SI Thy : STATIC INDUCTION THYRISTOR BPT : BIPOLAR POWER TRANSISTOR

GTO

IGBT : INSULATED GATE BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR

1990

MCT 103

SI Thy

104 THYRISTOR

IGBT 102

103 1980 P (kVA) 102

GTO

BPT 101

IGBT MOS BPT

104 THYRISTOR P (kVA) 103 102 101 GTO 10-1 -1 10 100 101 MOS 101 102 f (kHz) 104 105 10-1 -1 10 100

101 104 102 OPERATION FREQUENCY f (kHz)

105

106

BPT 100 101 102 f (kHz)

10-1 -1 10

104

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Reverse Conducting and Reverse Blocking Switching Devices

Reverse conducting

Reverse blocking
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Bidirectional Switches

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Switching devices
Ideal Switch

Unidirectional uncontrolled switch


Unidirectional semicontrolled switch

Bidirectional semicontrolled switch

Reverse conducting fully controlled switch

Reverse conducting fully controlled switch

Reverse blocking fully controlled switch

Bidirectional fully controlled switch

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Properties and Rating of Semiconductor Power Switches


Switch Control signal Control characteristic Switching frequency Voltage drop medium medium medium medium low high medium Diode SCR TRIAC GTO BJT MOSFET IGBT Maximum voltage rating 6.5 kV 6 kV 1 kV 6.5 kV 1.5 kV 1 kV 3.5 kV Maximum current rating 5 kA 4 kA 50 A 4.5 kA 1 kA 200 A 2 kA

current current current current voltage voltage

trigger trigger trigger linear linear linear

low low medium Very high high

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Properties of New Materials


Property Bandgap at 300 K (eV) Relative dielectric constant Saturated drift velocity (cm/s) Thermal conductivity (W/cm/o C Maximum operating temperature (K) Melting temperature (C) Electron mobility at 300 K (cm2 /Vs) Breakdown electric field (V/cm) Si 1.12 11.8 1x107 1.5 GaAs 1.43 12.8 2x107 0.5 3C-SiC 2.2 9.7 2.5x107 5.0 6H-SiC 2.9 10 2.5x107 5.0 Diamond 5.5 5.5 2.7x107 20

400

460

873

1240

1100

1415 1400 3x105

1238 8500 4x105

Sublime>1800 1000 4x106

Sublime>1800 600 4x106

Phase change 2200 1x107

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Applications
Thyristor is only used for very large power applications. Forced commutated thyristors are no longer used. Bipolar junction transistors are no longer used. MOSFET is commonly used in low-power applications. IGBT is used from low-power up to medium power applications. GTO is used for large power applications.
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Loss Considerations
Conduction losses Switching losses The loss will determine the junction temperature and the heatsink and cooler required. In many cases, the switching frequency is limited by the temperature instead of device speed.
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Snubbers
Turn-off losses can be reduced by using a turn-off snubber. This snubber is also useful to limit high dv/dt across the device. Turn-on losses can be reduced by using a turn-on snubber. This snubber is also useful to limit high di/dt through the device. Snubbers are useful to reduce the switching losses on the switching devices. The total switching losses, however, may still the same or even increase.
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Turn-ON and turn-OFF Snubbers

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Reducing Switching Losses


Switching losses can be reduced by using lossless snubbers. These snubbers, however, may make the converter circuit became complicated. IGBTs may operate without snubbers. GTOs and IGCTs usually need a turn-off snubber because of high tail current. Switching losses can be reduced or even eliminated by using soft-switching techniques. These methods, however, may increase the required voltage and/or current ratings.
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The End

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